Skip to main content

Full text of "American journal of pharmacy"

See other formats

U NiTED States Patent Office, 

Case Shelf 

L. $f . R. 


Journal of Pharmacy 












JANUARY, igo8 


By Henry Kraemer and Harry K. Sindali,. 

Black pepper is the fruit of Piper nigrum, a shrubby vine indi- 
genous to the India-Malay region, and now cultivated extensively 
in tropical countries. An illustration of the plant is given by 
Baillon, 1 and by Engler and Prantl, 2 and an excellent historical ac- 
count of the uses of pepper is given by Fluckiger and Hanbury, 3 
and also by Gildemeister and Hoffmann. 4 The fruit of Piper nigrum 
is the source of both the black pepper and white pepper of com- 
merce, the individual fruits being known technically as " pepper, 
corns." The former is the unripe, but full grown, fruit which has 
been allowed to dry spontaneously, or has been dried by means of 
• artificial heat. White pepper, on the other hand, consists of the 
mature fruits from which a portion or nearly all of the pericarp has 
been removed. The parts removed in the preparation of white 
pepper are known commercially as " pepper hulls," or " pepper 
shells," of which there are several grades, depending upon the pro- 
portion of the different layers of the pericarp which is present. 
Pepper hulls can be purchased for much less than black pepper, and 
are frequently used to adulterate ground black pepper, and also 
enter into the artificial mixtures sold as black pepper. 

The amount of pepper imported into the United States annually 
is estimated to be about 20,000,000 pounds, our importations 
coming principally through England. The commercial varieties 
derive their names chiefly from the points of export in the countries 
where they are produced. The following varieties are the ones 



Examination of Black Pepper. 

I Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
I January, 190b. 

which mostly reach the markets of this country : Tellicherry, Singa- 
pore, Aleppi, Acheen, and Lampong. Hartel and Will 5 have 
recently made complete analyses of these and other commercial 
varieties, and according to their results Tellicherry and Singapore 
pepper constitute the better grades of pepper. 

Hartwich 6 was one of the first to show that the heavier the pepper 
corns the greater the value of the particular variety of pepper ; and 
analysts are beginning to take cognizance of the comparative 
weights, the method being to determine the weight of 1 00 pepper 
corns. The following figures show the weights of ioo peppercorns 

Fig. i. — Diagrammatic representation of transverse sections of different varie- 
ties of black pepper. A, Aleppi; B, Tellicherry; C, Singapore; D, Acheen; E. 
Lampong; F, Bengal. 

of several commercial varieties determined by the authors : Acheen, 
4-452 grammes; Aleppi, 3-673 grammes; Lampong, 2-838 grammes; 
Singapore, (a) 3-935 grammes; (b) 4-013 grammes; Tellicherry* 
4-412 grammes; Bengal, 3-527 grammes; unknown pepper corn, 
4-272 grammes. These figures accord rather well with the figures 
obtained by Hartel and Will. 5 It should be said, however, that the 
specific gravity of the pepper corns would probably furnish a more 
reliable indication of quality, for the reason that the pepper corns 
vary in size, those of Lampong pepper being uniformly small. 
For example, while 100 pepper corns of Acheen, Singapore and 


Am. Jour. Pharm-") 
January, 1908. / 

Examination of Black Pepper. 


Tellicherry peppers weigh more than those of the Aleppi and 
Bengal varieties they do not show so large a proportion of oleoresin 
and piperine cells in the perisperm ; and this seems to be borne out 
by the chemical data obtained by Hartel and Will 5 in the examina- 
nation of Aleppi, Singapore and Tellicherry pepper. 


A number of good monographs on the structure of black pepper 
have been published, the most important probably being those by 
Winton and Moeller 7 , and by Tschirch and Oesterle 8 . It may be 
stated for the benefit of the practical worker that the illustrations 
given by these authors do not correspond in all particulars to sec- 
tions of the commercial article, the drawings probably having been 
made from sections of fresh material. 

One of the first observations made on the examination of cross- 
sections of pepper corns of the different commercial varieties is that 
the margin varies markedly in outline, and it would appear that the 
different varieties may in a measure be distinguished by this character. 
(Fig. I.) In sections of Aleppi pepper the contour is undulate ; in 
those of Singapore pepper it is characterized by broadly conical, 
obtuse or acute projections ; and in Lampong pepper the projections 
are much longer, somewhat cylindrical, more or less rounded at the 
apex, and not infrequently somewhat narrowed at the base. In 
sections of the other varieties there are various gradations in the 
contour as shown in the figures. While an extended examination 
may show that this feature is merely a feature of different lots of 
the same commercial variety, we have found that, for example, in 
Lampong pepper, when the fruit is smooth, the epicarp has been 
removed in part, the projections always being reduced in height 
by the abrasions. This structure seems to bear a certain relation 
to the amount of oil and resin, that is, the pepper corns which 
have an undulate margin in section, as of the Aleppi variety, have 
the largest number of oil and resin cells, while sections of the 
Lampong fruits have the most pronounced projections and contain 
more undeveloped, and a less proportion of, oil and resin cells. 

While there is no indication in the literature to show that there 
is a difference in the structure of the pepper corns of the different 
commercial varieties, it should be said that the figures by Moeller, 9 

Fig. 2. — Transverse sections of outer portion of pericarp of the following 
varieties of black pepper : A, Aleppi; B, Tellicherry; C, Singapore; D, Acheen; 
E, Lampong; F, Bengal. 

E, epidermal layer; X, layer of pigment cells; P, stone cells; It, collapsed 

Am. Jour. Pharnj.j 
January, 1908. J 

Examination of Black Pepper, 


Winton and Moeller, 7 and Tschirch and Oesterle 8 can not be consid- 
ered to be identical, but no statement is made as to the source of 
the specimens studied. 

A careful examination, however, shows that there is considerable 
difference in structure in the pepper corns from different sources. 
Certain of the differences noted may be due either to the time of 
gathering the fruits, or to the manner of preparing them for the 
market. In Aleppi, Tellicherry, and Singapore peppers there is a 
sub-epidermal pigment layer, which is almost wanting in Lampong 
pepper. The lumen of the stone cells of the epicarp have very 
little pigment in Aleppi pepper, whereas in Lampong pepper the 
lumen of these cells contains a dark reddish-brown pigment, while 
in the other varieties the pigment is lighter in color. The stone 
cells of the epicarp vary both in compactness of arrangement and 
in the shape of the cells, as shown in Fig. 2. They also show a 
tendency to develop in certain directions, varying from nearly iso- 
diametric or palisade-like cells, as in Tellicherry, Aleppi and 
Singapore p'eppercorns, to long tapering, as in Lampong, or some- 
what shoe-shaped, as in the Acheen variety. The parenchyma cells 
beneath, and associated with, the stone cells in some varieties, as 
Tellicherry and Bengal, resemble ordinary parenchyma cells while 
in Singapore and Acheen pepper they are more or less collapsed, 
causing the oleo- resin cells to stand out rather prominently. 

The lumen of the stone cells of the endocarp are quite different 
in different peppers (Fig. j), those in Bengal and Singapore pepper 
having a reddish-brown content, which is almost wanting in the 
other varieties. In addition the walls of these cells are variously 
thickened. The oil cells above the stone cells of the endocarp are 
large and very distinct in Aleppi, Acheen and Singapore pepper, 
but much less developed in Lampong pepper. 


The methods of analysis followed in obtaining the data here pre- 
sented are those given by Leach 10 and adopted by the Association 
of Official Agricultural Chemists. The principal literature on the 
examination of black pepper is found in the Zeitschrift fur Unter- 
suchung der Nahrungs- und Genus smittel and The Analyst (London). 
The papers published by Winton and others during the past ten 

A B 


Fig. 3. — Transverse sections of the inner portion of the pericarp of the follow- 
ing varieties of black pepper : A, Aleppi ; B, Tellicherry ; C, Singapore ; D, 
Acheen; E, Lampong; F, Bengal. 

B, pigment layer ; N, stone cells of endocarp ; O, oil cells ; L, collapsed 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
January, 190S. / 

Examination of Black Pepper. 


years in the annual reports of the Connecticut Agricultural Experi- 
ment Station furnish the best record of the work thus far done in 
this country. The only deviation from the methods of the A. O. 
A. C. made by the writers was in the determination of starch, where 
Allihn's original method for the determination of dextrose was fol- 
lowed in pursuance of a criticism by Winton. 

The following data were obtained in the examination of six 
samples of Lampong pepper : 

Crude Fiber. 

Total Ash. 

Ash insoluble in 
10 per cent. 
Hydrochloric Acid. 






1 15 


6 05 

I "3? 

The results of a more complete analysis of three samples of Lam- 
pong pepper are also given : 

Crude Fiber. 


Volatile Ether 

Ether Extract. 

Total Ash. 

Ash insoluble 
in 10 per cent. 













3 - 


39'o7 ' 




The following figures were obtained in the ash determinations of 
different samples of the same lot of Lampong pepper : 

Total Ash. 

Ash insoluble in 10 per cent. Hydrochloric Acid. 


< t. .... i*47 - . • , ; : ; 


















1 37 

3 Examination of Black Pepper. ^j^^SS.™' 

The following figures were obtained in the analyses of samples 
of ground pepper found on the market : 

Crude Fiber. 

Ether Extract. 


Total Ash. 

Ash insoluble in 
10 percent. Hydro- 
chloric Acid. 





6 '49 




- 44-62 

. 6-74 





37' 69 









The following special data were obtained in the examination of 
commercial samples of ground black pepper : 
Ash. — Forty-one samples gave 

Total Ash. 

Ash insoluble in 10 percent. Hydrochloric A?id. 

Maximum ..... 

6-9 1 







Crude Fiber. — Thirteen samples gave 

Maximum 26*10 

Minimum 1 3'3^ > 

Average . . 15*10 

Starch. — Eight samples gave by direct acid conversion 

Maximum 44"24 

Minimum 29*66 

Average • 37- 83 

Ether Extract. — Eight samples gave 

Volatile Ether Extract. Non-volatile Ether Extract. 

Maximum 170 10-44 

Minimum 0-50 7-78 

Average I o - 86 9-27 

Fig. 4. — A mixture sold as ground black pepper : A, stone cells of olive 
endocarp; S, corn and wheat starch grains ; B, stone cells of pepper hulls ; C, 
fragments of seed coat and pericarp of cayenne pepper; L, crystals of calcium 
sulphate which separate on mounting the specimen in 25 per cent, sulphuric 

io Examination of Black Pepper. { A ?anuary P im m 


It is probably only in exceptional cases that attempts are made 
to sophisticate or adulterate whole pepper, and with the more gen. 
eral enforcement of the Pure Food and Drugs Law, it is likely that 
pepper adulterated in this manner will not continue to be imported. 
Heckmann 11 reported having examined a lot of white pepper, over 
40 per cent, of which was composed of an imitation pepper consist- 
ing of barium sulphate. A number of grains of similar composition 
were also found in black pepper by Fischer and Griihnhagen. 12 

Bertschinger 13 reports having examined an imitation black pepper, 
the grains of which were composed of two portions, namely, a cen- 
tral mass consisting of wheat starch and an outer layer made from 
the residue obtained in the manufacture of olive oil. A recent 
sophistication that has come to our notice was in the case of some 
black pepper offered for sale that contained 1 5 to 20 per cent, of an 
imitation pepper composed of tapioca which was colored with a 
bluish-black dye. 


One factor which affects the quality of pepper to a considerable 
extent is the neglect properly to garble and clean the fruits. The 
ash is not only increased by the adhering dirt, but sometimes the 
whole fruits have been coated with barium sulphate or calcium 

As is well known to analysts a large number of substances have 
been used to adulterate ground black pepper, but the number of 
these are probably on the decrease. The very cheap grades of 
pepper are usually adulterated, and a recent sample of a pepper 
examined by the authors, which retailed at 1 cent per box (about 
I ounce), was found to consist of olive endocarp, corn and wheat 
starch, some pepper hulls and capsicum [Fig. £). A chemical analysis 
of the sample gave the following figures: Crude fibre, 44-26; total 
ash, 7-09; insoluble ash, 3-24. A common admixture or adulterant 
of black pepper is that of pepper hulls, which, as already stated, 
are obtained as a by-product in the manufacture of white pepper. 
In addition, ground black pepper may also be adulterated with olive 
endocarp (olive stone), almond shells or other similar products. 
Starchy substances are sometimes added, but these are readily 

A januaryfi908 m } Tests for Gurjun Balsam in Copaiba. II 

detected by means of the microscope, except in the case of buck- 
wheat middlings, the starch grains of which somewhat resemble 
those of pepper in size but they do not form compound grains, as 
in pepper. 

In addition to the starchy substances already mentioned, it is said 
that hard-tack and stale bread are sometimes employed. The fol- 
lowing substances have been reported as adulterants of pepper by 
various authors : Mustard-seed cake, flaxseed-meal cake, poppy- 
seed-meal cake, grape seeds, exhausted coriander fruit and paradise 


1 H. Baillon : Dictionaire de Botanique, Tome 5, p. 625. 

2 Englerund Prantl : Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, III. Teil, 1. Abteilung, 
p. 9. 

3 Fliickiger and Hanbury : Pharmacographia, p. 576. 

4 Gildemeister und Hoffman : Die setherischen Oele, p. 414. 

3 Hartel und Will : Zeitschr. f. Untersuchung d. Nahr.-u. Genussmittel, 14 
(1907), p. 567. 

6 C. Hartwich : Zeitschr. /. Untersuchung d. Nahr.-u. Genussmittel, 12 
(1906), p. 524. 

7 Winton and Moeller : The Microscopy of Vegetable Foods, p. 506. , 

8 Tschirch und Oesterle : Anatomischer Atlas, p. 103. 

9 J. Moeller : Pharmakognostischer Atlas, 1892, p. 195. 

10 Albert E, Leach : Food Inspection and Analysis, p. 330. 

ir J. Heckmann : Zeitschr. f. Untersuchung d. Nahr.-u. Genussmittel ', 5 
(1802), p. 302. 

12 Fischer und Griihnhagen : Jahresbericht des chemischen Uniersuchung- 
samtes, 1899- 1900, pp. 35-56 ; Abstract in Zeitschr. f. Untersuchung d. Nahr.- 
u. Genussmittel, 4 (1901), p. 782. 

13 A. Bertschinger : Schweiz. Wochenschr. Chem. Pharm. r 39 (1901), pp. 215- 
216; Abstract in Zeitschr. f. Untersuchung d. Nahr.-u. Genussmittel, 4 
(i9 OI )> P- 782. 

By Charges E. Vanderki^eed. 

Publicity as to the nature of an adulteration has in many cases 
been the only thing necessary to put a stop to the practice, — not so 
in the case of adulteration of copaiba with Gurjun balsam, however, 
for although that practice is very old and the knowledge that 
copaiba has been very extensively adulterated with Gurjun balsam 
is well-known to every one, the practice has been continued up to 

12 Tests for Gurjun Balsam in Copaiba. \^JS^ml m ' 

the present day, as the adulterators have rested secure in the 
knowledge that the methods used for the detection of Gurjun bal- 
sam in copaiba have not been satisfactory and could not be depended 
upon to give accurate results. Attempts to solve the difficulty of 
providing suitable tests for the detection of Gurjun balsam go back a 
great many years — one test after another has been proposed, used for 
a time, and then been abandoned — and so to-day we have two or 
three tests, or modifications of old tests, that have been proposed 
during the past year, and which are now undergoing a period of 
probation. It remains to be seen whether or not they will stand or 

My coming before you to-day is therefore more in the nature of 
a discussion of what has already been done, than of an offer of any- 
thing new on the subject. I wish simply to make for you a few 
of the most recently proposed tests as compared with similar tests 
which preceded them, in order that all chemists reached by this 
meeting, who are working with copaiba, may be induced to try the 
tests, so that when the Pharmacopoeia is next revised we may have 
an accumulation of evidence and data to submit to the revision 
committee to help them in their work. 

The earliest official test for Gurjun balsam in copaiba is found in 
the U.S.P. of 1880, which test was continued unchanged in the 
U.S.P. of 1890. 

This test consisted in adding to 20 drops of a 5 per cent, solution 
of copaiba in carbon disulphide, one drop of a mixture of nitric and 
sulphuric acids, when a purplish red or violet color, due to the 
oxidizing action of the nitric acid on the resins indicated Gurjun 
balsam. This test, as pointed out by Kebler in the American Jour- 
nal of Pharmacy about ten years ago (see proceedings A. Ph. A., 
1896, page 629), was not sufficiently delicate, although if applied 
as originally intended (see E. Schmidt's Pharmacentische Chemie, 4th 
edition, page 1261) to a drop of distillate of highest boiling point 
from the balsam to be tested, its delicacy is increased. A test 
involving fractional distillation of the sample, however, is an 
impractical one for constant use, and so about this time (ten or 
twelve years ago) there appeared the first of the acetic-nitric acid 
tests — one modification of which is at present official in the U.S.P. 
So far as I am able to trace its history, this test first appeared in the 
American Druggist and Pharmaceutical Record of July 10, 1895, as a 

Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
January, 1908. J 

Tests for Gurjun Balsam in Copaiba. 


contribution from the laboratory of Dodge & Olcott, and the test 
was made as follows (see proceedings A. Ph. A., 1896, page 628) : 

Four drops of the sample are dissolved in 15 c.c. of glacial 
acetic acid, and to the solution is added from 4 to 6 drops of C. P. 
nitric acid. With pure copaiba, no color, and at most but a slightly 
cloudy solution results — whereas with pure Gurjun balsam a deep 
purple color ensues. With mixtures the. purple color is supposed 
to correspond to the extent to which Gurjun balsam has replaced 
copaiba. According to the authors, as little as 2 per cent, of Gur- 
jun balsam can be detected. My experience with the test indicates 
that it is really the most satisfactory of the old modifications of the 
test, but time is required for the development of the color if only 
small amounts of Gurjun balsam be present. 

I will proceed to demonstrate the test, using a pure balsam 
copaiba and pure Gurjun balsam as well as mixtures of the two in 
varying proportions. Every precaution has been taken to insure 
the purity of the balsam copaiba used. The sample answers all the 
U.S.P. tests for purity, has a specific gravity of 0-984 at 22° C., leaves 
a residue of 53 per cent, when heated for 48 hours on a water bath, 
and requires 2j£ c.c. of N/2 alcoholic potassium hydroxide solution 
for each gram, indicating the proper proportion of acid resin. The 
Gurjun balsam has a specific gravity of 0.96 at 22° C., and was 
further distinguished from the similar Chinese wood oil by means 
of the Elaidin reaction. A time limit of six hours or overnight 
should have been added to this test, but time-limit tests are incon- 
venient in many ways, and when the eighth revision of the U.S.P. 
appeared it was found to contain a modification of this test as 
advocated by Kebler (see proceedings A. Ph. A., 1896, page 629.) 

This test consisted in mixing four drops of nitric acid with one 
c.c. of glacial acetic acid and adding four drops of the sample — 
first as an upper layer — when no reddish zone should appear. 
Further on mixing the layers by shaking, no red or purple color 
should ensue. No time-limit was set for the development of the 

The Revision Committee was soon informed that this test 
was not satisfactory since with this strength of nitric acid used, 
(about fifteen times that of the original D. & O. test) pure copaiba 
gives a dark-brown coloration which obscures the red or purple 
color of the Gurjun balsam reaction so as to render it very uncer- 

14 Tests for Gurjun Balsam in Copaiba. { A January P i908. m ' 

tain with solutions containing as high as 30 or 40 per cent, of the 
adulterant. I will proceed to show this test with pure balsam 
copaiba and with the mixtures as before. 

Realizing that the entire acid mixture was too strong, the test 
was changed with the issue of Additions and Corrections of May I, 
1907, the amount of nitric acid being cut from four drops to one 
drop, and the acetic acid being increased from 1 c.c. to 3 cc.'s. 
This decreased the strength of nitric acid used by twelve-fold and 
approximated the strength used in the original D. and O. method ; 
but the contact method of applying the test was retained, and so 
with even this improvement, the present official test remains uncer- 

I have been informed on good authority that chemists in certain 
customhouse laboratories have stated that they cannot apply the 
test with accuracy to balsams containing less than 30 per cent, of 
Gurjun Balsam. 

In a paper read before the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion last June, at Bedford Springs, I suggested the following modi- 
fication of this test, which I will endeavor to demonstrate. 

Four drops of the sample are dissolved in 3 c.c. of glacial acetic 
acid in a small flat-bottomed cylinder. T hree or four drops of nitric 
acid are then added from a pipette in such a way that it mixes but 
slightly with the solution of the balsam and collects on the bottom 
in a very thin layer. 

Five per cent, seems to be the limit of delicacy of this test with 
a five-minute time limit. In all these tests greater accuracy is al- 
ways to be gained by comparing the results with the test made 
upon a pure sample. 

Finally, I wish to show a test which in my laboratory has given 
the most satisfaction,- — a test worked out by Mr. J. L. Turner, and 
published in the Pharmaceutische Centralhalle, volume 48, No. 21, 
May 23, 1907. The test is also described in my paper above refer- 
red to. The test, which I will demonstrate, is as follows : — 

Four drops of the sample are dissolved in 3 cc.'s of glacial acetic 
acid; one drop of freshly-prepared 10 per cent, aqueous solution of 
potassium nitrite is added, and the mixture poured carefully on to 
the surface of 2 c.c. concentrated sulphuric acid. A dark color will 
always appear at the surface of contact, but in the presence of 2 
per cent, or more of Gurjun Balsam a violet color appears in the 
clear upper layer. 

A January , P i908. m '} The Distillation of Oil of Coriander. 15 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert, in his report on the Progress of Pharmacy 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, December 1907, page 576) calls 
attention to the statement of E. J. Parry, that Hardwickia Balsam 
from Hardwickia pinnata, Copaiferae, is being used to adulterate 
Copaiba (see Schimmel's report for April, 1907). It would be in- 
teresting to know whether any of the above tests for Gurjun Bal- 
sam would likewise detect this Balsam, but I have not yet had an 
opportunity to try it. 

Analytical Laboratory H. K. Mulford Company. 
December 16, 1907. 

By Adolph W. Miller., M. D. 

In order to dispose of some Mogador coriander fruit, which had 
become infested with mites, it was determined to subject it to distil- 
lation. This was conducted in a vacuum still, steam being used as 
the source of heat, at a temperature of 1 50 F., the pump main- 
taining a vacuum of twenty inches. 

The first charge of forty pounds consisted of about one-third of 
worm-eaten fruit, and about two-thirds of fruit in good condition, 
both having been previously crushed. The yield of oil was not 
appreciable, as is generally the case with drugs whose yield of oil 
is small, the water of this first distillation merely becoming saturated 
with the oil. 

The second and third charges consisted of forty and thirty pounds 
respectively of crushed Mogador fruit in fair condition. These were 
subjected to the same vacuum and temperature, the saturated water 
of the first distillation being used again. The total yield of oil of 
coriander thus obtained from these seventy pounds was 890 grains, 
being equivalent to 0.18 per cent. 

This oil, a sample of which is submitted, is readily soluble in three 
volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol, and is also freely soluble in all pro- 
portions of 80 and 90 per cent, alcohol at the temperature of 77 
F., in so far complying with the United States Pharmacopoeia. Its 
specific gravity is 0-883 at 77 F. being very near the 0.878 pre- 
scribed by the United States Pharmacopoeia. 


A Study of Cannabis Americana. 

/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
\ January, 1908. 

A sample of German oil of coriander just received from a pro- 
minent importer of essential oils is also submitted. This does not 
comply with the requirements of the United States Pharmacopoeia 
in respect to being entirely soluble in three volumes of 70 per cent, 
alcohol at a temperature of 77 F. Only about 25 per cent, of the 
oil will dissolve at this temperature. It does, however dissolve, in 
this menstruum, when the temperature is raised to 8o° F. It is also 
soluble in ail proportions of 80 and 90 per cent, alcohol. Its specific 
gravity is 0.866 at 77 F., being still within the limits of the U.S.P. 
of 0-863 to 0-878. 

As linalool is a normal constituent of oil of coriander, this sub- 
stance has been sometimes used as an adulterant of the oil, as well 
as oil of cedarwood and oil of sweet orange. 

Samples of oil of linaloe, composed in the main of linalool, and 
of pure oil of coriander, to which 25 per cent., respectively of oil of 
sweet orange, and oil of red juniper wood (the so-called oil of cedar- 
wood of commerce) have been purposely added, are submitted. 
Both of these adulterations are noted in the text-books. 

The distillation of the oil, and the chemical and physical examina- 
tion of the specimens submitted, were conducted by Mr. Ralph R. 


By B. M. Houghton, Ph.C , M.D., 
Junior Director of the Biological Laboratories of Parke, Davis & Co., 
Detroit, Mich. 
and H. C. Hamilton, M.S. 

Much has been said and written by physicians and pharmacists 
relative to the activity of Cannabis Sativa (Cannabis Indica and 
Americana). It is generally believed that the American grown 
drug is practically worthless for therapeutic purposes, and that one 
must employ the true cannabis from India, in order to obtain 
physiological activity. The best quality of Indian drug, it is claimed, 
is that grown especially for medicinal purposes and consists of the 
flowering tops of the unfertilized female g iants, care being taken 

1 Read before the Scientific Section of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, September, 1907. 

A ™kiuary*m)s w '} A Study of Cannabis Americana. 17 

during the growing of the drug to weed out the male plants. This 
notion, according to our experience, is based largely upon error, as 
we have found repeatedly that the Indian drug which contains large 
quantities of seed is fully as active as the drug which does not con- 
tain the seed, provided the seed is removed before it is percolated, 
and the experiments are based upon a fluid extract or other phar- 
maceutical product obtained from an equal weight of drug minus 
the seeds. The seeds themselves do not contain the active principle 
upon which the therapeutic properties of the plant depend, but may 
make up a very large percentage of the weight of the drug as it 
appears on the market. 

Several years ago we began a systematic investigation of American 
grown hemp. Samples were obtained from the following localities 
and studied : 

(1) August, 1905, Mr. Gaumnitz, of the Department of Agricul- 
ture, of the University of Minnesota, sent us samples of hemp grown 
on the college grounds. 

(2) 1906. Also supplied by Mr. Gaumnitz. 

(3) Grown in Mexico, 1903. Sent in for examination. 

(4) " " " 1904. 

(5) " " " 1906. 

(6) " " Kentucky, 1905. 

(7) " " " 1906. 

(8) " near Detroit, Mich., 1907. 

From these several samples of Cannabis Americana, were prepared 
fluid extracts and solid extracts according to the U.S.P., which were 
tested upon animals for physiological activity. 

The method of assay, which has previously been called to the 
attention of this society, is that which one of us (Houghton) devised 
and has employed for the past twelve years. This method consists 
essentially of the careful observation of the physiological effects 
produced upon dogs from the internal administration of the prepa- 
ration of the drug under test, compared with the physiological 
effects produced by definite doses of a standard preparation of the 
drug, according to the following method. It is necessary in selecting 
the test animals to pick out those that are easily susceptible to the 
action of cannabis, since dogs as well as human beings vary consider- 
ably in their reaction to the drug. Also, preliminary tests should be 
made upon the animals before they are finally selected for test pur- 

1 8 A Study of Cannabis Americana 

poses, in order that we may know exactly how they behave under 
given conditions. After the animals have been finally selected and 
found to respond to the standard test dose, «oio per kilo, they are set 
aside for this particular work, care being taken to have them well fed 
well housed, and in every way kept under the best sanitary condi- 
tions. Usually we have found it desirable to keep two or more of 
the approved animals on hand at all times, so there may not be 
delay in testing samples as they come in. 

In applying the test, the standard dose is administered internally 
in a small capsule. The dog's tongue is drawn forward between the 
teeth with the left hand and the capsule placed on the back part of 
the tongue with the right hand. The tongue is then quickly released 
and the capsule swallowed with ease. In order that the drug may 
be rapidly absorbed, food should be withheld twenty-four hours 
before the test and an efficient cathartic given, if needed. 

Within a comparatively short time, one to two hours, the dog 
begins to show the characteristic effects of the drug : First a stage 
of excitability is noticed, followed sooner or later by a condition of 
incoordination, the animal behaving as though intoxicated. Expe- 
rience is necessary on the part of the observer to determine just 
when the physiological effects of the drug begin to manifest them- 
selves, as there is always, as in the case of many chemical tests, a 
personal factor to be guarded against. The dogs must be kept per- 
fectly quiet and watched without attracting their attention. The 
influence of the test dose of the unknown drug is carefully com- 
pared with the same dose of the standard preparation administered 
to another test dog at the same time, under the same conditions. 
Finally, the dogs become sleepy, the observations are recorded and 
the animals returned to their quarters. 

The second day following, the two dogs are reversed, i. e., the 
animal receiving the test dose of the unknown receives the test 
dose of the known, and vice versa, and a second observation made. 
If one desires to make a very accurate quantitative determination, 
it is advisable to use not two dogs but four or five, and study the 
effects of the test dose of the unknown in comparison with the test 
dose of the known upon each. If the unknown is below standard 
activity, the amount should be increased until the effect produced is 
the same as for test dose of standard. If the unknown is above 
strength, the test dose is diminished accordingly. From the dose of 

Am. Jour. Pharm, 
January, 19C8. 

A January P i908 m ' I A Study of Cannabis Americana. 19 

the unknown selected as producing the same action as the test dose 
of the standard, the amount of dilution or concentration necessary is 
determined. The degree of accuracy with which the test is carried 
out will depend largely upon the experience and care exercised by 
the observer. 

It is best to use the dogs on alternate days, in order that they 
may completely recover from the influence of the drug. Another 
point to be noted in the use of dogs for standardizing cannabis is 
that, although they never appear to lose their susceptibility to the 
drug, the same dogs cannot be used indefinitely for accurate testing. 
After a time they become so accustomed to the effects of the drug 
that they refuse to stand on their feet, and so do not show the typical 
incoordination which is the most characteristic and constant action. 

We have never been able to give an animal a sufficient quantity 
of a U.S.P. or other preparation of the drug to produce death. 
When study of the drug was first commenced, careful search of the 
literature on the subject was made to determine its toxicity. Not 
a single case of fatal poisoning have we been able to find reported 
although often alarming symptoms may occur. A dog weighing 
about 25 pounds received an injection of 2 ounces of an active 
U.S.P. fluid extract in the jugular vein with the expectation 
that it would certainly be sufficient to kill the animal. To our sur- 
prise the animal, after being unconscious for about a day and a half, 
recovered completely. This dog received not alone the active con- 
stituents of the drug but also the amount of alcohol contained in 
the fluid extract. Another dog received about 7 grammes of S. E. 
Cannabis with the same result. 

There is some variation in the amount of extractive obtained, as 
would be expected from the varying amount of stems, seeds, etc., 
in the different samples. Likewise there has been a certain amount 
of variation in the physiological action, but in every case there has 
been elicited the characteristic symptoms from the administration 
of -010 grammes, per kilo body weight, of the extract. 

The repeated tests that we have made have convinced us that the 
drug, properly grown and cured, is fully as active as the best Indian 
Cannabis, which we have sometimes found to be practically inert. 
Previous to the adoption of the physiological test, over twelve years 
ago, we were often annoyed by complaints of physicians that cer- 
tain lots of drugs were inert, in fact some hospitals, before accepting 


Kefir and Its Preparation. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1908. 

their supplies of hemp preparations, asked for samples in order to 
make rough tests upon their patients before ordering. Since the 
adoption of the test we have not had a single report of inactivity, 
although many tons of the various preparations of Cannabis Indica 
have been tested and supplied for medicinal purposes. 

Furthermore, we have placed out quantities of fluid extract and 
solid extract of Cannabis Americana in the hands of experienced 
clinicians, and from eight of these men, who are all large users of 
the drug, we have received reports which state that they are unable 
to determine any therapeutic difference between the Cannabis 
Americana and the Cannabis Indica. We are of the opinion that 
Cannabis Americana will be found equally as good, and perhaps 
better, than that obtained from foreign sources, as proper directions 
can be given to the grower, in order to produce a drug of the greatest 
value. We expect to give this phase of the subject especial atten- 
tion during the next few years, and see what improvements may be 


(1) The method outlined in the paper for determining the physio- 
logical activity of Cannabis Sativa by internal administration to 
especially selected dogs, has been found reliable when the standard 
dose, -oio per kilo body weight, is tested in comparison with the 
same quantity of a standard preparation of known strength. 

(2) Cannabis Sativa, when grown in various localities of the 
United States and Mexico, is found to be fully as active as the best 
imported Indian grown Cannabis Sativa. 

By I. V S. Stanislaus, B. Sc., Phar. D. 

The name " Kefir " is applied to a beverage prepared from cow's 
milk with the aid of an appropriate ferment called " Kefir grains." 

This beverage has been used from time immemorial by the 
inhabitants of the northern part of the Caucasian Mountains under 
various names, as kefir, kapir, kifir, kepu and the like. 

Kefir is not an imitation of koumys which the Tartars prepare 
from mare's milk, but differs from the latter as much as does cow's 
milk differ in its composition from mare's milk. 

1 Read before the Scientific Section of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation, September, 1907. 

Am. Jour. Pharnj.l 
January, 1908. J 

Kefir and Its Preparation. 


The ferment employed for the preparation has the appearance of 
crumbs or grains of various sizes, cauliflower-like in form. When 
in the dry condition these possess a yellow to a brick-red color, 
while in the moist condition they appear whitish in color. 

The Kefir grains examined under the microscope appear to be 
composed of two morphologic forms — yeast cells {Saccharomyces 
Cerevisiae Meyen) and bacteria proper, having the form of cylindrical 
threads or rods and of their spores which Kerman and Krannhalls 
called Dispora Cancasica. 

H. Struve considers the above bacteria as animal fibers, originat- 
ing from bags made of hide, the so-called " burdiuk " in which 
kefir is prepared on the Caucasus. 

Drs. L. Nencki and A. Fabian, in their work on kefir, discredit the 
above assertions of Struve as unfounded, claiming in turn that 
besides the fibers described by him they found the kefir grains to 
contain Hay bacteria {Bacillus subtilis) the so-called mildew grains 
of the Oidium variety and the bacteria of butter (Bacillus butyricus.) 

The ferment described above is variously styled by the Tartars 
thus — " Kefir mildew," " kefir grains," or the " millet-seeds of the 
Prophet;" in continental Europe as " kefir champignons " or " kefir 

The origin of kefir grains is not generally known ; the mountain 
tribes of the Caucasus consider them as of sacred origin and hence 
the name " millet seeds of the Prophet." This is based on the 
Oriental legend purporting that the first Mohammed conferred this 
blessing upon his chosen people. 

At the present time the purchase of the grains is possible every- 
where — not so twenty years ago. No one of the Caucasian tribes- 
men dared to offer it for sale or even as a gift, and this not only to 
the " infidels " but to their own kin as well, because there existed a 
strong belief that by parting with some of the grains, the remaining 
grains would lose their fetichic power to ferment. 

The legendary custom of parting with the grains, according to a 
Russian authority, was closely adhered to : The daughter upon being 
married did not receive her dowry of the grains outright, but upon 
the first visit her mother would leave her alone in the room where 
the grains were stored, this as a sign that in her absence the 
daughter could follow the American custom, " help yourself." 

The probability of the origin of the kefir grains Professor Pod- 


Kefir and Its Preparation. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
X January. 1908. 

wysocki.of Riga, explains as follows : The koumys-forming ferment 
was known in times immemorial as history shows. When, how- 
ever, the tribes occupied as horse- raisers and traders of the plains 
were compelled to migrate into the mountains, owing to the different 
condition of the soil and geographical distribution they were obliged 
to raise more bovine cattle than horses, which fact caused a shortage 
of mare's milk. The next step was to add the koumys ferment to a 
mixture of cow's and mare's milk. As the outgrowth of this in time 
the koumys ferment acquired a different form and composition, and 
such we now call " kefir grains." 

This theory Professor Podwysocki further augments by the state- 
ment that outside of the Caucasus neither in Switzerland nor any 
other mountainous localities were the cattle-raisers fortunate in 
arriving at the kefir ferment ; and by the fact that the most select 
koumys can only be prepared from mare's milk when ke'ir grains are 
employed, and not with yeast as ordinarily practised. 

When Kefir grains are added to cow's milk two kinds of fermenta- 
tion occur — alcoholic and lactic. Besides this, they peptonize 
albuminous substances, giving rise to physiologically highly bene- 
ficial compounds. 

The main components of kefir may be classed as fat, lactose, 
alcohol, carbondioxid, lactic acid (which should not exceed 0.7 to I 
per cent.), inorganic salts, and albuminous bodies which exist here 
as casein, albumin, acidalbumin, hemalbumose and peptone. \ 

The comparative analyses of cow's milk and twenty-four hours old 
kefir prepared therefrom are highly interesting and instructive : 

In parts per hundred. 


Cow's milk. 














A January fi908 rm "} Kefir and Its Preparation. 23 

The prepared kefir is of a whitish color, pleasant and slightly 
cooling to the taste. 

The quantity of the compounds formed through the so-called 
" starter " is closely dependent upon the quantity of lactose present 
in the milk employed and on the quantity of the " starter " added. 

It should be stated that after the kefir is complete and ready for 
use, further changes still occur. Thus, in the preparation twenty- 
four hours old, hemalbumoses are absent but develop only on the 
third day, and the same may be said of peptone, which can be 
detected only after the third day. 

There are several methods known for preparing the beverage. 
Some of these, however, give unsatisfactory results and are unduly 
tedious, and these I have omitted in this outline. 

Before we proceed to the preparation of kefir, the grains should 
carefully be examined as to their condition, whether healthy or 
otherwise, and for freedom from adulterants, which is not an 
uncommon occurrence of late. 

Good, healthy grains are recognized by their irregular form and 
size, hardness and yellow, to a brick-red, color. Macerated in water, 
they soften, acquire a whitish color, and swell up considerably, 
becoming rubbery masses branched on one side and almost smooth 
on the reverse concave side. 

Nefarious varieties of the grains which are prepared from bread- 
crumbs with the addition of brewers' yeast and thus falsified, added 
to the genuine variety can be readily differentiated from the latter 
upon maceration with water. When so treated they are devoid of 
the rubber-like springiness and when rolled between the fingers 
become dough-like. When treated with a solution of iodine they 
acquire the characteristic blue color. 

Having assured ourselves of the quality of the grains, we begin 
with the preparation of the " starter." This is done by macerating 
them in warm water for twenty-four hours, changing the latter at 
least four times. The well soaked grains are next separated from 
the water by straining, and in the proportion of two tablespoonfuls 
for every one and a half glasses of milk (350 c.c.) are added to the 

The vessel containing the mixture of the grains and milk is 
covered with muslin and set in a warm place at 15 C. to 18 C. 
until the grains begin to float upon the surface. It should be 

2 4 

Kefir and Its Preparation. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I January, 1908. 

remembered that the mixture requires occasional stirring during the 
first few hours. 

The grains can be separated and used in the preparation of 
several lots. 

When used for the first time the grains begin to float, but very 
slowly, sometimes requiring from three to eight hours and occasion- 
ally even more. But when they are used repeatedly for preparing 
kefir without intermediate drying, they float to the surface after three 
to four hours. 

After a quantity of the grains rise to the surface, the mixture is 
strained, when a liquid is obtained which is called the " starter." 
The grains can now be covered with milk and set aside in a cool 
place until the next day. 

" The " starter " prepared as above is mixed with three-quarters of 
a glass (188 c.c.) of previously boiled milk agitated thoroughly and 
poured into a clean bottle, which, however, should not be filled com- 
pletely, corked immediately and securely, and set aside at a tempera- 
ture of 20° to 23 C, until it begins to thicken, which process requires 
from eighteen to twenty -five hours in the winter, and from fourteen 
to twenty hours in the summer. The mixture acquires the consist- 
ency of cream, which can readily be seen through the walls of the 
bottle. The thickened mixture is now agitated vigorously, laid upon 
the side in a cool place (preferably the cellar where the temperature 
should not exceed g° to 12-5° C. and agitated every two hours. 

Kefir prepared as above is called " day-old," and is the weakest. 
It contains a slight quantity of C0 2 , is viscous, possessing a very 
pleasant, refreshing and slightly acid taste. It should not contain 
" cheesy masses." 

If allowed to rest in the cellar for a longer period the "two day- 
old " and " three-day-old " are respectively obtained. But it should 
always be remembered that the contents be thoroughly shaken at 
least once every three hours. 

We have stated above that the grains after being used are covered 
with milk and set aside until the next day. These, now carefully 
washed with water, can be used further to obtain new quantities of 
kefir by covering them with one and a half glasses of milk and 
repeating the operation as above. 

The first lots of kefir are usually of inferior quality ; the longer 
the grains are used the better the product. It should be remem- 

Am. Jour. Pharm.l 
January, 1908. / 

Kefir and Its Preparation. 

bered that the grains must be thoroughly and carefully washed in 
cold, distilled water from the deposit of curd which accumulates 
upon their surface, causing subsequent acid fermentation which is 
highly detrimental to their quality and fermentative power. 

Second Method : Kefir may be prepared by taking a tablespoonful 
of the dry grains, covering them with warm water and changing the 
latter several times during twenty-four hours. Next the grains are 
daily covered with fresh milk until they become " springy." The 
so-prepared grains are placed in a decanter covered with three glasses 
(750 c.c.) of milk and agitated frequently during six to eight hours. 
The grains are now strained off, the colate placed in bottles which 
should not be filled too full — and these latter are proceeded with as 
described in the first method. 

Third Method : This method depends upon the employment of 
" three-day-old " kefir. Thus the contents of a bottle of the latter 
is divided equally into three bottles, these are filled within an inch 
of the top with cold, previously boiled milk, corked securely, 
agitated occasionally at the room temperature during three days or 
until the mixture thickens, when one of the bottles is again divided 
into three fresh bottles and proceeded with as above. This method 
has one disadvantage in that the third and the fourth attenuations 
spoil quickly. 

The following points should be observed in the preparation of 
kefir : The milk should be fresh, previously skimmed and boiled ; 
the latter condition is imperative to prevent butyric fermentation. 
It is also advantageous to sometimes add a teaspoonful of lactose 
to the milk, as in this wise more alcohol and C0 2 is formed and the 
albuminous bodies undergo peptonization much more readily. Good 
kefir should be homogeneous, viscous fluid not readily separating 
into two layers. Ferrated kefir for ansemics is prepared by adding 
to each bottle o*i gramme of ferric lactate. Pepsinated kefir is made 
by adding 075 gramme of powdered pepsin to each bottle. 

26 Mystery in Therapeutic Agents, { A Tanulry, P i908. m ' 


By J. H. MussER,, M.D., Philadelphia. 

The high level of present-day medicine has been attained by a 
process of gradual growth secured only by daily valuation of the 
facts in biology, whereby those of seeming truthfulness were cast 
aside, and those of truth fastened upon as with hooks of steel. 

No scientific groupings of any biological truths can be made in 
which falsehood and truth are intermingled. The Science of Medi- 
cine rests upon biological laws which are as immutable as those of 
physics or of mathematics. The prosecution of the study of medi- 
cine and, I may also say of the art of medicine, can be conducted 
only by methods, which the scientific habit of mind can employ. 
Accurate observation, logical deduction and precise action mark the 
efforts of the scientific physician. True inference can follow only 
upon observations which attain the truth. If, therefore, it is essen- 
tial in the first steps of our art — in diagnosis— to seek and to accept 
the truth only, how is it possible we can succeed in the practical 
application of the science, if we depart from truth and take as our 
handmaids, mystery, and falsehood in therapeutic action ? If preci- 
sion and accuracy are required in diagnosis, why are they not essen- 
tial in therapeutics ? To employ agencies, the composition of 
which is a mystery, is as much a method of the dark ages as to 
employ witchcraft, magic and other methods of that era. We must 
all admit that empirical treatment is a mode that had to be em- 
ployed in the past. Happily, the day is rapidly coming, when the 
problems of the action of some remedies, as for example, of Iodide 
of Potassium in syphilis will be solved. Nevertheless, the use of 
this remedy, of Quinine in malaria, of Lemon juice in scurvy, was 
based on scientific inference. How can it be possible to draw such 
inference, when combinations of remedies made without regard to 
the traits and characteristics of individuals, are employed willy-nilly, 
for the treatment of disease ? Even if we knew the composition of 
the various nostrums, how can we employ them when we admit our 
great advance in therapeutic action is dependent upon the broad 
principle that we treat the patient who is ill and not the disease ? 
When, therefore, I am handed this combination for one disease; 
another for another, and so along the whole list I have the right to 

A j^ar r y , P i908 rra } Mystery in Therapeutic Agents. 27 

say, I do not pretend to treat or cure any disease. My effort is to 
safeguard the individual, to see that there is no departure from the 
biological laws which control his life or to correct such as may exist, 
and to aid and abet the physiological processes by which the organ- 
ism defends, resists, or adapts itself in that departure from the nor- 
mal, in function or structure, which we call disease. Have we under 
these circumstances any use for mysterious agents ? 

The greater harm in the use of these agents is in their retro-active 
effect. That state of mind, which permits itself to be subordinated 
to those who think for them, will silently but surely lessen in vigor 
and virulence. That success in medicine which alone is self satis- 
fying, which grows with the possessor's growth in power, which 
reaches its acme with his maturity, and continues in the fulness of 
his power, is only attained by a scientific habit of mind. Precise 
observation and true inference, truth sought and it alone retained 
as of value, belong to this habit. Any acceptance of the false, any 
compromise with mystery will surely impair it. In scientific labors 
one must constantly be " girding up the loins;" a high standard 
must always obtain. It is most easy, from perhaps fatigue, from 
stress of work, from eagerness to indulge in the pleasures of the 
day, to lapse. How hard it is for one to compel himself, not to make 
a " snap " diagnosis ! Just as a snap diagnosis is vicious in its effects 
on the faculties of observation and the processes of reasoning, so is 
a " snap " therapeusis in its effects on the art of treatment. Any 
slipshod method of action begets its kind and soon in diagnosis and 
treatment a charlatanism arises, worse even than that of the ignorant 
quack or the credulous enthusiast in therapy. 

The profession should take a stand for its own sake against 
haphazard, trivial, unscientific prescribing, which dwarfs the mind 
of the actor and later the conscience, far more frequently than it 
does harm to the victim of such conscienceless procedures. It is 
too often one of the seductive agents which leads the poor fellow 
who has attained a success, which is but a " flash in the pan." Nos- 
trum prescribing as tallow on the ways, launches the physician into 
the seething sea of irresolution in diagnosis and irresponsibility in 
practice. To such a one success has come early, in part from for- 
tuitous circumstances, or in part from a fortunate personality 
(another snare for many) and does not have for its foundation, the 
power which comes from labor in the laboratory and hospital ward , 

28 Approved Proprietary Preparations. { A j^Xy, P i908 m ' 

and with the midnight oil of the library. A stronger Junior comes 
along and the success of the other is challenged ; it fades and the 
struggle for its continuance leads the fading power to grasp at the 
many " will-o' the-wisp," political, social, religious, lodge and other 
vicarious methods of support. Such are among the men who are 
the nostrum prescribers of the profession. Had they pored over 
their labors and planned therapeutic campaigns on proper lines and 
not by slipshod methods, their success would never have been 
threatened; snap diagnosis and snap therapeutics would not have 
been of their stock in trade. 

The profession ought to know that the public are wiser than they 
realize, and that some day the worm may turn and pour its vials of 
wrath upon the irresponsible and reckless, who without conscience, 
empty ad nauseam vial upon vial of unknown ingredients down 
credulous throats. It is to save us from this fate that the altruistic 
of our profession, Simmons, Billings, Cohen,— Professor Remington 
and Wilbert, and his colleagues are laboring. Let us bid them God 
speed in their efforts, and take heed. 

Let me venture one prediction: — if pharmacists and physicians 
alike do not have a care, the day will come when pharmaco-therapy 
somewhat effaced at present will, if it has not already, give way to 
physiologic and psychic therapeutics. 

Finally, it can never be said better than it was said by Emerson : 
" what a man does unto others, he does unto himself. If he does 
not play fair with others, he plays false to himself." 


{Continued from page 432, Vol. 79.) 

Guajasanol, C 6 H 4 (OCH 3 ).(CH 2 N (C 2 H 5 ) 2 .COO).HCl = C 13 H ]9 N0 3 
HC1, is the hydrochloride of diethylglycocoll-guaiacol. 

Actions and Uses. — It is antiseptic and anesthetic. It is readily 
absorbed and splits off guaiacol in the organism with marked facility. 
Its antiseptic power is said to be about equivalent to that of boric 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
January, 1908. J 

Approved Proprietary Preparations. 


acid. Guajasanol has been recommended for the treatment of 
tuberculosis, both internally and subcutaneously. It is also recom- 
mended as a deodorant and is said to have given good service in 
putrid cystitis. Dosage. — I to 3 grammes (15 to 45 grains) in 
wafers ; subcutaneously, 3 to 4 grammes (45 to 60 grains) in 20 per 
cent, aqueous solution ; locally it may be used in from o-i to 2 per 
cent solutions. Manufactured by Farbwerke, vorm. Meister, Lucius 
& Bruening, Hoechst a. M. (Victor Koechl & Co., New York). 
U. S. patent No. 624,722. 



Hedonal, CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CH(CH 3 ) O.CO.NH 2 = C 6 H 13 2 N, is a 
urethane differing from ethyl carbamate, U.S.P., in that the ethyl 
radicle has been replaced by the radicle of methylpropylcarbinol 
(pentan-2-ol). CH 3 .CH 2 .CH 2 .CHOH.CH 3 . 

Actions and Uses.— Hedonal appears to have a greater hypnotic 
effect than ethyl carbamate. It is said to be followed by no after- 
effects and is oxidized in the body to urea and carbon dioxide. It 
is recommended in insomnia due to mental overwork or nervous 
excitement occurring in the course of neurasthenia or hysteria. It 
is claimed to be particularly useful preliminary to anesthesia, a hyp- 
notic dose being given and anesthesia effected with chloroform after 
the patient has been asleep for an hour. Dosage. — 1 to 2 grammes 
(15 to 30 grains), administered dry, followed by a swallow of water, 
or in wafers or capsules. Manufactured by Farbenfabriken, vorm. 
Friedr. Bayer & Co., Elberfeld, Germany (Continental Color and 
Chemical Co., New York). U. S. patent No. 659,202 ; German 
patents Nos. 11,496, 120,863, 120,864, 120,865. 


A name applied to Hexamethylenamine Methylencitrate (which 

Manufactured by Farbenfabriken, vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., 
Elberfeld, Germany (Continental Color and Chemical Co., New York). 
U. S. patent. U. S. trade-mark No. 39,580. 


Heroin, C 17 H l7 (C 2 H 3 2 ) 2 NO = C 21 H 23 5 N, is a synthetic alkaloid 
obtained by the acetylization of morphine. 

30 Approved Proprietary Preparations. { A ™^uary P im m ' 

Action, Uses and Dosage. — See heroin hydrochloride. Manufac- 
tured by Farbenfabriken, vorm. Friedr. Bayer & Co., Elberfeld, 
Germany (Continental Color and Chemical Co., New York). U. S. 
trade- mark. 


Actions and Uses. — When given in small doses, heroin hydro- 
chloride has apparently no effect on any of the vital functions except 
respiration, which it renders slower, the volume of the individual 
respirations being increased, but usually not sufficiently to compen- 
sate the slowing, the result being a diminution in the total amount 
of air respired. In large doses it may produce dizziness, nausea and 
occasionally constipation, and, in poisonous amounts, twitching of 
the extremities, great exhaustion, and dimness of vision may be 
added. The temperature becomes subnormal and the pulse rapid 
and thready. The habit is readily formed and leads to the most 
deplorable results. It is said not to produce costiveness. (This is 
not true, according to some observers.) It is readily absorbed from 
all mucous membranes. It lessens irritability of the respiratory 
center, thus allaying cough, but does not depress the respiration as 
much as morphine. On withdrawing the drug from habitues, there 
is said to be a tendency to respiratory failure which may be 
dangerous. Heroin and its hydrochloride are recommended chiefly 
for the treatment of diseases of the air passages attended with 
cough, difficult breathing and spasm, such as the different forms of 
bronchitis, pneumonia, consumption, asthma, whooping cough, 
laryngitis and certain forms of hay fever. It has also been recom- 
mended as an analgesic, in the place of morphine in various painful 
affections. Toxic symptoms should be treated by the administra- 
tion of caffeine hypodermically and of hot coffee by the stomach. 
To avoid respiratory failure in the treatment of heroin addiction, it 
has been suggested to substitute morphine for the heroin and 
then treat the patient for morphine additions. Dosage. — 0-0025 
to 0-005 gramme (J_ to -fa grain) to adults 3 to 4 times a 
day, the maximum dose being O-OI gramme -J- grain. To chil- 
dren it may be given in doses varying from 0-0002 to ocoi 
gramme {fa-§ to fa grain), according to the age. Hypodermically 
it may be administered in the form of a 2 per cent, solution 
in the same doses. It has been applied locally to the throat, to the 

A j;nuary, F im m '} Approved Proprietary Preparations. 31 

uterus on tampons, and by suppository for painful pelvic affections 
generally ; but there is no evidence that it produces any local 
anesthetic action. Manufactured by Farbenfabriken, vorm. Friedr- 
Bayer & Co., Elberfeld, Germany (Continental Color and Chemical 
Co., New York). U. S. trade-mark. 


This substance, C 6 H s O T (CH 2 ) 6 N 4 = C 12 H 20 O 7 N 4 , is a compound of 
hexamethylenamine with anhydromethylencitric acid. 

Actions and Uses. — It is a urinary antiseptic and germicide 
claimed to be more prompt and energetic in its action then hexa- 
methylenamine, acting equally well whether the urine be alkaline or 
acid in reaction, rapidly clearing it up and allaying pain. It is 
recommended in cystitis, pyelitis, prostatic diseases and urethritis. 
It is also recommended as an efficient urinary antiseptic in infectious 
diseases in which bacteria are present in the urine, as in typhoid 
fever. It is regarded as a useful urinary antiseptic in the later stages 
and chronic forms of gonorrhoea. It may be used as a prophylactic 
against infection in case of operations or instrumental manipulation 
of the genitourinary tract. Dosage. — 0-6 to 1 gramme (10 to 15 



Holocaine hydrochloride, CH 3 .C( : N.C 6 H 4 .OC 2 H 5 )(.NH.C 6 H 4 OC 2 
H 5 ).HC1 === QgH^NoCXHCl, is the hydrochloride of a basic conden- 
sation product of paraphenetidin and acetparaphenetidin (phena- 

Actions and Uses. — It is a local anesthetic like cocaine, but hav- 
ing the advantage of quicker effect and an antiseptic action. Five 
minims of a I per cent, solution when instilled into the eye are 
usually sufficient to cause anesthesia in from 1 to 10 minutes. It is 
more toxic than cocaine and without effect on the pupil or blood 
vessels. It is not so useful as cocaine when the vaso-constrictor 
effect of the latter is desired. It is said not to cause the scaliness of 
the cornea which sometimes results after the use of the older 
remedy. Dosage. — It is applied in a I per cent, aqueous solution 

1 This is the chemical name for a preparation on the market under the names 
of helmitol and urotropin, new. 

.5 2 

Notes on Essential Oils. 

( Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
\ January, 190S. 

prepared in porcelain vessels. Manufactured by Farbwerke, vorm. 
Meister, Lucius & Bruening, Hoechst a. M. (Victor Koechl & Co., 
New York). German patents Nos. 79,868, 80,568. 


A compound of ichthyolsulphonic acid and albumin analogous to 

Actions and Uses. — Its actions and uses are the same as those of 
ichthyol, with the asserted advantage of freedom from such side 
effects as nausea, eructations, etc. It is recommended for the same 
purposes as ichthyol. Dosage. — For infants, 0-13 to 0-3 gramme (2 
to 5 grains), in gruel; older children, 0-6 to 1 gramme (10 to 15 
grains), mixed with scraped chocolate; adults, I to 1*3 gramme 
(15 to 20 grains), in chocolate tablets. Manufactured by Knoll & 
Co., Ludwigshafen, a. Rh. and New York. English patent No. 
11,344. U. S. trade-mark No. 31,114. 



On the part ot the American Pharmacopoeia Committee, Supple, 
ments to the U. S. P. have been published on May I and June 
I, 1907, which contain partly corrections of various statements, 
and partly additions to the individual articles. In the case of the 
essential oils, various alterations have also been made, but unfortun- 
ately not to such an extent as in our opinion appeared desirable. 
We quote the various data below without comment, as all further 
particulars are found in our previous discussion of the Pharmacopoeia 3 
to which we here beg to refer. 

Anise Oil. — d 25C 0-975 to 0-988 ; a D 25 to — 2°. 

Caraway Oil. — d 25 0-900 to 9 10. 

Copaiba Oil. — The requirement of solubility has been cancelled. 

Erigeron Oil? — a D25 o not below -f 45 °. 

1 From the Semi-annual Report of Schimmel & Co., October, 1907. 

2 Comp. Report, April 1906, 69. Am. Jour. Pharm., 78 (1906), p. 253. 

' It should be mentioned here still that in recent times we have had to deal 
repeatedly with authentic erigeron oils, which had a distinctly higher specific 
gravity than that allowed by the American Pharmacopoeia, the specific gravities 

of the oils in question amounted up to 0-887 at ^corresponding to o # 88i at ^ 

Atn. Jour. Pharcu. i 
January, 1908. J 

Notes on Essential Oils. 


Eucalyptol.—6 250 921 to 0-923. 
Eugenol. — d 250 1-066 to ro68. 

Oil of Juniper Berries. — The requirement of solubility is left out, 
Lavender Oil — d 250 o-875 to 0-910. 
Lemon Oil — a D 250 not below -f- 58 . 

Nutmeg Oil. — d 250 0-884 to 0-924. The requirement of rotation 
has been left out. 

Peppermint Oil—a D25 i — 20° to — 33 ; ester content (menthyl 
acetate) at least 6 per cent. 

Pimenta Oil. — d^o 1-028 to 1-048. 

Rosemary Oil. — Ester-content (bornyl acetate) at least 2-5 per 
cent. ; total borneol at least 10 per cent. 
Safrol. — d 25 1-098 to i-ioo. 
Sandalwood Oil. d 250 0-965 to 0-980. 

Sassafras Oil. — Special requirements of solubility exist no longer. 
Thyme Oil. — Colorless or reddish. 

Wormseed Oil, American. — -Requirements of specific gravity, ro- 
tation, and solubility have been cancelled. 


A new edition of the Danish pharmacopoeia has now also made 
its appearance, a fact which induces us to discuss here the articles 
dealing with essential oils in a like manner as in a case of the other 
pharmacopoeias of which, up to now, new editions have been pub- 

As compared with the old Pharmacopoeia danica, 1893, no addi- 
tional directions for testing have been given, so that generally only 
the color, odor, specific gravity, and solubility are taken into con- 
sideration. On the other hand, a whole number of erroneous state* 
ments in the old Pharmacopoeia have been corrected, and the 
requirements specified by the new edition may be characterized 
almost without exception as being to the point. 

No oil has been newly added, but several oils hitherto official are 
now no longer included, for example bergamot oil, cajeput oil, cassia 
oil, oil of juniper berries, mace oil, oil of sweet marjoram, mustard 
oil, and crude oil of turpentine. 

The alcohols which come under consideration for testing the oils, 
are alcohol (Vinaand, Spiritus concentratus) with 90 to 91 per cent, 


Notes on Essential Oils. 

( A.m. Jour. Piiarm . 
1 January, 1908. 

by volume, and dilute alcohol (Fortyndet Vinaand, Spiritus dilutus) 
with 68 to 70 per cent, by volume. 

The individual oils may now follow: — 

Anise Oil. (Aetheroleum anisi), — At low temperatures, a white 
crystalline mass, which commences to melt at 15 , and at about 
20° represents a colorless or faintly yellowish, strongly refractive 
liquid; d lso 0-980 to 0*990*; soluble in 1-5 to 5 volumes alcohol. 

Clove Oil {Aether oleum caryophilli). — In the fresh state bright yel- 
low, in the course of time acquiring a brownish color; d 15Q 1-045 to 
1-070; soluble in 2 volumes dilute alcohol. 

Fennel Oil (Aetheroleum foenieuli). — Colorless or faintly yellow; 
d 150 0-965 to 0-975 ; soluble in an equal volume alcohol; when 
cooled to about + 5 , it should solidify to a crystalline mass. 2 

Lavender Oil (Aetheroleum lavandulae). — Light yellow or greenish 
yellow; d 15C 0.885 to 0-895 5 soluble in every proportion in alcohol, 
and in 3 volumes dilute alcohol. 

Lemon Oil [Aetheroleum citri). — Light yellow ; d 15C 0-859 to 0861; 3 
with 5 volumes alcohol it forms a not quite clear solution ; lemon 
oil must not show a strong acid reaction. 

Menthol (Mentholum). — Colorless, brittle, needle-shaped crystals, 
not moist. M. p. 43 4 ; b. p. 212 5 ; only very slightly soluble in 
water ; very readily soluble in alcohol, ether, chloroform, and fatty 
oils. When heated in an open dish on a water-bath, menthol should 
evaporate completely. 

Oil of Parsley Seed (Aetherohum petroselini). — Viscid, yellowish 
to brownish yellow ; d 153 1-050 to 1 100 ; soluble in an equal volume 

Peppermint Oil (Aetheroleum menthae piperitae). Colorless, yel- 
lowish or greenish yellow; d 15 ° 0-900 to 0920 6 ; at 20° soluble in 

• : 

1 It is recommended to determine the specific gravity at 20°, as anise oil 
sometimes solidifies already spontaneously at 15 ; the above limits of value 
also apply to 20 . 

2 Solidification must sometimes be started by inoculation with a small 
quantity of solid anethol, as under certain conditions fennel oil ma3^ be cooled 
much below its solidification point without actually solidifying. 

3 It would have been better to have given 857 as lower limit of value. 

4 The m. p. of menthol, taken exactly, lies between 43-5 and 44-5°. 

5 Menthol boils about 217 if the mercury thread of the thermometer is 
entirely placed in the steam. 

6 According to the specific gravity, both English and American oils are 

Am. Jour. Ptiartxi. t 
January, 1908. / 

Notes on Essential Oils. 


3 to 5 volumes dilute alcohol ; when more solvent is added, at most 
a slight cloudiness may occur. 

Rose Oil (Aetheroleum rosae). Light yellow, sometimes greenish 
yellow and fairly viscid. At a temperature below 18 to 21°, pointed 
or laminated crystals separate out from the oil, and if cooled further, 
the oil solidifies completely; d 20 ° 0-855 to 0-870; only partly soluble 
in alcohol. 

Rosemary Oil (Aether oleum rosmarini). Colorless, or yellowish to 
greenish yellow; d 15 ~ 0900 to 0-920; soluble in 0-5 and more vo- 
lume alcohol. 

Sandal Oil, East Indian (Aetheroleum santali). — Fairly viscid ; 
light yellow to yellow; d 150 0-975 to 99° 1 • at 20 ° soluble in 5 
volumes dilute alcohol, the solution must also remain clear if more 
alcohol is added. 

Thyme Oil (Aetheroleum thymi). — Colorless or yellowish, subse- 
quently red-yellow ; d 15 o 0-900 to 930 ; soluble in half its volume 

Thymol (Jhymolum). — Colorless, transparent crystals; m. p. 51 to 
52 02 ; b. p. 228 to 230 3 ; completely volatile at the temperature of 
the water-bath. Molten thymol floats on water, crystallized thymol 
sinks in it. Soluble in 1100 volume water, very readily in alcohol 
ether, and chloroform, also in 2 volume caustic soda liquor (con- 
taining 10 per cent. NaOH). Identity reactions and test for carbolic 

Turpentine Oil, purified (Aetheroleum terebinthinae.) Colorless ; 
d 15= o-86o to 0-870; soluble in about 10 volume alcohol. If the oil 
is shaken with an equal volume water, the latter must not take an 
acid reaction; 10 cc. oil, when evaporated on a water-bath, may 
leave behind only a trace of solid residue. 

1 The upper limit of value of the specific gravity is given too low ; it should 
be C985. 

2 The melting point lies between 50*5 and 51-5°. 

3 Thymol boils between 233 and 234 , if the mercury thread of the thermo- 
meter is placed entirely in the steam. 


Book Reviews. 

( Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
\ January, 1S08. 


The Internal Secretions and the Principles of Medicine. 
By Charles E. de M. Sajous. Volume II. With 25 illustrations. 
Philadelphia: F. A. Davis Company. 1907. 

This work is a contribution of pathological biology to normal 
biology. It is a refreshing contribution to the development of 
scientific medicine. By taking cognizance of the researches in 
botany, zoology, biology and physiology, as well as medicine, 
the author shows the efficiency of our therapeutic resources. He 
has, as a result of an immense amount of work, shown the true 
relation and influence of medicines on the cardinal functions of 

In this volume Dr. Sajous " aims to replace the empirical and 
hazardous use of remedies which has undermined increasingly the 
confidence of our best observers in them, by a system of thera- 
peutics based on solidly established facts which make it possible to 
trace every phase of their action to its source. The centers influ- 
enced may thus be used by the physician as so many levers through 
which he can regulate the defensive agencies of the organism and 
the mechanisms which distribute them, precisely as a general can 
give the defensive movements of an army in the field. As the 
disease-causing substances, toxins, endotoxins, toxic wastes, etc., 
are also shown to produce their effects through a morbid action 
upon the centers influenced by our remedies, they may thus be met 
directly where they strike and antagonized before they can destroy 

In this volume are considered : (a) the secretion of the adrenals 
in respiration ; (b) the adrenal active principle as the ferment of 
ferments ; (c) the adrenal active principle as the dynamic element 
of life and the granulations of leucocytes as the living substance; 
(d) the pituitary body as governing center of vital functions ; (e) 
the leucocytes, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroids and adrenals as the 
fundamental organs in pathogenesis, immunity and therapeutics ; (f) 
the internal secretions in their relations to pharmacodynamics ; (g) 
the internal secretions in their relations to pathogenesis and thera- 
peutics. Then follows a treatment of poisoning as interpreted from 
the standpoint of the views advanced in the present work. In a 
supplement is given a list of the diseases in which the adrenal sys- 
tem and the nerve centers of the pituitary body play a leading part. 

Am. Jour. Pharm.") 
J anuary , 1908. J 

Book Reviews. 


The Microscopy of Technical Products. By T. F. Hanausek. 
Kevised by the author and translated by Andrew L. Winton with 
the collaboration of Kate G. Barber. With 276 illustrations. 8vo., 
xii and 471 pages, 276 figures. Cloth, $5. New York : John Wiley 
& Sons. London : Chapman & Hall, Limited. 1907. 

It is very fortunate for American students of technical products 
that Dr. Winton and Dr. Barber have taken the pains to translate 
^he valuable text-book of Hanausek. The translation has been car- 
ried out with the cordial co-operation of the author. " Much new 
matter has been added to the chapters on textile fibers, and the 
number of practical examples increased from eight to eighteen. 
The analytical key for woods has been revised so as to include the 
most important North American species." A number of cuts in 
the German edition have been dropped but nearly fifty other illus- 
trations have been added. 

The work consists of the following chapters : 1, The Microscope ; 
2, Microscopic Accessories ; 3, Microtechnique and Reagents ; 4, 
Starch and Inulin ; 5, Vegetable Fibers and the Microscopic Ex- 
amination of Paper ; 6, Animal Fibers, Mineral Fibers and Textiles ; 
7, Wood of Dicotyledons and Gymnosperms, Monocotyledonous 
Stems, Subterranean Organs and Barks; 8, Leaves; Insect Pow- 
der; io, Fruits and Seeds, including Oil Cakes; n, Teeth, Bone, 
horn, etc, ; 12, Microchemical Analysis. 

The work is creditable to the authors and is welcome to analysts 
and students of technical products. It is a reliable, scientific guide 
to the student and of great value to the investigator of raw materials. 

Plant Anatomy, from the standpoint of the development of 
functions ot the tissues and handbook of micro-technique. By Wil- 
liam Chase Stevens. With 136 illustrations. Philadelphia; P. 
Blakiston's Son & Co. 1907. 

As stated by the author "the book attempts to point out in a 
brief and elementary way how plants arrive at this achievement by 
the evolution of the different physiological tissue systems from a 
primitive undifferentiated embryonic tissue, and how the tissue sys- 
tems are adapted by their character and relation to each other to 
carry out the plant's vegetative functions." 

A very good idea of the subjects treated may be had from the 
titles of the seventeen chapters: 1, The Plant Cell ; 2. Differentia- 


Book Reviews. 

f Am. Jour. Pharru. 
1 January, 1908. 

tion of the Tissues; 3, Secondary Increase in Thickness; 4, Pro- 
tection from Injuries and Loss of Water; 5, The Plant Skeleton; 
6, The Absorption of Water and Minerals ; 7, Circulation of 
Water and Soil Solutes ; 8, Intake and Circulation of Gases ; 9, 
Construction of the Plant's Food ; 10, Circulation ot Foods through- 
out the Plants ; 11, Storage of Food and Water ; 12, Secretion and 
Excretion; 13, The Preparation of Sections; 14, The Use of the 
Microscope; 15, Reagents and Processes; 16, Microchemistry of* 
Plant Products; and 17, Detection of Adulteration in Foods and 

It is a good book of fundamental principles in plant anatomy and 
will be found valuable to the student who is desirious of preparing 
himself for the study of drugs, foods and technical products. In. 
deed, the course of work, as outlined in this volume, is required for 
the microscopical examination of commercial vegetable products. 

An Introduction to Vegetable Physiology. By J. Reynolds 
Green. Second edition. Philadelphia : P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 
1907. $3.00 net. 

This work has apparently been prepared as a companion to the 
one on " Plant Anatomy," by Stevens. It is an excellent book on 
elementary vegetable physiology. The following subjects are 
treated : 1, the general structure of plants ; 2, the differentiation of 
the plant body; 3, the skeleton of the plant; 4, the relation of 
water to the protoplasm of the cells ; 5, the transport of water in 
the plant ; 6, the transpiration current, root pressure and transpira- 
tion ; 7, the aeration of plants; 8, the food of plants; 9, absorption 
of food materials by a green plant; 10, the chlorophyl apparatus ; 
II, the construction of proteins; 12, the constituents of the ash of 
plants ; 1 3, other methods of obtaining food ; 14, translocation of 
nutritive materials ; 15, the storage of reserve materials ; 16, diges- 
tion of reserve materials; 17, metabolism ; 18, the energy of the 
plant ; 1 9, growth ; 20, temperature and its conditions ; 21, the influ- 
ence of the environment on plants; 22, the properties of vegetable 
protoplasm; 23, stimulation and its results; 24, the nervous 
mechanism of plants; and 25, reproduction. 

The work contains nearly 200 illustrations, is well written and 
can be used not only by students of botany, but by the general 
reader who wishes to be informed on the physiological processes in 

Am. Jour. Pbariu. i 
January, 1908. J 

Assaying Errors. 



When the Manufacturers' Committee, called together by the Pure 
Food and Drug Act Commissioners, met in New York, September, 
1907, we called attention to the fact that certain conditions, likely 
to make errors in returns, might be met when certain preparations 
on the market were assayed, one of these being a change in alco- 
holic strength, without any evaporation of alcohol whatever, which 
would take place in securely sealed containers. Our experience in 
a study of " Precipitates in Fluid Extracts ," thirty years ago, had 
brought to our attention the fact that whenever an alcoholic liquid 
casts a precipitate, the liquid becomes stronger in its percentage of 
alcohol. Consequently, a fluid extract that contains 50 per cent, 
alcohol when freshly made, and which throws out a sediment, will 
assay above 50 per cent, after precipitation. The alcoholic propor- 
tion increases with the amount of the precipitate that separates. 
In order to establish the result of precipitation, a number of resin- 
bearing liquids of known alcoholic strength were recently mixed 
with their own bulk of water, the sediments allowed to separate, and 
the overlying liquids then assayed, the result being multiplied by 
two in order to bring them back to the proper proportion, they 
being now only half the strength of the original liquids. In each 
instance there was a decided increase in the proportion of alcohol, 
as shown in the accompanying table. 

r-^t,^ After Precipi- 
Name. fJf a X tation has 

Assayed. occurred. 

Per cent. Per cent. 

Podophyllum 53 65 

Eriodyction 77 86 

Leptandra . .61 62 

Jalap 83 98 

Grindelia 83 90 

Cimcifuga 68 70 

Hydrastis 71 72 

This is one of the features that will be investigated carefully by 
the Government, and proper allowance made therefor. We take it, 
no dealer or manufacturer need expect prosecution by reason of an 
occurrence indicated by such problems as this. — John Uri Lloyd, 
Eclectic Medical Gleaner, Vol. Ill (1897), No. 6, p. 505. 

40 Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. { A ™^uary, P i9os. m ' 


Synopsis of the meetings of the American Conference of Phar- 
maceutical Faculties, held at Hotel Astor, Wednesday and Thursday 
evenings, at 8 p.m. The meeting was called to order by President 
James H. Beal. The secretary called the roll of the Conference, 
showing a representation of twenty-one of the twenty-nine members 
of the Conference, 

Vice-President McGill took the chair during the reading of the 
president's address, which had for its title, "The Purpose of the Con- 
ference." The recommendations in the president's address were as 
follows : 

1. That a new by-law be adopted to read substantially as follows : 
" Conditional members shall consist of such institutions as shall 

be recommended tor election to conditional membership by the 
Executive Committee, and shall receive the affirmative votes of two- 
thirds of the members of the Conference represented at any annual 

The conditional membership of an institution shall terminate in 
one year, unless the same shall be renewed by re-election. Institu- 
tions holding conditional membership may be elected to complete 
membership at any annual meeting, after the expiration of one year 
or more from the date of their election to conditional membership, 
in the manner and upon the terms prescribed by Article IV of the 

2. That the incoming president appoint a committee of three to 
extend to the N.A.R.D., at its next convention, the greetings and 
good wishes of the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Facul- 
ties, and the said committee be especially instructed to express our 
cordial approval of the N.A.R.D. propaganda in favor of the more 
extended use of U.S P. and N.F. preparations, and in favor of 
greater co-operation between the medical and pharmaceutical pro- 

3. To amend Article IV, of the constitution as follows: Change 
the words " three-fourths " in the third line to " two-thirds." Also 
to add to said article the following : " If a majority of the members 
represented at any meeting of the Conference shall vote in favor 
of a candidate's admission, but the affirmative votes shall number 
less than the majority required for election, the votes of the mem- 
bers not represented at such meeting shall be taken by mail." 

A janSwyfSos. 111 *} Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. 41 

4. To amend Article XI of the constitution as follows: Change 
the words " three-fourths" in the eighth line to u two-thirds." Also 
add to said article the following : " Should such amendment receive 
the affirmative votes of a majority of the members represented at 
any meeting, but less than two-thirds of the total membership, the 
votes of the members not represented at said meeting shall be taken 
by mail, providing the affirmative votes of all the members not so 
represented would be sufficient to carry such amendment." 

The president's address was referred to a committee consisting 
of Professors Remington, Anderson and Koch, who recommended 
that proposition No. 1, relating to conditional membership, should 
lay over for one year, although the committee favored the prin- 
ciple involved in its adoption. The committee concurred in the re- 
commendations of the president in regard to the amendments to the 
constitution in Articles IV and XI, and the recommendation that 
delegates be again sent to the annual meeting of the National As- 
sociation of Retail Druggists be carried out. They further recom- 
mended that the proceedings of the Conference be published in a 
cloth-bound volume and that the colleges represented in the Con- 
ference be assessed a sufficient amount to pay for them. 

The report of the committee was unanimously adopted. 

The report of the secretary-treasurer was read and adopted. 

The report of the Executive Committee was made by the chair- 
man, Professor W. A. Puckner, who announced the programme of 
the meeting, and also that the Buffalo College of Pharmacy, the 
New Orleans College of Pharmacy and Notre Dame University De- 
partment of Pharmacy had been elected to membership during the 
year by mail vote. 

The committee appointed to consider the amendment with refer- 
ence to the status of night-schools reported adversely upon action 
being taken at this time. 

A communication from the Syllabus Committee was read by Pro- 
fessor Gregory, and on motion received and ordered published in 
the proceedings. 

Dr. J. T. McGill read a paper entitled, " A Resolution in Regard 
to Pharmaceutical Degrees," in which the following was presented : 

Resolved : That the American Conference of Pharmaceutical Fa- 
culties recommends : 

I. A minimum preliminary educational requirement of high-school 

42 Conference of Pharmaceutical Faculties. { A January . P i908. m * 

work of four years for the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy, Phar.D., 
two years for the degree of Pharmaceutical Chemist, Ph.C, and one 
year for the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy, Ph.G. 

2. That this standard be raised as rapidly as practicable to the 
preliminary requirement of four years of college work, i. e., gra- 
duation in a college, for the degree of Doctor of Pharmacy, and 
four years of high-school work, i. e., graduation in a high school or 
preparatory school of equal grade, for the degree of Pharmaceutical 
Chemist or the degree of Graduate in Pharmacy. 

Discussion on this resolution was postponed until after the report 
of the Committee on President's Address, which report recommended 
that this subject be given more time for the framing of restrictions, 
and therefore advised that final action be postponed until the next 
annual meeting. 

Professor Remington made a short report of the visit of the dele- 
gates to the meeting of the N.A.R.D., and urged that it was very 
important that another committee of delegates be sent to the next 
annual meeting. The report was accepted and the committee dis- 

At the second meeting of the Conference, there not being a suffi- 
cient number of members present to transact business, action upon 
the amendments to the constitution and by-laws was ordered to be 
taken by mail vote. 

The Nominating Committee submitted the following names as 
nominees for officers for the ensuing year : ' 

President, Dr. J. T. McGill, of Vanderbilt University, Nashville, 

Vice-President, Dr. C. B. Lowe, Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 
Philadelphia, Pa. 

Secretary and treasurer, Professor J. O. Schlotterbeck, School of 
Pharmacy, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, Mich. 

Chairman of executive committee, Professor W. A. Puckner, Il- 
linois University, Department of Pharmacy, Chicago, Ills. 

New members of the Executive Committee : Professor H. H. Rusby, 
of the New York College of Pharmacy, New York City, and Pro- 
fessor J. A. Koch, Pittsburg College of Pharmacy, Pittsburg, Pa. 

They were unanimously elected. 

A January fi908. m '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 43 



The November meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the Ameri- 
can Pharmaceutical Association was devoted to a discussion of " The 
Official Standards and Tests." 

The first paper to be presented on the subject was one entitled : 
" Comments on Some Official Standards and Tests," by Mr. L. Henry 
Bernegau, who discussed a number of observations that he had made 
relating to the purity rubric of the U.S.P. 

He had encountered considerable difficulty in connection with 
the determinations of optical rotation of the essential oils. The 
specimens that he had seen differed widely from the official require- 
ments in not a few instances. 

Mr. Bernegau also discussed a ready method for the assay of 
solutions of nitro-glycerin and asserted that the loss of nitro-glycerin, 
in the making of tablets, was no doubt due to the evaporation in 
the process of granulation. 

Mr. William M. Cliffe presented a communication on " Official 
Standards and Tests from the Standpoint of the Retail Druggist." 
He said : From the point of view that I have been requested to 
take in the discussion of the topic of the evening, the question of 
the standards and tests of the Pharmacopoeia is one that is very 

Through the position held by the retail pharmacist, as the dis- 
tributor of pharmacopceial drugs and their preparations to the 
public, he is the one to whom the public will look for the mainte- 
nance of the standards that may be properly expected and exacted 
under existing laws. 

It therefore follows as an absolute necessity that a retail pharma- 
cist should be able and willing to accept the responsibilities of his 
position, logically occurring as a result of his relation to his 

While, owing to economic conditions, it is probable that alkaloidal 
assays will not be extensively performed in retail establishments, it 
still remains a fact that the retailer should possess the qualification 
necessary for this important branch of his work, if for nothing else 
than his own protection in cases where there is suspicion of deviation 
from required standards. 

44 American Pharmaceutical Association. { A ^nuary P i9os rm " 

Another very practical feature of this question is that a reputa- 
tion for ability, and proper espionage in the application of these 
tests protects the retailer from imposition on the part of jobbers 
and manufacturers, who may be unscrupulous enough to take advan- 
tage of a condition of laxity or ignorance ; the return of goods on 
the verified grounds of non-conformity with legal standards is bound 
to make even the man who obeys the law as a matter of legal neces- 
sity, and not as a matter of abstract right, cautious about his deal- 
ings with one who is known to be an able stickler for the quality of 
the goods he buys. 

Equally important with other phases of this question is the direct 
financial returns that come from ability and application on the part 
of the retailer. We have frequently seen the professional reputation 
that is a very important essential of a successful pharmacist's busi- 
ness seriously impaired by the inability or disinclination to effectively 
meet responsibilities of the character under discussion ; and, on the 
other hand, have noted direct pecuniary returns and enhanced pro- 
fessional standing for one who was particular, even in the case of 
such a simple matter as the tests of the Pharmacopoeia for a pure 
vegetable oil soap. 

Mr. Charles E. Vanderkleed read a paper by Dr. A. R. L. Dohme 
and Dr. Herman Engelhardt, entitled " The U.S P. Eighth Revision 
and its Relation to Some Drugs and Chemicals." This paper dis- 
cusses at some length the changes that have been made in the eighth 
edition of the U.S. P., in the recently published corrections, and the 
authors also point out a number of instances in which the standards 
that have been established are not being complied with by the drugs 
on the market. 

Among the substances that have been found to deviate from the 
established standards they enumerate : acetphenetidin, acid boric, 
asafetida, cerium oxalate, copaiba, jalap and a number of the volatile 

Prof. Henry Kraemer, in discussing the papers that had been pre- 
sented, called particular attention to the need for retail druggists 
adapting themselves to changing conditions. Referring to the 
optical rotation of essential oils differing from the standards that 
had been established, he thought that it would be readily possible 
for this factor to be materially changed by a number of conditions* 
or the presence of materials, not necessarily contaminations, readily 

A Tanuary P i908. m '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 45 

Professor Kraemer also referred to a number of changes in drugs 
and other substances that had come under his observation, evidently 
caused by the growth of micro-organisms or other of the lower 
vegetable forms of life. Taking all of these possible factors into 
consideration the wonder was that the Pharmacopoeia has come as 
near being right as it has. 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, speaking as a member of the Com- 
mittee on Revision, said that the experiences that have been gained 
during the past year will be of incalculable value to the committee 
in its future work. He laid considerable stress on the need for 
standards being such as are attainable and not too high. Essential 
oils he believed to be the most frequently adulterated of all medicinal 

Dr. F. E. Stewart, discussing the question of standards, said that 
he quite agreed with Professor Remington that standards for medi- 
cinal substances should be reasonable and attainable. For scientific 
progress in therapeutics doses must be founded on something sub- 
stantial, and this could only be secured by having reasonably high 
standards that are guarded and complied with by pharmacists. 

He believed, however, that pharmacists should go a step further 
than apply the tests of the Pharmacopoeia to the materials that they 
themselves dispense. Having equipped themselves to do this work 
they should acquaint physicians with the need for such control and 
advise them to send their prescriptions to pharmacists who are in 
position to guarantee the genuineness and purity of the materials 
that they dispense. 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert called attention to the fact that manufacturers 
could not be expected to guarantee their products after the original 
package had been broken and that the retailer, whether he wanted 
to or not, would be obliged to assume responsibility for all substances 
sold or dispensed other than those sold in the original package. 

He also called attention to the fact that manufacturers and dealers 
are selling essential oils and other substances that are guaranteed 
to be compounded, or fit only for technical use, and that some retail 
druggists are buying these products for use in their prescription 

Dr. A. W. Miller, in discussing the labelling of adulterated or 
impure substances, called attention to the fact that at least one 
manufacturer of magnesium carbonate labelled his product as being 

46 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^'v^x'^xm^' 

for technical use only, and was marketing another quality seven or 
eight times the price, as being of U.S. P. grade. So far as he could 
learn retail druggists were still buying the ordinary quality of mag- 
nesium carbonate for pharmaceutical uses. 

The subject was further discussed by Messrs. Vanderkleed, Turner, 
Kraemer, Bernegau, Wilbert, Cliffe, Stanislaus and Pearson, also by 
Drs. Stewart and Miller. 

At the suggestion of Professor Remington, the Executive Com. 
mittee was instructed to consider the advisability of securing a 
larger hall for the next meeting, which is to be devoted to a discus- 
sion on " Nostrums and Newspaper Advertisements." 

M. I. Wilbert, 



The stated meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, held on the evening of Tuesday, 
December 3, 1907, was devoted to a discussion of nostrums and 
newspaper advertisements. 

Dr. John H% Musser discussed the " Evil Influences of Mystery, 
in Therapeutic Agents, upon the Science of Medicine," and made a 
strong plea for the elimination of all mystery, and falsehood from 
the practice of medicine. (See page 26.) 

Dr. John B. Roberts, in discussing the physician's breach of 
trust — the use of secret remedies, asserted that the trust and confi- 
dence of the public in the physician, is truly phenomenal and it 
would appear as though it must be the primal duty of one who 
represents himself as a healer of the sick, that he fully knows what 
he essays to do. The physician who does not fully live up to this 
requirement, and particularly the prescriber of secret nostrums, is 
a dangerous quack, and is more to be shunned than the charlatan 
who has never had the advantage of medical training. 

Dr. Henry W. Cattell, in a paper entitled, " The accurate knowl- 
edge of the composition of medicines prescribed by physicians is 
demanded," asserted that this requirement was axiomatic and 
referred not alone to the composition and uses of proprietary 
remedies, but of all remedies used in the treatment of disease. 

He believes that the one predominating reason for the wide 
spread use of nostrums by physicians, is the fact that materia 

A ™anuaryfi908. m '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 47 

medica is not properly taught in medical schools, and suggested that 
it might be well to effect an interchange of professors between col- 
leges of pharmacy and medical schools, so as to give coming gener- 
ations of physicians the advantage of having some knowledge of 
the resources and possibilities of modern pharmacy. 

Dr. James M. Anders, in opening the general discussion, asserted 
that only in exceptional cases was secrecy of any kind permissible 
in the treatment of disease. One reason for the widespread use of 
secret or semi-secret proprietaries by physicians was the fact that 
the detail man usually presents his remedies, and the information 
that he may have to offer in connection with them, in a much more 
interesting manner than does the learned college professor. There 
is great need for controlling this really serious problem, and active 
missionary work must be taken up by the leading men of the medi- 
cal profession, who must, themselves, become virtuous in this regard. 

Dr. H. C. Wood, Jr., expressed the belief that the greatest sin- 
ners, so far as prescribing nostrums was concerned, were to be found 
among the leading men of the medical profession. 

Mr. Edward Bok, the editor of the Ladies Home Journal, said 
that, as a layman, it was a pleasure to him to learn that the medical 
profession had realized that this problem is a matter for their very 
serious consideration. He believes that the people of this country 
are awakening to the dangers and the disgrace of the nostrum. 
Literary magazines, farm journals, religious papers and the better 
class of publications in all lines are ridding themselves of the adver- 
tisements of nostrums, which, he believes, will soon be restricted to 
the daily papers and the advertising pages of medical journals. 

Mr. Bok severely arraigned the members of the medical profes- 
sion for their widespread and evidently increasing use of nostrums, 
and enumerated a number of instances which appeared to evidence 
a degree of incompetency and inconsistency, on the part of medical 
practitioners, that is all but appalling. 

Dr. David L. Edsall ventured the opinion that surface indications 
do not fully reflect the true value of the work that is being done. 
He believes that members of the medical profession are being influ- 
enced, changes are taking place and advances are being made. 
With the elimination of mystery from the art of medicine, and the 
possibility of pointing to a rational foundation for the use of drugs 
and other medicinal agents there must follow marked advances in 
the practical application of therapeutic measures. 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

f Am. Jour. Pharro. 
I January, 1908. 

Mr. Frank E. Morgan believed that the use of nostrums by 
medical men is rapidly decreasing, and that no man is more entitled 
to the respect of the community than the honest, earnest physician. 

The subject was further discussed by Drs. Eaton, Lowe and 
Roberts, and by Messrs. Apple, Blair, Gabell, Osborne and Lem- 
berger. M. I. Wilbert, 



The regular Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Tuesday afternoon, December 17th, with 
Wm. L. Clifle in the chair ; and was devoted to the consideration 
of analytical tests and methods. 

Dr. A. W. Miller presented a communication on " The Distilla- 
tion of Oil of Coriander," and exhibited several samples of the oil, 
and one of pot pourri made with crushed coriander fruit as one of 
the ingredients. The speaker stated that some of the coriander of 
the market is bleached, but said that he did not know whether the 
bleaching process affected the yield of oil (p. 1 5). 

Mr. Weikel, of the Weikel and Smith Spice Company, Philadel- 
phia, stated, that sometimes, when other commercial varieties of 
coriander are scarce, Russian coriander comes into the market, and 
that it is characterized by a heavy odor. 

Reference having been made to the adherence of the mericarps 
of coriander fruit, Dr. Miller said, that he had frequently seen fruits 
in which the mericarps had separated, and thus become unsalable. 
Mr. Weikel said, that in the larger fruits, as the Italian, the separa- 
tion of the mericarps is more likely to take place. 

Dr. Miller stated that the amount of coriander used in pharmacy 
is very small as compared to that used in other ways, it being chiefly 
used in the manufacture of porter and brown stout, and also in 
sausage making, as a flavoring. He then spoke of the so-called 
" black caraway," which is largely used by the Russians as a flavor- 
ing material, and stated that it is composed of three-angled seeds, 
which yield a volatile oil that appears to contain a sulphur compound. 

Mr. W. A. Pearson, of the analytical department of the Smith, 
Kline, and French Company, said that a yield of i-i per cent, of 
oil of coriander was reported by Eck (Gildemeister and Hoffmann's 

Am. Jour. Pharni. ) 
January, 1908. J 

Pharmaceutical Meeting. 


" Ethereal Oils," English translation, page 542), but that as high 
a percentage of oil did not appear to be obtainable with the com- 
mercial fruits. 

Mr. Charles E. Vanderkleed read a paper on " Some Tests for 
Gurjun Balsam in Copaiba," and demonstrated the manner of 
applying them (see page 11). 

During the discussion of his paper Mr. Vanderkleed stated that 
the fluorescent property of copaiba is not regarded as a reliable 
indication of its quality. Mr. Pearson remarked that his experience 
with the tests for Gurjan balsam in copaiba coincided with that of 
Mr. Vanderkleed, except that he had always thought that the United 
States Pharmacopceial test was sensitive to less than 10 per cent, of 
Gurjun balsam. The D. and O. test he had found quite reliable if the 
solution were allowed to stand overnight. He said that he was 
making an analysis of African copaiba, which was low in acid resin 
and total resins, but otherwise answered the U. S. P. requirements. 
Mr. Pearson then alluded to the recent paper on copaiba by E. J. 
Parry, in which he stated that the optical rotation cannot be relied 
upon to indicate the quality of copaiba and that he had found the 
United States Pharmacopceial tests satisfactory. 

A conjoint paper on " The Microscopical and Chemical Examina- 
tion of Black Pepper," was presented by Henry Kraemer and 
Harry E. Sindall, the latter being the chemist for the Weikel & Smith 
Spice Company (see page 1). Professor Kraemer stated that this 
was the first of a series of similar papers which he and Mr. Sindall 
intended to present. Then taking up the subject of the paper, he 
said that while pepper is official in several of the pharmacopoeias, 
little of it is used in medicine, its chief use being as a condiment, 
and it is being dropped from the pharmacopoeias. He pointed out 
that there are a number of products official in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia which are used as spices or for flavoring purposes, 
for which no definite standards are given, while the United States 
Government has adopted exact standards relating to the quality of 
these products. This, the speaker said, emphasized the desirability 
of the revisers of the Pharmacopoeia taking advantage of scientific 
investigations pertaining to every official product, and of fixing high 
standards for them. Professor Kraemer demonstrated the histologi- 
cal structure of the pepper fruit by means of blackboard drawings, 
at the same time calling attention to the microscopical characters 

50 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { ^^nu^yfiS"' 

distinguishing the chief adulterants of pepper now employed, after 
which he called upon Mr. Sindall to discuss the analytical data 
which he had obtained in the examination of samples of ground 
black pepper of known purity, and of commercial samples. 

In commenting upon the paper Mr. Weikel stated that since the 
passage of the Pure Food and Drugs Law pepper hulls are the prin- 
cipal adulterant of black pepper, and that hulls low in ash are 
selected for this purpose. He said that some of the ground black 
peppers of the market are composed of cheap grades of white pepper 
and pepper hulls. 

Others taking part in the discussion were Dr. C. B. Lowe, Ambrose 
Hunsberger, M. I. Wilbert and the chairman. 

Attention was directed to some books and journals presented by 
Mrs. Shinn, widow of the late James T. Shinn ; a series of botanical 
charts, presented by Mr. George M. Beringer. Professor Kraemer 
presented a copy of his recent text book on Botany and Pharma- 

A vote of thanks was tendered the donors, and also the speakers 
of the afternoon. Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 





By A. R. Iv. Dohme, and H. Engemardt. 

We have been studying East Indian sandalwood oil for many 
years, and since presenting our paper on the subject to the A.Ph.A. 
last year, we have continued the same and have come to some defi- 
nite conclusions. We stated in our former paper 1 that many genuine 
East Indian sandalwood oils would not meet the requirements of 
the U.S. P., nor will they of the B.P. or any other pharmacopoeia. 
Despite this fact there are genuine unadulterated sandalwood oils 
distilled properly from sound healthy logs grown in India, even in 
the Mysore district. The only conclusion to be drawn from this is 
that the U.S. P. requirements should be modified. In the U.S.P. 
requirements there occur at least four separate and distinct re- 
quirements that must be met to make a sandalwood oil entitled to 
the soubriquet " U.S.P." These are : 

1. Specific gravity 0-965-0-975 at 25 C. (changed later to 0-965- 

2. Angle of rotation upon polarized light should be not less than 
— 16 nor more than — 20 in 100 mm. tube at 25 C. 

3. Soluble completely in 5 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

4. Should contain not less than 90 per cent, of alcohols calcu- 
lated as santalol. 

As to which of these requirements is the most important a 
difference of opinion exists, but there should not, since a careful 
study of them all eliminates all of them but one as being crucial, 
decisive and reliable. We have found, as have other investigators, 

1 Proceedings A.Ph.A., 1906, or American Druggist, 49, page 145. 



Sandalwood Oil Requirements. 

f Am. Jour. Pharru. 
I February, 1908. 

that no definite relation exists between any two of these require- 
ments, that all four of them vary widely, totally independently of 
one another ; thus, an oil may contain 92 per cent, santalol and yet 
have specific gravity 963, be insoluble in 5 parts of 70 per cent, 
alcohol, and have rotation of — 14 (see sample IV under first 
distillate in table below.) 

The first criticism we have to make of the requirements is that a 
temperature should have been given for determining the solubility 
in 70 per cent, alcohol. It makes all the difference in the world if 
this is determined at 15 , 25 or 30 C. While it is understood 
perhaps that the temperature should be 25 C, this should have 
been stated just as much as it is stated for the specific gravity and 
rotation. We think the solubility should be taken at 30 C. rather 
than 25 C, as the latter temperature eliminates about 25 per cent, 
of oils that should be official, as they contain ample santalol and 
are not adulterated. 

The second ctiticism is that the angle of rotation in the require- 
ments is too high for the minimum limit and should be — 12° to — 
20°; even then it will exclude many unadulterated, genuine, pure oils 
that are amply rich in santalol and hence amply efficient therepeuti- 
cally (see samples IV and V of main distillate in table below.) 
Schimmel & Co. 1 state that they " consider the optical rotation and 
also the acid and ester numbers very useful factors in judging the 
oil." This is only true if you are looking for adulterations, when 
we grant that they will detect castor oil, rosin, etc. In our opinion, 
it is more important to have your requirements so that you do not 
exclude pure, efficient, genuine oil than have them so that to recog- 
nize adulterations you forsooth compel rejections of a genuine, 
Simon-pure product, containing over 90 per cent, of santalol, and 
hence therapeutically efficient. Both W. J. Bush & Co. 2 and Evans 
Sons, Loescher & Webb 3 find that the B.P. or U.S.P. require- 
ments are so unjust that they prevent many genuine oils from being 
allowed to sail under the B.P. or U.S.P. flags, although they are in 
every way genuine and efficient. Bush & Co., express themselves 
forcibly on this subject and we agree with them fully — " It is obvious 
that the inclusion in the B.P. of such fallacious standards as those at 

1 Schimmel & Co., Semi-Annual Report, April, 1907, page 92. 

2 W. J. Bush & Co., Chemist and Druggist, 1907, Vol. L,XXI, page 448. 
' 6 Analytical Notes, February, 1907, page 28. 

m. Jour. Pharru.l 
February, 1908. / 

Sandalwood Oil Requirements, 


present official defeats the object for which they are framed — 
namely, to ensure that only genuine, unmanipulated articles are 
offered for medicinal use. As they stand at present, they must 
have a directly opposite effect." 

The real efficient and crucial test and requirement for the value 
and purity of a santal oil is the content of santalol, which is the 
efficient agent in the oil. As long, hence, as a santal oil contains at 
least 90 per cent, of santalol by assay, it matters little what the 
remaining 10 per cent, are, so long as they are obtained from sandal- 
wood by distillation. The point we wish to make is that contrary 
to the views of Messrs. Schimmel & Co. we consider the optical rota- 
tion, acid and ester numbers as distinctly secondary in importance 
to the requirement of 90 per cent, santalol. Since our last publi- 
cation, we have among others studied the distillation of oils from 
the following lots of santal oil imported by us from India direct: — 

I. Seringapatam Panjam. 

II. Sagar Banjam. 

III. Chickmaglur Ghat Badala. 

IV. Tarikere Ghat Badala. 

V. Fraserpett Parjjam. 


Specific Soluble in 70 per „ ... Acid 

Lot. Gravity. cent, alcohol. oD. 25° ssantaioi. number. 

Per cent. 



Insoluble. — 157 

77 7 









— i8-i 





" — 14*0 





" — 14-0 





5 —12 





5-0 —11 '8 





375 — H/5 





'.Insoluble. — 95 





6 —11 

95 'o 




Insoluble. — 8 















" • —57 





— 10 



1 The acetylized oil could not be separated, as it had almost the same specific 
gravity as water. 


Sandalwood Oil Requirements. 

/Am. Jour. Phar ru. 
\ February, 1908. 

Some of the conclusions to be drawn from these results are: 

(1) That the optical rotation as given in the U.S.P. is too high 
and should be changed to read — 12° to — 20° as in the main distil- 
late, which makes up over 90 per cent, of the distillate, none of the 
products run anywhere near the limits of the U.S. P., although they 
are fully up to and most of them above the standard in santalol and 
in specific gravity, and two of them are all right in solubility. This 
almost proves, in our opinion, the fallacy of the optical rotation 

(2) That the solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol is not a safe crite- 
rion, since an oil that contains 95 per cent, of santalol (see lot V 
Main Distillate) still falls below the allowed standard, with a solu- 
bility of 1 to 6 instead of I to 5 volumes, and an oil (see lot IV 
Main Distillate) that runs as high as 97-7 per cent, santalol is 
insoluble in 5 volumes of 70 per cent, alcohol. 

(3) That although all the acid numbers are low and show freedom 
from admixture of any adulteration, they serve no value as an indi- 
cation of the quality of the oil ; their purpose being, hence, only 

These results were obtained by distilling the sandalwood logs in 
at least 1,000 pounds lots in each case, and in most cases in much 
larger lots, so that the end product was a representative average 
product in each case. Although in all we tried about thirty varie- 
ties of wood from the most expensive to sandalwood sawdust, only 
about half of the oils obtained possessed an optical rotation high 
enough to pass U.S.P. requirements. Fully 90 per cent., however, 
passed muster as to specific gravity within the limits 965 to 0-980, 
as to solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol at 30 C. and percentage of 

We also examined two samples of domestic santal oil from repu- 
table firms bought on the open market and found that they both 
answered U.S.P. requirements, save the optical rotation, which in 
both cases was only — 13°. Similarly W. J. Bush & Co. 1 found that 
of oils obtained from sixteen different parcels of genuine East 
Indian sandalwood only five gave a specific rotation higher than 
— i6°,and they further state that this result confirms their previous 
experiences. Add to this the experience of Messrs. Evans Sons, 

1 Loc. cit. 

A FebrXy!f9 a o r 8 ra "} Comparative Composition of Milks. 55 

Loescher & Webb, 1 that their oils have rotatory powers as low as 
— 14-36° on the average, and we have, in our opinion, ample evi- 
dence to justify the lowering of the optical rotation of santal oil 
to — 12° to — -20°, and above all the passing of optical rotation 
as of crucial value in determining the value of santal oils. Let us 
take lots III First Distillate with specific gravity 0-951 insoluble in 
70 per cent, alcohol, containing only 70 per cent, santalol, and hence 
to be rejected, as first distillates usually are, and yet this has an 
optical rotation of — 18-1° higher than any other oil in above table, 
and should on this rotation be acceptable. Dozens of similar cases 
could be given to show the same thing, viz., an acceptable optical 
rotation for an inferior oil. Again, West Indian sandalwood oils or 
cedar-wood oil would be detected because they decrease the solu- 
bility in 70 per cent, alcohol or materially reduce the percentage of 
santalol in the oil. It might still be possible to make a sophisticated 
oil pass muster as to santalol percentage, provided the oil originally 
contained 98 per cent, santalol and were diluted with cedar-wood 
oil to reduce it to 90 per cent., but this could be detected by the 
solubility in 70 per cent, alcohol at 30° C, as it would not be 
soluble. In fine, in our opinion, the requirements calling for a con- 
tent of 90 per cent, sanatol and a solubility of 5 volumes of 70 per 
cent, alcohol, at 30° C, and a specific gravity of 0-965 to 0*980 at 
25 C, are ample to insure efficient santal oil to the buyer, and we 
would even dispense with the specific gravity and feel perfectly safe. 
We see no objection, further, to determining the acid number, as 
that will tell us at once if any fixed oil or rosin has been added as 
an adulterant. 

By Joseph w. England. 1 

On examining the chemical analyses of milk published, one is 
impressed with the enormous amount of work that has been done, 
and the apparent discrepancies in the results. These latter are due, 
partially, to technical difficulties in chemical analysis, but largely, 
to the fact that milk is an organized tissue, so to speak, as much so 
as blood, and that it varies in composition, not only during the act 
of nursing, but also, during the entire period of lactation. 

1 From the Research Laboratory of Smith, Kline & French Co. 

56 Comparative Composition of Milks. { A FebrXyfi908 m ' 

Hence, it has come to pass that widely varying results have been 
obtained by different workers. The chemical work was, in many 
instances, undoubtedly accurate, but the samples examined were 
not representative, and the deductions drawn not justified by the 
facts. Chemical data alone are not sufficient to properly interpret 
analytical findings, in the study of milk as a food ; they must be 
accompanied by the consideration of physiological principles, also. 

It has been with this thought in mind — -the physiological chem- 
ical point of view, so to speak — that the writer has prepared the 
following chemical data, and endeavored to interpret their physio- 
logical significance. 


First part of nurs- 
ing act 

Intermediate part of 
nursing act 

Last part of nurs- 
ing act 




















Colostrum, the milk given by mammals for three or four days 
after the birth of their young, differs radically in composition from 
normal milk. It is a yellow, oily liquid of pungent taste, containing 
a very high percentage of an albumin similar to blood albumin, 
abundant fat globules, and numerous large circular cells called colos- 
trum corpuscles. 

According to Chapin, colostrum contains the same food elements 
as milk, but in different forms ; its proteids are soluble, and its sugar 
dextrose, and not sugar of milk. Its function is to furnish readily- 
absorbable nutriment (since the stomach of the infant contains no 
gastric juice during the colostrum period) and to stimulate the 
development of the absorptive powers of the digestive tract. 

The laxative action of colostrum in removing the meconium may 
be due, as Rotch claims, to a disturbance of the equilibrium of the 
mammary glands, and of the digestive tract of the infant, the dis- 
turbances in the latter amounting, at times, to acute conditions of 
fermentation in the intestinal tract, with laxation (a result facilitated 
by the presence of the readily fermentable sugar dextrose) ; but, it 
is much more probably due to the high percentage of fat in the 
fecal residue. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 
February, 1908. 

Comparative Composition of Milks. 


Human (Pfeiffer) 
Average of 5 analyses; 
first three days 

Cow (Engling) 
Average of 5 analyses; 
first three days 






Casein 3.60 
Albumin 7.09 

Ash 1.10 



As shown above, the composition of human milk varies according 
to the time when it is drawn. The first portion suckled is rich in 
proteids and poor in fat. There is a physiological significance in 
this, the intent of nature obviously being that proteid-digestion 
shall precede fat-digestion, just as in adult digestion. " Gastric 



Koenig, 200 samp's 

Leeds, (84 samples) 


H. Gerber 






J. Bell 

J. Bell. 

Chevalier & Henry.. 


Babcock, Russell 
and Vivian 

Camerer and Soldner 







14 samples, same 

6 samples, average 

12 days after delivery 
9 days after delivery 
4 days after delivery 

Woman age 18 years 

Woman age 33 years 






6 samples, different 















A-Albumin; C-Casein 














Sugar | Ash 










6.94 0.20 


6.26 0.27 
6.20 ; 0.25 


Comparative Composition of Milks. 

Am. Jour. Pliarm, 
February, 1908. 

juice does not act on fat, but, on the contrary, on fatty tissue, dis- 
solving the cell membrane, and setting the fat free." (Hammar- 
sten's Ph'y Chemistry, 1896, 166.) The percentage of sugar re- 
mains practically stationary, the sugar evidently not being an inter- 
fering factor in the digestion of proteids or fat. 

To determine accurately the composition of human milk, a sample 
of the entire quantity from both breasts should be analyzed, which 
is rarely done ; hence, to a degree, the widely varying results 
published ot analyses of human milk. 


(Fats as Fatty Acid Glycerides, Olein, Palmitin, Stearin, etc.) 

Fat of Human Milk (Stern) 

f Acid Butyric, 
" Caproic, 

" Caprylic, 

" Capric, 

Acid Laurie, 

"' Myristic, 

" Palmitic, 

" Stearic, 

C 4 H 8 2 1 
C 6 H 12 2 I 
C 8 H 16 2 , 
C 10 H 20 O 2 j 

\ 1-4 

C 14 H 28 2 I 
C 16 H 32 2 \& 
Ci8H 36 2 

Dioxystearic, C 18 H 36 4 


C 18 H 34 2 49.4 

Fat of Cows' Milk (Brown; 



9.89 J 
38.61 ^53.90 
1.83 J 
1.00 J 


Fat of Human Milk. — Very small amount of volatile fatty acids ; 
oleic acid forms, practically, one-half of the non- volatile acids ; of 
the solid fats, myristic and palmitic acids occur in larger amounts 
than stearic acid. 

Fat of Cow's Milk. — Volatile fatty acids, about six times that of 
human milk ; oleic acid constitutes nearly one-third of the non- 
volatile acids ; of the solid fats, palmitic and stearic acids predom- 

The rancidity " of milk-fat (butter) is due to the oxidation of 
the glycerides of the volatile fatty acids. 

The fat of human milk is always incompletely absorbed by the 
infant economy, the fat content of dry feces ranging between 10 and 
20 per cent. The younger the infant the larger the amount of un- 
absorbed fat. " During the first week of life the dried feces contain 
(Die Faeces. Schmidt and Strasberger, 1903 ; by Blauberg) 40 per 

A Febr°aYr'vT?9^ m '} Camparative Composition of Milks. 59 

cent, of fat when mother's milk, and fully 50 per cent, when cow's 
milk has been ingested (the moist feces contain, of course, less fat — 
J. W. E.). The function of the fecal fat is probably to protect the 
mucous surfaces of the intestinal tract, and to facilitate the expul- 
sion of the feces." (" The Fat Question in its Relation to the Pro- 
duction and Cure of Infantile Marasmus," by Heinrich Stern, Arch, 
of Ped., 1905, 431.) 


Sodium Chloride, NaCl 

Potassium Chloride, KC1 

Mono-potassium Phosphate, KH 2 ?0 4 

Di-potassium Phosphate, K 2 HP0 4 

Potassium Citrate, K 3 C e H 5 7 

Di-magnesium Phosphate, MgHP0 4 . 
Magnesium Citrate, Mg 3 (C 6 H 5 : ) 2 .. 

Di-calcium Phosphate, CaHP0 4 

Tri-calcium Phosphate, Ca 3 (P0 4 ) 2 —- 

Calcium Citrate, Ca 3 (C tt H 5 7 ) a 

Lime combined with proteids 

Calcium Silicate, CaSi0 3 

Calcium Sulphate, CaS0 4 

Calcium Carbonate, CaC0 3 

Magnesium Carbonate, MgC0 3 

Potassium Carbonate, K 2 C0 3 

Potassium Sulphate, K 2 S0 4 

Iron Oxide and Alumina 

Human Milk 

Cow's Milk 

Harrington and Kinnicutt, 

Soidner, quoted 

quoted by Rotch 

by Leach 










Calcium Phosphate 














100. CO 

Rotch gives an analysis of the ash of human milk (six quart 
sample) by Harrington and Kinnicutt, and a statement expressing 
an approximation to the relative proportions of salts in the form in 
which they occur in milk (as stated above), but it is very obvious 
that the conclusions from the analysis are practically valueless, 
because no account whatever was taken of the organic matter 
present in the salts of the milk. 

As Soidner has shown, nearly one-third of the salts of cow's milk 
are alkali-citrates and alkali-earth citrates, and, as LefTmann states 
" Citric acid (as citrates) is a normal constituent of the milk of various 
animals. In human milk the quantity is about 0-5 gramme to the 
liter; in cow's milk, from 1 to 1-5 grammes. It is not dependent 
upon the citric acid present in the food." 

60 Comparative Composition of Milks. {^ebruaryffg™' 

Harrington and Kinnicutt themselves obtained, as they report, 
7 97 per cent, of carbonic acid gas after incinerating the salts of 
human milk, and yet no statement is made of the presence of any 
organic acid salts. 

With reference to the Soldner analysis, it should be noted that 
while the citrates embrace one-third of the salts, the chlorides 
approximate nearly one-fifth, and the phosphates nearly one-half. 
The ash of the milk does not represent the salts of milk in the form 
in which they occur in milk ; it represents only the incinerated salts, 
the incineration destroying all organic matter and altering the 
chemical form of the salt. 

PERIOD OF LACTATION. (Farrington, quoted by Chapin) 

Number of 




Minimum, 1.50 
Maximum, 6.60 
Minimum, 2.50 
Maximum, 7.90 
Minimum, 2.90 
Maximum, 12. 30 

Minimum, 2.64 
Maximum, 4.11 
Minimum, 2.92 
Maximum, 3.89 
Minimum, 2.98 
Maximum, 5.30 

Cow's milk, like human milk, varies in composition during the 
act of suckling or milking. Thus, as Leach reports, the " fore-milk" 
of cows contains from 1-07 to 1-32 per cent, of fat, and the "strip- 
pings " from 9 63 to 10-36 per cent, of fat, while the non-fatty solids 
range in the 44 fore-milk" from IO-20 to 10-51 per cent., and in the 
" strippings " from 9-27 to 9-55 per cent. 

It should be observed also, as Farrington shows, that cow's milk 
varies in composition during the period of lactation, and the milk 
of a mixed herd is, therefore, much more uniform than the milk of 
a single cow, because the milk of cows for calves of different ages is 
mixed, and the minimum and maximum percentages, due to the 
individual factor, are equalized. And so, when large numbers of 
analyses are added together and averaged, the individual differences, 
which are sometimes extreme, become equalized in the general 



Koenig, (800 samples).. | Minimum 

Babcock Average 

Hutchison i Average 

Y. Experiment Sta- 
tion, (Chapin) 


N. J. Agricultural Sta- 
tion, (Bulletin 77, 

American Experimental 
Station Record ( v. 
No. 10, p. 945)... 

(238 samples) 

(112 samples) 

(72 samples) 

(252 samples) 

(124 samples) 
(132 samples) 


Average Herd 

























6.40 { 























































(VIETH & RICHMOND) . (Allen's Organic Chemistry 4, 122) 


1883.. . 

Number of : Specific Gravity 
Samples at 15° C. 



Not Fat 








P. Vieth 

H. D. Richmond 

Average 172,093 


12.86 4.02 


62 Comparative Composition of Milks. { A Febiuary P i908 m * 

While there is a marked difference in the fat-percentage of the 
milks of different breeds of cows, and in individuals of the same 
breed, there is a fairly uniform difference in the averages of several 
individuals. " It is largely owing to this influence that we find the 
milk of one country differing from that of another, or the milk of 
one section of the country differing from that of another section. 
For example, the average amount of fat in milk in Germany and 
Holland is fully one-half per cent, lower than in this country, be- 
cause the prevailing breeds there are those producing milk compar- 
atively low in fat." (Modern Methods of Testing Milk and Milk 
Products, L. L. VanSlyke, 1907, 6.) 

(At Intermediate Period of Lactation) 

Human Milk 

Glycerides of the non-volatile 
fatty acids 

Olein 2.00 
Palmitin ] 

Dioxystearin j-2.00 
. Myristin 

Glycerides of the volatile fatty \ ^1^.^ 

acids j Caprylin 
[ Caprin 

\ trace 


j Globulin 
j Galactin 
I Fibrin 


Milk Sugar 

Citric Acid (as Citrates) 




(0.05) trace 

Total Solids 12.50 

Water 87,50 


Cows' Milk 






r 3.50 


(0.125) trace 



American pediatrists generally accept the following standard of 
percentages for human milk: Fat, 3 to 5 per cent. ; proteids, I to 2 
per cent., and sugar, 6 to 7 per cent., the average being, fat, 4 per 
cent.; proteids, 1-5 per cent., and sugar, 7 per cent. The data, sub- 
mitted, however, would seem to indicate that, generally, at the inter- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
February, 1908. J 

Comparative Composition of Milks. 


mediate period of lactation, at least, the fat is nearer 4 per cent, than 
3, the proteids nearer 2 per cent, than 1, and the sugar between 6 
per cent, and 7, or a ratio of 4, 175 and 6-50. 

As to the standard of percentages for cow's milk, American pedia- 
trists generally accept the following : Fat, 4 per cent. ; proteids, 

3 5 per cent., and sugar, 4-5 per cent., though for the purpose of 
ready calculation, it is often assumed that cow's milk contains fat, 

4 per cent. ; proteids, 4 per cent., and sugar, 4 per cent. 

(From Koenig's Chemie der mens. Nahr. u. Genuss.; by Leach) 

Goat's Milk, 200 samples. 

Ewe's Milk, 32 samples... 

Mare's Milk, 47 



Ass's Milk, 5 samples Mean 




f A.O 

lC 2 

35 I 

r 1 

lC 3 


A. 2.01 

C. 3.94 







( A. 0.83 

1 C. 3.59 
r A. 1.77 

1 C. 5.69 
f A. 1.55 

C. 4.97 
A. 0.75 

C. 1.24 
A. 1.55 



( C. 






A word or two should be said with reference to the subject of the 
proteids of milks. These are almost wholly casein and albumin. 
The milks of those animals whose digestion is principally gastric, 
contain, in their total proteids, a much larger proportion of casein 
to albumin, than do the milks of those animals whose digestion is 
principally intestinal. Thus, Koenig's analyses show that in the 
mean, of the minimum and maximum percentages of cow's milk, 
the ratio of casein to albumin is about 6 to 1, in goat's milk 3 to 1, 
and in sheep's milk 3 to 1, while in mare's milk it is 1-5 to 1, and 

64 Comparative Composition of Milks. { A February^ 1908?' 

in ass's milk I to 2-3. Human milk is intermediate, being nearly 

1 to 1. It is important to note, also, that the maximum ratio of 
casein to albumin in cow's milk is about 7 to 1, and the minimum 
4-5 to I ; the maximum of goat's milk is 3 to I, and the minimum 

2 to I ; and the maximum of sheep's milk is 4 to i,and the mini- 
mum 3 to 1. 

These variations in the ratios of casein to albumin in the milks 
of different animals are not accidents of nature. They are in direct 
obedience to the law of supply and demand. They mean simply 
that the proportion of food-material that is digested with diffi- 
culty (casein) to the food-material that is digested with ease (al- 
bumin), is adjusted by nature to meet the needs of the individual 
animal for the proper development of the motor and chemical func- 
tions of its stomach and intestines. Naturally, with the larger ani- 
mals, more casein and less albumin is required, than with the 
smaller animals. So far as the food-value of the two proteids to the 
body is concerned, they are probably of equal value. Not only 
does the ratio vary with different animals, but in the same animals 
of the same age, in obedience to individual needs, though the latter 
variations are within much narrower limits than the former. A 
sixteen pound infant, for example, requires more casein than a twelve 
pound one, though both may be six months of age. Hence, it fol- 
lows that human milk is a food of constantly changing composition. 
At birth much albumin, and little casein is needed, and then as the 
child grows and develops, more and more casein is required, and 
less and less albumin. 

As to the chemical reactions of milks with gastric juice, the for- 
mation of curds, the kinds of curds, and the functions of curds, and 
the mechanical and chemical modifications of curds — these are 
questions of the deepest scientific interest to the pediatrist, but 
wholly outside the province of this paper. 

The composition of cream varies greatly according to the method 
used in obtaining it. It is obtained (1) by setting milk in shallow 
pans and removing the cream by hand-skimming, or (2) by placing 
it in deep vessels surrounded by cold water, the skimmed milk 
being drawn off from below (both of these are gravity creams), or 
(3) by means of the centrifugal separator. The United States stand- 
ard for cream (U. S. Dept. of Agri., Office of Sec, Cir. 10) is 13 per 
cent, milk fat. 

Am. Jour. Phartii. 
February, 1908. 

} Comparative Composition of Milks. 



Gravity Cream; Koenig, (46 samples) 
Centrifugal Cream, Heavy; Leach, 
(18 samples) 

Centrifugal Cream, Light; Leach, (18 

Centrifugal Cream (from Milk 4.00, 

3.50, 4.50) 

Centrifugal Cream, (8%) Holt. 

Centrifugal Cream, (12%) Holt. 

Centrifugal Cream, (16%) Holt. 

Centrifugal Cream, (20%) Holt. 

Centrifugal Cream, (40%) Holt. 

New York Creams, Holt...., 

Very Rich Centrifugal Cream, Holt- 
Ordinary Centrifugal Cream, Holt... 
Gravity Cream, Holt 













Sugar Ash 

4.23 I 0.53 


Skimmed milk is essentially whole milk with the larger part of 
its fat removed. By separation with shallow pans the fat content is 
from 054 to 1 -co per cent.; with deep pans, from 0-43 to 1-05 per 
cent., and with the modern centrifugal separators, from 010 to o 25 
per cent. (Vieth ; quoted by Allen.) 

quoted by 

(Fat of Whole 
Milk, 4.1%) 

(Fat of Whole 
Milk, 3.1%) 


La Wall 



1 «' 



2 " 




3 " 


4 " 




5 " 







7 " 



8 " 





9 " 



10 "• 



12 " 





14 " 



16 " 





18 " 


20 " 


22 " 


24 ' • 


26 " 


30 " 


32 " 




66 Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. { A FebmaV y Ti9 a o8 m ' 

Top milks are the upper portions of a quart bottle of cow's milk 
that has stood in a cool place until a creamy layer has formed. 
They are obtained with the use of the tin or aluminum dipper de- 
vised by Chapin. The dipper, which holds I fluidounce, is gently 
immersed in the liquid, filled, removed, and the contents emptied 
into another vessel and mixed. The first two dippings, mixed, con- 
stitutes 2-ounce top milk ; or the first four dippings, 4-ounce top milk, 
or the first eight dippings 8-ounce top milk, etc. Little or no dis- 
turbance of the different layers of the liquid results from the act of 
dipping. The creamy layer usually constitutes about 5 or 6 fluid- 
ounces, varying according to the original fat percentage of the milk, 
and the length of time standing. It includes, practically, all the fat 
of the milk. Eight-ounce top milk, or over, contains not only 
the cream, but some nearly fat-free milk, also. 

The top-milk system of infant feeding is rapidly coming into 
medical favor. By diluting top milks with water, or with water and 
whole milk, it is possible to obtain mixtures for infant feeding that 
contain a higher percentage of fat with a normal percentage of 
proteid, than is possible to obtain with any dilutions of cow's milk. 

The top milks are much superior to creams, not only because the 
fat percentages are more uniform, but also, what is equally or more 
important, the dilutions (especially those made with whole milk and 
water) do not readily separate on standing into strata of differing 
fat-percentages. Infants fed with stratified mixtures are fed an 
excessive amount of fat in the first portions of the food, which is 
just the reverse of what obtains in the feeding of human milk. 
Stratification is especially liable to occur with the centrifuge creams, 
as these, during the process of centrifuging, are partially disorganized, 
and hence, mixed with water, readily stratify. 



By W. A. Puckner. 
While chemistry ranks as a science, analytical chemistry is often 
spoken of as the " art of analysis " And this with some jus- 
tice, for the attention to details which a successful analysis makes 

1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 7, 1908. 

A Febrnary^8 m '} Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. 67 

necessary requires the deft touch, the accurate eye, and the patient 
mind of an artist. Especially does the elaboration of new and 
more exact methods of estimating the alkaloid content of vegetable 
drugs and pharmaceutical preparations require much attention to 
detail. So much experimentation of an apparently empirical char- 
acter must be done that the scientific nature of such investigations 
is not always evident. To emphasize that analytical chemistry 
employs the same fundamental conceptions and facts that are used 
in other branches of chemical research some recent progress in the 
estimation of alkaloids may be of interest. The writer therefore 
begs to present, divested of all analytical detail, some of the 
advances made in recent years in this important field of research. 

Alkaloidal Precipitants. — Some fifteen or twenty years ago, espe- 
cially in the United States, the standard method of estimating alka- 
loids in drugs and pharmaceutical preparations was based on their 
precipitation with a standard solution of potassium mercuric iodide, 
commonly known as Mayer's solution. The precipitates which 
alkaloids formed with this reagent were supposed to be definite 
compounds of alkaloid iodide with mercuric iodide containing for 
every molecule of mercuric iodide one, two or three molecules of 
alkaloid iodide. Attempts were made to determine for each alka- 
loid the composition of the precipitate obtained and to calculate 
from the volume of Mayer's solution used in each case the amount 
of alkaloid present. That the composition of these alkaloidal pre- 
cipitates was variable and that the amount of alkaloid could not 
directly be calculated from the volume of Mayer's solution used 
was soon demonstrated, especially by A. B. Lyons and A. B. Pres- 
cott. To-day this method of estimating alkaloids is almost forgot- 
ten. Only occasionally is reference made to it — as was recently 
done when Lyons, at a meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, stated that, in his opinion, it should still be given 
preference in the valuation of ipecac. 

Ten to fifteen years ago the estimation of alkaloids by means of 
iodine solution (Wagner's reagent) was proposed by Kippenberger 
in Germany and by Prescott, Gordin and Gomberg in this country. 
But, again, while at first the periodides were supposed to be definite 
in composition it was soon found that the composition of these pre- 
cipitates, consisting of alkaloid iodide plus iodine, and corresponding 
to the composition of the potassium compound contained in Lugoll's 

68 Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. {February a™* 

solution — that is potassium iodide plus iodine — was in most cases 
variable and depended upon conditions of concentration, etc. 
To-day this method of estimating alkaloids by the amount of iodine 
consumed in their precipitation is rarely mentioned. 

The fact that these general alkaloidal precipitants, while valuable 
in the detection and the isolation of alkaloids, are no longer used 
for their quantitative determination, makes of especial interest the 
recent publications in regard to a new precipitant which is claimed 
to form very insoluble compounds of definite composition with 
nearly all alkaloids. The reagent has been called picrolonic acid 
from the fact that its behavior with alkaloids closely corresponds to 
that of trinitrophenol or picric acid. It was first investigated by 
Knorr, the discoverer of antipyrin. The following structural 
formulas indicate its relationship to antipyrin and pyramidon: 

C 6 H 4 (N0 2 ) b) (C 6 H 5 ) c) (C 6 H 5 ) 

/ / / 

N N N 

0=C 5 2N 0=C 5 2N-(CH 3 ) 0-C 5 2N-(CH 8 ) 

QX | ||=C 10 H 8 O 5 N 4 I I - II 

H ^N=C- 3 C-(CH 3 ) H-C 4 -- 3 C-(CH 3 ) (CH,)2N-C 4 -= 3 C-(CH 8 ) 

(a) Picrolonic acid or i-paranitrophenyl-3-methyl-5 keto-i, 2- 
diazol-4-nitric acid ; 

or i-paranitrophenyl-3-methyl-pyrazolon-nitric acid. 

(b) Antipyrin or i-phenyl, 2, 3-dimethyl, 5-keto, I, 2-diazol or 
i-phenyl, 2, 3-dimethyl-pyrazolon. 

(c) Pyramidon or i-phenyl, 2, 3-dimethyl, 4-dimethylamino-5- 
keto,-i, 2 diazol ; 

or i-phenyl, 2, 3-dimethyl, 4-dimethylamino-pyrazolon. 

The substance may be looked upon as a nitrate in which one 
oxygen atom of nitric acid has been replaced by the organic radicle. 
If this is done its behavior with alkaloids is evident. 

Just as ammonia combines with nitric acid to form ammonium 
nitrate, or, in accordance with present theories of chemistry, just 
as ammonia combines with water to form ammonium hydroxide 
and ammonium hydroxide reacts with hydrogen nitrate to form 
ammonium nitrate and water, thus : 

NH 3 -f- HNO3 = NH 3 . HN0 3 ; 
or NH S + H 2 = NH 4 OH 

NH 4 OH + HNO3 = NH 4 N0 3 + H 2 0. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 

•} Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. 

6 9 

And just as morphine combines with nitric acid to form mor 
phine nitrate, or, more correctly, as the free base morphia reacts 
with water to form morphium hydroxide, and as morphium hydrox- 
ide reacts with hydrogen nitrate to form morphium nitrate and 
water, thus : 

So, in the same way, morphine combines with picrolonic acid to 
form morphine picrolonate, or, more correctly, morphia combines 
with water to form morphium hydroxide, and this morphium hydrox- 
ide then reacts with hydrogen picrolonate to form morphium picro- 
lonate and water, thus : 

C 17 H 19 3 N + HN(C 10 H 7 O 8 N 8 )O 2 = C 17 H 19 3 N . HN(C 10 H 7 O 5 N 3 )O 2 

A considerable number of investigations of the composition of 
the precipitants which alkaloids form when treated with this reagent 
have been made. Especially have H. Mathes and O. Rammstedt at 
the University of Jena studied the value of this reagent for the valu- 
ation of vegetable drugs. Beyond the claim that the composition 
of these precipitates is constant and exceedingly insoluble, the 
reagent is claimed to be of special value because of the high melt- 
ing point of the precipitate, which melting point therefore may be 
taken as a proof of the identity and the purity of the alkaloidal 

Another reagent, the adaptability of which has been studied in 
recent years, is a solution of potassium bismuth iodide. Just as 
potassium iodide forms a double compound with bismuth iodide so 
alkaloids react to form the alkaloid bismuth iodides. And just as 
the compounds which potassium iodide forms with bismuth iodide 
are of a variable composition so the alkaloid bismuth-iodides are 
variable and this reagent has been used only as a means of separat- 

C 17 H 19 3 N + HNO. = C 17 H 19 3 N.HN0 3 
morphine ; 

or C 17 H 19 3 N + H 2 = C 17 H 20 O 3 N . OH 

C 17 H 30 O 3 N . OH + HN0' 3 = C; 7 H^O s N.N0 3 -f H 2 


picrolonic acid ; 

or C 17 H 19 3 N + H 2 = C 17 H 20 O 3 N . OH 
C ]7 H 20 O 3 N . OH + HN(C 10 H 7 O 5 N 3 )O 2 = 
C 17 H 20 O 3 N . N. (C 10 H 7 O. 5 N 3 )O 2 + H 2 0. 

jo Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. { A £eb™£y,m8 m ' 

ing alkaloids from other bodies and not as a means of directly 
estimating them. 

As reagents which have been used for the precipitation of certain 
alkaloids the following may be mentioned : It has been proposed 
to precipitate quinine by means of ammonium sulphocyanide in 
presence of a zinc salt and the precipitate under definite conditions 
is claimed to have a constant composition— viz., 4 molecules of 
quinine, -f- 3 molecules zinc sulphocyanide, -f- 2 molecules ammo- 
nium sulphocyanide, -f- 4 molecules hydrogen sulphocyanide. 
While quinine oxalate is insoluble in ether, the remaining oxalates 
of the cinchona alkaloids are soluble in ether. It is therefore pro- 
posed to obtain an etheral solution of the cinchona alkaloids and to 
determine by titration with the standard etheral solution of oxalic 
acid the amount of total alkaloids contained in the drug and to 
collect and weigh the insoluble quinine oxalate. 

The Solubility of Alkaloids in Immiscible Solvents and the Hydrol- 
ysis of Alkaloid Salts. — At the present time nearly all estimations 
of alkaloids in vegetable drugs and their preparations are based 
upon two properties of alkaloids — viz., free alkaloids are generally 
insoluble in water but soluble in chloroform, ether and similar sol- 
vents, while the alkaloid salts are soluble in water but insoluble in 
ether, chloroform, etc. To this general ruling a few exceptions have 
been generally recognized. Thus, it is well known that caffeine and 
colchicine can be extracted from acid solutions by means of chloro- 
form. It is generally said that these alkaloids are too weak to form 
salts, although a more correct explanation would be to say that, 
wfrile these alkaloids do form well defined salts, these compounds 
are decomposed by water (hydrolyzed) to such an extent that the 
free alkaloid may be extracted from acid solution by means of ether 
or chloroform. Just as we have inorganic salts that are very 
largely, very slightly or practically not at all decomposed by water 
(hydrolyzed), so with alkaloids, all gradations of hydrolysis are 
known. This has been studied quite extensively within recent 
years, especially by C. Kippenberger and Professor Edward Schaer, 
of the University of Strasburg, and his students. These experi- 
ments have shown that in the presence of a considerable excess of 
the strong acids the hydrolysis of most alkaloid salts is slight so 
that no alkaloid is extracted when such a solution is shaken with 
chloroform or ether. When weak acids are used, such as phosphoric 

A FebrXv!?9 a o r 8 m -} Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. 71 

and tartaric, or when only sufficient strong acid is present to just 
neutralize the alkaloid, extraction with chloroform will remove an 
appreciable amount of alkaloid from its aqueous solutions. 

It has also been shown that many alkaloidal salts, as such, are 
soluble in chloroform, especially the salts of hydrochloric and 
hydrobromic acid. The alkaloid sulphates were not found to be 
appreciably soluble in chloroform or ether. 

The practical lesson to be drawn irom this is that, in the estima- 
tion of alkaloids, sulphuric acid should be given preference when- 
ever possible. This is especially true when in forensic estimations 
small amounts of alkaloids are to be detected. Where tartaric or 
phosphoric acid is now generally used, sulphuric acid should be 
given the preference. 

Interference of Ammonia, Volatile Bases and Fats in the Estima- 
tion of Alkaloids. — It was first pointed out, especially by Professor 
Thorns, that drugs — particularly leaf drugs — contain volatile bodies 
of alkaline reaction. These in some cases are ammonium salts ; in 
other cases they are volatile amines. To this factor are due the 
variable results formerly reported for the mydriatic drugs, especially 
henbane, and which are still obtained with methods such as those of 
the German pharmacopoeia, in which the volatile bases, or ammo- 
nium hydroxide, whichever is present in the drug, is carried over 
into the ether used to extract the drug. Although it is directed 
that a portion of this ether be distilled off before the remaining 
etheral fluid is titrated for its alkaloid content, yet these methods 
often give high results because the volatile bases are not completely 
eliminated. In some cases even, where a complete evaporation of 
the ether is directed, high results are obtained unless special pre- 
cautions are taken to insure the complete evaporation of the vola- 
tile basic bodies. Several attempts have been made to eliminate 
errors of this kind. Thorns precipitates with potassium bismuth 
iodide, which reagent precipitates the vegetable bodies commonly 
classed as alkaloids and eliminates the volatile organic bases, 
ammonium salts and free ammonia. Another way of eliminating 
this error, at least in so far as it is due to the presence or formation 
of ammonium hydroxide, has recently been proposed by H. M. 
Webster. Webster finds that while alkaloid-hydrogen tartrates are 
quite insoluble in alcohol, just as are ammonium-hydrogen tartrate 
and potassium-hydrogen tartrate, the alkaloid-hydrogen tartrates 

72 Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. { A Feb J ru U ary P ?9 a o8 m ' 

differ in that they dissolve when more tartaric acid is added. Upon 
this fact is based the elimination of ammonium compounds in the 
estimation of alkaloids. Finally, Fromme has claimed that fats and 
waxes may interfere in the estimation of alkaloids ; thus, when a 
drug is treated with ammonia water and ether, the fat contained in 
the drug is converted to soap by the alkali used and passes into 
the etheral solution. If in this etheral solution the alkaloid is esti- 
mated with standard acid a part of the acid will be used to decom- 
pose the soap, but will be calculated as having been used to 
neutralize alkaloid. 

Decomposition of Chloroform by Alkaloids. — Recently A. Panchaud 
reported that cinchona alkaloids readily decompose chloroform with 
formation of hydrogen chloride. He reported that in the assay of 
cinchona the extracted cinchona alkaloids were dissolved in chloro- 
form one evening, and when these were titrated, the following 
morning, from 20 to 100 per cent, of the alkaloid was found to have 
been neutralized by the hydrogen chloride produced in the decom- 
position of the chloroform. Since the decomposition of *0229 
gramme chlorolorm will yield an amount of hydrochloric acid suffi- 
cient to neutralize -120 gramme alkaloid, the possible error is 
obvious. A. Simmer, working at the University of Strasburg 
under Professor Schaer, has studied this question in detail and has 
not confirmed Panchaud's results. While he found that a number 
of alkaloids do decompose chloroform with formation of chloride 
the amount of chloroform so decomposed is slight, even when the 
alkaloids are in contact with the chloroform for a prolonged time 
and when the chloroform is heated to boiling. The danger of error 
in the estimation of alkaloids due to the decomposition of chloro- 
form therefore does not appear to be very great, but the report of 
Panchaud nevertheless remains that chloroform is a body easily de- 
composed, especially by alkaline substances. 

Morphine a Phenol. — In the present United States Pharmacopoeia 
the purity of morphine, obtained in the assay of opium and its 
preparations, is judged by its solubility in lime water. This test is 
based on the phenolic character of morphine. That is, the morphine 
molecule contains two hydroxyl groups, one of which is of the 
same character as the hydroxyl group in phenol (carbolic acid), 
thus : 

A Febniar y rf9 a o r 8 m *} Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. 73 

C C CH 2 CH. 

> \ // N; '/ \ / 

HC CH C C CH — N— CH, 

I II I II. ! \ 



C C CH— O 

H I I 


/ \/ 
phenol. morphine. 

This " phenolic hydroxyl " gives to morphine the many proper- 
ties of a phenol, such as the coloration produced by ferric salts, its 
reducing effects on iron and on iodates, which reactions permit the 
ready distinction of morphine from codeine, dionin (ethyl morphine) 
and heroin (diacetyl morphine hydrochloride), in which the phenol 
group has been replaced and which therefore no longer give the 
reactions of a phenol. When morphine dissolves in lime water, it 
again shows phenolic character. That is, phenols in general are 
dissolved by strong bases with formation of phenolates. It may not 
be out of place to recall that upon this phenolic character also de- 
pends one of the difficulties in the valuation of opium ; that is, while 
morphine is precipitated from its solution as the insoluble morphine 
by means of ammonium hydroxide, a large excess of this base must 
be carefully avoided since by it morphine is re-dissolved to a con- 
siderable extent with formation of ammonium morphinate. 

Separation of Strychnine from Brucine. — In 1889 Gerock first 
proposed a method of separating strychnine from brucine based on 
the ease with which brucine is oxidized by nitric acid and the rela- 
tive resistance of strychnine to such oxidation. Since then many 
modifications of this method have been proposed. A modification 
proposed by Gordin has been made official in the United States 
Pharmacopoeia. Largely because of this, the process of estimating 
strychnine has lately again been studied by chemists. 

At a recent meeting of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
where the assay methods of the new Pharmacopoeia were discussed, 
J. M. Francis remarked that, in his opinion, the now official process 
of determining strychnine had been dried out and condemned years 
ago. This remark was, at that time, not without justification. All 

74 Chemistry of Alkaloid Estimations. {^w^ms™* 

those who have tried the official process of estimating strychnine no 
doubt experienced that at times the method "works," while at other 
times it is plainly seen that the oxidation of brucine does not pro- 
ceed as it should. It is well known that the oxidizing effect of nitric 
acid depends largely on conditions of concentration and tempera- 
ture under which it acts ; thus, Gordin has pointed out that the 
often incorrect results obtained with the official process are due to 
the fact that the method adopted directs the use of a nitric acid 
having a lower concentration than that which he proposed. Farr 
and Wright,, in England, have studied the method and propose to 
increase the oxidizing effect of nitric acid by allowing the reaction 
to go on at a somewhat elevated temperature. In the United States, 
H. M. Webster and R. C. Pursel have studied the method in detail. 
They apparently have solved the difficulties experienced with this 
method by adding to the nitric acid a small quantity of sodium 
nitrite whereby the oxidation of brucine is insured. 

The Assay of- Coca. — It is well known that cocaine is the methyl- 
benzoyl-ester of ecgonine and that it is very readily decomposed 
with formation of the mother substance, ecgonine. While, formerly, 
in the manufacture of cocaine great care was taken to avoid the 
decomposition of this alkaloid, at the present time coca leaves are 
treated in such a way that the alkaloids are decomposed so that 
ecgonine is obtained. This body, after its isolation, is then treated 
so as to reintroduce the methyl and the benzoyl group so as to 
again yield cocaine. When coca leaves are used for the manufac- 
ture of cocaine their commercial value depends on the amount of 
ecgonine which may be obtained from them, and accordingly 
methods have been proposed lor the assay of coca leaves based on 
their ecgonine content. A method recently proposed extracts the 
total alkaloids from coca leaves and then converts them to ecgonine 
chloride by boiling with very dilute hydrochloric acid. After re- 
moval of bodies other than ecgonine chloride, the liquid obtained is 
evaporated to dryness and the ecgonine chloride is weighed. 

A Feb J ^aryTi«) r 8 m ' ) Pharmacopeia — View of A nalytical Worker. 7 5 


By W. A. Pearson. 

The Pharmacopoeia has been called the pharmacist's Bible. In it 
he finds directions for preparing, tests, and standards for his most 
important wares. 

Our national standard has been well compiled. Much praise and 
little condemnation belong rightfully to the Revision Committee. 
This publication represents the combined efforts of competent men. 
Being the result of human effort it cannot possibly be infallible, nor 
can it be ideal for the varied needs of the retail druggist, manufac- 
turing chemist, wholesaler and analyst. 

To the analyst certain requirements present themselves in the 
examination of pharmaceuticals by U.S. P. methods, that allow of 
some flexibility and might be made more definite by the use of 
methods I will outline later. To a few changes and additions that 
might prove advantageous, I will ask your attention. 

Acacia. — Four grades, A, B, C and D, are sold, depending largely 
on color and general appearance. Some more definite color stand- 
ard would be valuable. 

Acetic Acid. — Strength could be raised materially without loss to 

Hydrochloric Acid. — Standard strength could be raised to 35 per 

Salicylic Acid. — Special tests should be introduced for limit of 
ortho and meta creasotic acids which may be present in synthetic 

Aconite. — The criticism that the pharmacopceial assays of this 
drug and its preparations are unworkable, is false, yet there is plenty 
of room for improvement. It requires a great deal of time to filter 
and wash the concentrated extractive, and the evaporation at a tem- 
perature below 6o° C. is tedious. The physiological dilution test is 
of some value in quickly approximating the value of this drug. 
This test is based on the assumption that six milligrammes of prime 
aconite root, when mixed with 4 c.c. of water and held in the anterior 
portion of the mouth for one minute and then discharged, will give 

1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch • of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 7, 1908. 

J 6 Pkarmacopccia — View of Analytical Worker. { A FebrXy P i9 a os ra> 

a tingling sensation in fifteen minutes which will continue for about 
half an hour. Of course it is necessary to determine the individual 
sensitiveness of the operator, when comparative results may be 
approximated. A more satisfactory assay is needed and the solution 
of this problem may be found in the Pharmacological Laboratory. 

Aconitine is so variable that uniform results from its use can only 
be hoped for after physiologic assay. 

Aloin. — -The statement has been made that the tests are too 
stringent, and one manufacturer has marked his brand «' U.S.P. 
quality commercially unobtainable." 

Asafetida. — It has been found difficult to obtain this drug with 
less than 15 per cent. ash. The rejection of many cases by the 
Government chemists has materially decreased the ash content on 
recent consignments. 

Balsam Peru. — U.S.P. tests must be followed in detail as there 
are artificial products that conform to nearly every requirement. 
A limit should be inserted in regard to length of time the green 
color in the rosin test may remain without being called permanent. 

Belladonna, Hyoscyamus, Stramonium, Scopolia, and their prepa- 
rations are quite accurately and satisfactorily assayed by U.S.P. 
methods. In the assay of the liquid preparations it is quite diffi- 
cult to see the line between the liquid and the solvent. In perco- 
lating the crude drugs for assay, and in the case of extract of hyos- 
cyamus, more menstruum is advantageous. 

Chloroform. — Are tests given sufficient to detect harmful products 
in lots that are to be used for anaesthesia ? A small per cent, of 
ethyl chloride seems to be advantageous. 

Colchicnm and its Preparations. — Here we have a delicate alkaloid 
and a tedious assay method, which may be necessary, but I agree 
with Professor LaWall, who says that he wishes the man who origi- 
nated the method had to use it continually to make his living. 

Collodium. — A test for tensile strength might well be introduced. 

Copaiba. — A shorter test for turpentine and the addition of 
Turner's test would be advantageous. 

Convallaria and its Preparations. — Physiologic assay should be 

Cresol and its Compound Solution. — Color standards and germicidal 
tests should be adopted. 

Digitalis and its Preparations. — Physiologic assay should be intro- 

A Febi^Ty Pi ms m '} Pharmacopoeia — View of Analytical Worker. 77 

Etgot. — As this drug is often partly or completely inert, physio- 
logic assays should be introduced. 

Fluid Extracts. — The popular idea that 1 c.c. of a fluid extract 
represents 1 gramme of drug is fallacious in the case of assayed 
fluid extracts. Very rarely does this class conform to this standard, 
as they are adjusted to the alkaloidal assay strength, irrespective of 
the amount of drug. On a large scale, the formulae and propor- 
tions given in the Pharmacopoeia are not always ideal for larger 

Gelsemium. — This drug seems to vary in wide limits both in 
action and in alkaloidal strength. An assay should be introduced. 

Thyroid and Suprarenal Glands should both be tested physio- 

Malt. — An assay for starch converting power should be intro- 
duced, as many commercial grades are inert. 
Musk. — An odor limit test is advisable. 

Nux vomica. — This assay is long and tedious and perhaps not 
ideal, especially where the oxidation of brucine takes place. Even 
with great care and seemingly like conditions, one sample may turn 
red much faster, and this has led us to modify the method to the 
extent of adding 1 c.c. of a 5 per cent, solution of sodium nitrite 
immediately after adding the nitric acid. This insures complete 
destruction of brucine. 

Ethereal Oil. — The yield is so variable by U.S. P. method and the 
value so questionable, that it might be eliminated. 

Oils of Birch and Wintergreen. — More efficient tests for artificial 
methyl salicylate are imperative. Tests for ortho and meta creasotic 
acids which may be present in synthetic products, might aid in the 

Oil of Hedeoma. — It is said that pure oils have an optical rota- 
tion as high as -f 25 °. Certain it is that if the maximum of -j- 22 
were raised 3 , it would include many more samples that are now 
being offered. 

Oil of Linum.— -The solubility in absolute alcohol is given far too 
high. The freshness of the oil seems to render it more soluble, but 
from oil expressed and immediately tested, the solubility will not 
come in the limits. Many samples require over 25 parts for solution. 

Oil of Tar. — A specific gravity of -892 is exceedingly low, and 
the yield of this grade of oil is very meager. 

78 Pharmacopoeia — View of Analytical Worker. { ^ebru^mi ' 

Oil of Turpentine. — The test for petroleum benzin, kerosene, or 
similar hydrocarbons, may prove unreliable if allowed to stand over- 

Oil of Thyme. — French chemists say that potassium hydroxide 
should be used in the assay for phenols as sodium hydroxide will 
eliminate carvacrol. 

Opium. — It is impossible to adopt a method for this drug that 
will suit all analysts. Certain it is that the conditions have much to 
do with the results. My only suggestions are to work as nearly as 
possible at the same temperature, about 25 ° C, allow the freshly 
precipitated morphine to stand the same length of time, and use 
lime water that is U.S.P. strength. Comparative results will then 
be obtained. 

Pancreatin, — The assay is not ideal, as there is no sharp line 
between the dextrin reaction and the starch reaction. The five- 
minute digestion period must be accurately measured if compara- 
tive results are expected. Thirty seconds difference in time of 
digestion will show results widely divergent. It is wise to transfer 
the thick starch paste from the flask in which it was boiled to a clean 
one, straining through cheese cloth if lumps are present. Often lumps 
will adhere to the sides and not be converted, and later will give an 
elegant starch reaction. 

Pepsin. — It is difficult to press egg albumin through a No. 40 
sieve, a quick method is to squeeze it through strong cheese 
cloth while still warm, immediately weigh, add the dilute acid and 
shake vigorously, which will completely disintegrate the albumin. 
Comparative results are only obtained by closely following every 
detail in the digestion. 

Phenol. — Care must be exercised in obtaining the sample for 
analysis. A good way is to cut the crystals from a drum that has 
just been opened and immediately transfer to a perfectly dry bottle, 
melt and obtain congealing point. The assay of phenol is both 
rapid and very accurate. 

Resin of Scammony. — Perhaps this resin is not completely soluble 
in oil of turpentine as required, as a sample made directly from 
Scammony root by U.S.P. method, fails to completely dissolve. 

Sugar of Milk. — The test for absence of cane sugar is fallacious. 

Thymol Iodide. — An official method for assay is desirable as 
divergent results are obtained by different methods. 

A Febr O uMyTi9 a 08 m '} Pharmacopoeia — View of Analytical Worker. 79 

It is often a matter of judgment in deciding whether a certain 
sample is U.S.P. quality, because in limit tests depending on shades 
of color or degree of turbidity the requirements are quite flexible. 

The various shades of color could easily be compared with a 
standard chart such as accompanies certain text books on organic 
chemistry and a definite limit given. 

Similarily the degree of turbidity could be indicated by some 
such scheme as Dr, McFarland's Nephelometer {J. A. M. A., 
October 5, 1907). 

The subject of detecting inferior and adulterated volatile oils is a 
problem difficult of solution, but the detection might be aided by 
the introduction of an odor limit test. By this I mean a certain oil 
should still have a characteristic odor, unaltered when diluted to a 
certain volume. 

The dilution could easily be accomplished by adding 1 c.c. of 
the oil to 99 c.c. of alcohol, then 1 c.c. of this to 99 c.c. of dilute 
alcohol, then 1 c.c. of this to 99 c.c. of s water. 

These dilutions to be varied to suit the oil. 

The odor of the best grade of some oils is extremely tenacious, 
while that of their substitutes and those of inferior quality is much 
less persistent. 

The introduction of official methods for obtaining boiling, con- 
gealing, and melting points, and the determination of alcoholic 
strengths, would give much more uniformity to these determinations. 

Another step toward uniformity would be made if the alcoholic 
strength of tinctures and fluidextracts of the same drugs would be 
made the same, unless there are good reasons for variation. 

More liquid should be recommended in several alkaloidai assays 
for extraction and washing purposes. 

I consider that the Pharmacopoeia should be the guide to all 
important materials used in the treatment of disease. If we con- 
sider the Pharmacopoeia from a scientific view point, we must look 
forward and anticipate what the therapeutics of the future will be. 

Unquestionably therapeutics of to-day is far from uniform, and 
different schools have sprung up like mushrooms and claimed merit 
for their particular methods. That each class has many able fol- 
lowers cannot be denied. Certain it is that medicine and pharmacy 
are breaking all bands of mythology, and that the ultimate thera- 
peutics will be rational therapeutics gleaned from what is best from 
each system. 

8o Pharmacopoeia — View of Analytical Worker. { ^Februar'yTf™" 

Pharmacy as the science and the art of preparing products for 
the treatment of the sick is broader than ever before. The widely 
diverging therapeutics demand special service. 

If we believe in psychological therapeutics, we have our field in 
writing arguments to convince those who think they are sick that 
they are not. 

If hydropathy is to be practiced, we must be prepared to furnish 
the proper kinds of water. 

If osteopathy prevails, we must provide all appliances needed for 
that practice. 

If vaccine therapy is the important remedial agent, we have our 
field in the preparation. Just so with all the other special branches 
of therapeutics. Few pharmacists realize their scope, but hang 
tenaciously to the mythology of unimportant drugs. 

If I may indulge in further speculation, I would say that the 
therapy of the future will be mainly preventive or prophylactic 
practice, and adherence to only the remedial agents that have proved 
particularly efficacious. For example : Small pox has practically 
been eradicated by scientific use of vaccine. Serum therapy has 
greatly decreased the mortality of diphtheria and bids fair to hold 
its place in the treatment of that disease. Tuberculosis can effectu- 
ally be fought with a combination of fresh air, isolation and tuber- 
culin. Just so with other maladies, the ultimate treatment will tend 
toward uniformity after this period of adjustment. Of course, death 
is necessary to life, so human suffering can never be banished, yet 
the more common diseases to which we are subject may at last be 
overcome and the body run evenly for " three score years and ten," 
when it will fall to pieces as did " The one horse shay." 

Why is this speculation important to pharmacists ? Because we 
are concerned in the preparation of the products that are to be 
used and we must be able in some way to discriminate. To my 
mind, rational therapeutics will be the final victor and it is the one 
we should follow. We are a long way from the final goal, but have 
seen some important advances, of which standardization is a vital 

Alkaloidal assay has added a remarkable stimulus to uniformity, 
but all our active drugs are not capable of such valuation. 

The test of the pudding is in the eating, not in the appearance, 
size, color, number of raisins, per cent, of proteid, fat or starch. 

'^FebruaryTi™'} Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 81 

Just so with the digitalis, ergot, strophanthus, convallaria, squill, 
Indian cannabis, thyroid and suprarenal glands, you cannot judge 
them by appearance, but it is possible to standardize them com- 
paratively by physiological means. Uniformity is the important 
slogan. Therefore I would suggest that physiological standards be 
introduced in the Pharmacopeia. True, the tests could not be done 
accurately by the busy retail pha-rmaeist, nor can standardization 
of antitoxin, or, in fact, one of the common alkaloidal assays. 

The whole scheme could be accomplished under the same method 
as is now in force in standardizing antitoxin. The Government to 
send out standards for comparison to each manufacturer, as often as 
deemed necessary, and uniformity would result without the humili- 
ation manifested by one of our leading Philadelphia physicians, 
who was called hurriedly in consultation to see a case of alarming 
toxic digitalis symptoms. The physician who had given the drug 
said, " Let me throw that stuff out the window." " Give it to me," 
said the consulting physician, " for I can never get any that will 

With these suggestions, some of which I trust you may think 
of favorably, I must conclude this inadequate survey of a subject 
which is of vital importance to us all. It only remains for me to 
thank you for your courteous attention. 


By Henry Kraemer. 

I have been asked by the committee having this meeting in charge 
to discuss (a) the subject of the microscopic examination of vegetable 
drugs, (b) the introduction of histological descriptions into the U. S. 
Pharmacopoeia, and (c) to consider any of the difficulties which 
stand in the way of introducing such descriptions into the Pharma- 
copoeia. In presenting this subject I have deemed it advisable to 
treat it under three heads. These are : 

(1) What has been done by some of the other pharmacopoeias. 

(2) The Eighth Revision of the U.S.P. 

1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, January 7, 1908. 

82 Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. { A ™ebruarVTf m?' 

(3) What the next Committee of Revision will probably do, and 


The fourth edition of the German Pharmacopoeia appeared in 
1900. In the preface it is stated (page xv) that for practical reasons 
the description of crude drugs has been considerably changed, the 
thought being that as the majority of the drugs used to-day by the 
apothecary are in a comminuted or powdered condition, the descrip- 
tion of the more important drugs should be enlarged and histologi- 
cal characters introduced. From a half to two-thirds of a page is 
usually given to the definition and description. There is no separa- 
tion into paragraphs of the definition, and the macroscopic and 
microscopic descriptions. Apparently, it was thought that the 
histological characters should be taken into account not only in the 
examination of powdered drugs, but also in the examination of 
comminuted drugs where it would be necessary to make sections, 
as well as of crude drugs where a microscopic examination in many 
instances would help very considerably. 

As showing the idea of the revisers of the German Pharma- 
copoeia we may select the description of ipecac, omitting the method 
of alkaloidal assay. 

Radix Ipecacuanhae— 33re$touraeL 

S)te getrocfnete, tierbicfte SJBurgel von Uragoga Ipecacuanha. 
2)ie 3Bur§eI ift Ijfidjft-enS 5 mm bid unb burdj 2Bulfte ber ctufsen 
bunfelgrctubrctunen 9tinbe geringeft, iDeldje fie tnefjr ober tueniger 
toeit umfaffen. SDic innett roetjtfidje Slinbe ift rjon einer braunen 
$orffd)id)t bebecEt unb beftefyt, attfjer ben ©iebrbfjren, nur cms 
^arendjpt^etten, toelcfye tneift gufammengefe^te ©tarfeforner unb 
Siinbel von nabelforntigen Dsalatfrrjftallen entljalten. 

2E)a3 fjarte, tjetfgelbe §o!g befteljt allein au3 ben in ber Sangs^ 
rtd)tung ber 2Bur§eI gefirecften, bidftoanbigen, t>erfjoI$ten @rfa^ 
fafern, mit f$rag geftellten, fpaltenformigen SCitpfeln unb au3 
S£rad)een, beren ©lieber ben ©rfa^fafern af)nlic£), jebod) befjoft 
getlipfelt unb tneift burd) runbe, feitlid) unb ben Snben genct^ert 
liegenbe Soaker uerbunben finb. 

A Fe'broa^>f^M)8 m, } Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 83 

Set Surdjmeffer ber gro^ten ©mgelforner ber ©tatfe foil 
0,012 mm ntdfjt uberfdjretten. 

About the time that the eighth revision of the U. S. Pharma- 
copoeia appeared the Netherlands Pharmacopoeia was issued. In 
this work, as in the German Pharmacopoeia, about an equal amount 
of space is given to vegetable drugs and chemicals. The descriptions 
in the Netherlands Pharmacopoeia are, however, much more com- 
plete and extended, a page or more frequently being given to the 
description of vegetable drugs, one-half of which pertains to the 
microscopic characters of the powders. 

For the sake of comparison, as well as to get an idea of the char- 
acter of the work, the description of ipecac may be selected as an 
example : 

Radix Ipecacuanhae . 

Radices adventiciae tumefactae quas praebet Psychotria Ipecacu- 
anha, Stokes, Bot. Mat. Med. I. 365 (Uragoga Ipecacuanha, 
Baill. Hist. PI. VII. 281). 

Decimetra ad 1,5 longa, sed plerumque fracta in frusta centimetra 
non plus quam 5 ad 7 longa, millimetra ad 5,5 crassa, dura, fragilia, 
cylindrica vel subconica, semper plus minusve enormiter flexa, raro 
paulum ramosa, tumoribus densis, orbicularibus, fere millimetrum 
I latis, qui plerumque radicem non plane circumdant, at loca non 
tumefacta in singulis tumoribus in diversas partes versa sunt, ita ut 
tota radix satis constanter cylindrica sit ; iis tumoribus multis locis 
rimae interiectae sunt undique usque ad lignum pergentes. Super- 
ficies tenuiter transverse rugosa, non nitide, obscure griseofusca, 
nonnunquam magis rubrofusca. Corticis fractura transversa clare 
griseofusca, levis, non nitida, cornea, nonnunquam farinulenta ; 
fractura ligni alba. Lignum millimetra ad 2 crassum, transverse 
persectum quodammodo angulosum ; hie illic cortex facile a ligno 

Ad usum cortex ligno liberetur. 

Microscopia pulveris. Amylum, plurimum grana soluta, sed etiam 
in cellulis parenchymaticis leptotichis, coloris expertibus ; granorum 
multa simplicia, diametro non plus quam 12 \x, fere globosa, nucleo 
et stratis parum conspicuis ; at plura composita, pleraque diadelpha 
vel triadelpha vel tetradelpha sed interdum ad dodecadelpha, parti- 

84 Microscopic Ex animation of Vegetable Drugs. { K ¥i*™£i?Xm?' 

bus saepe valde disparibus. Cellulae suberosae formam orbis ex- 
hibent, sunt quinquangulae vel sexangulae, leptotichae, membranis 
obscure rubrofuscis, Raphides fere 45 fi longae, tenues, interdum 
in fasciculos intra cellulas parenchymaticas collectae. Xylematis 
elementa fibrosa, pachyticha, partim scrobiculis rimalibus, partim 
scrobiculis duplicibus praedita, in pulvere fere nulla adsint. 

Odor corticis, imprimis cum contunditur, mucidus ; sapor ingrate 
amarus. Lignum odoris et saporis expers est. 

Pulvis Radicis Ipecacuanhae combustus cineris partes centesimas 
1,8 ad 6 relinquat. 

If the practice of pharmacy in the Netherlands has reached that 
stage of advancement indicated by this book, and I have good 
reason to believe that it has from a short sojourn in that country, 
with what pride must the pharmacist practice his profession ! Not 
only is the book of the highest standard, but it is in the Latin 
language, which shows the standard of education which must be 
attained by Dutch pharmacists. 1 


Shortly after the 1 900 convention, Dr. Rice, chairman of the 
U.S. P. Revision Committee, called me to New York as chairman of 
the Sub-committee on Botany and Pharmacognosy, which he had 
appointed, to go over this subject, he having been very much im. 
pressed with the work of the German Commission, and in order to 
facilitate the work in our own revision gave me this copy of the 
German Pharmacopoeia, which I hold in my hand. 

In little more than a year after the Convention, the chairman of 
the sub-committee on Botany and Pharmacognosy presented in a 
preliminary report completely revised descriptions of the vegetable 
drugs for the consideration of the general committee. To indicate 
the nature of the work that was done we select here as previously 
the part relating to ipecac. 


The dry root of Uragoga Ipecacuanha 
Baillon (Fam. Rubiaceae), known in 
commerce as Rio Ipecac. 

1 A paper treating of the subject [ot vegetable drugs as set forth in the 
various foreign pharmacopoeias is now in contemplation. 

^TOruMyTiw™'} Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 85 

Cylindrical , somewhat tortuous; 5 to 15 
cm. long, 1 to 5 mm. in diameter. 
Externally dark brown, irregularly 
annulate, sometimes transversely fissured; 
occasional rootlets or rootlet scars. 
Internally, bark light brown, 0-5 to 1 mm. 
thick, easily separated from the dark 
yellow, non-porous wood; fracture of bark 
brittle, of the wood tough; odor slight; 
taste bitter, acrid. 

Stems usually more slender, 5 to 10 cm. 
long, 1 to 1-5 mm. in diameter; nearly 
smooth or longitudinally wrinkled, bark 
0*1 mm. thick, with bast fibers either 
single or in groups; pith distinct, 0-5 
mm. in diameter. 

Carthagena Ipecac. Uniformly thicker 
roots, 4 to 7 mm. in diameter, 
annulations less pronounced. 

Powder. Dark yellow; tracheids with 
simple, oblique or bordered pores, 
sometimes containing starch; calcium 
oxalate in raphides 20 to 40 p long; 
starch grains elliptical, 4 to 14 fi in 
diameter; single or 2- to 4-compound. In 
Carthagena ipecac the starch grains are 
uniformly larger, 4 to 15 fi in diameter. 

The crude drug descriptions embraced from four to nine lines, 
and the descriptions of the powders were two to three lines long. 
In some cases, as where the entire tops of the herb drugs are used, 
the descriptions were longer. The report having been submitted 
to an officer of the Convention, he prepared an extended criticism 
in which he objected to the introduction of scientific terms in the 
descriptions of crude drugs and to the introduction of descriptions 
of powdered drugs. 

86 Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. { A Feb J r uary F ?9(» m ' 

Two main reasons advanced in favor of his position were as fol- 
lows : 

(a) Very few of the active pharmacists in our country are college graduates ; 
and even if all the graduates of all the schools of pharmacy in this country 
were still alive, and all were still actively engaged in the business, they would 
be but a small proportion of the whole number engaged in the business of 

[b) The Convention had before it a proposition to introduce descriptions 
of powdered drugs (proposed by Professor Schneider) and voted it down ; 
another effort at a subsequent session to get at the same result was to refer to 
the Revision Committee , many voting for this motion to avoid a re-opening of 
the debate on the subject, and confident that the Committee would carry out 
the expressed wish and will of the Convention. 

It is now proposed by the sub-committee to introduce the descriptions of 
the microscopical appearances of powdered drugs. It is not necessary to argue 
this subject at great length here ; it was fully realized by the Convention that 
the introduction of this subj ect into the Pharmacopoeia might result in end- 
less persecutions and prosecutions of retail pharmacists, and the Convention is 
on record as disapproving af the scheme. 

A third argument against the introduction of descriptions of 
powdered drugs was presented by a member of the general committee 
who stated : 

It is certain that much more space will have to be given to assay processes, 
and the chemical descriptions will likewise have to be extended in the new 
book. The increased number of synthetics which will be added, will still 
further enlarge the book, and there are other additions which will undoubtedly 
be made, and it is therefore necessary at this time, to take the question of space 
into serious consideration. 

We may then summarize the chief objections which were raised 
against the introduction of powdered drugs and any extension of 
the descriptions of crude drugs: 

(a) General lack of education among pharmacists in the United 

(b) A fear that pharmacists would be persecuted unduly if the 
characters of powdered drugs were given. 

(c) Lack of space on account of the introduction of additional 
assay processes, synthetics and other matters. 

Finally, the sub-committee was instructed by the General Com- 
mittee to prepare a report on the vegetable drugs of the Pharma- 
copoeia according to the following : 

(i) The botanical and pharmacognostical descriptions of the drugs entering 
the U.S. P., 1900, shall be framed in a manner similar to those found in the last 

A Fei°uYry^'i 1 9o r 8 m "} Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 87 

Pharmacopoeia, with such corrections and additions as the advance in science 
demands, but still retaining the style as to terminology and other technical 
characters adopted in the U.S. P., 1890. 

(2) Descriptions of powdered drugs are excluded from the U.S. P., 1900, sub- 
ject to the following provision : when a drug in the powdered state is known, 
or reasonably supposed to be subject to a specific adulteration or admixture, 
there may be such a reference to its powder as shall suffice, in a simple and 
easy manner, to provide for the detection of such adulterants or admixture, and 
in other cases, where similar objects are required, brief references to the char- 
acters of the powders may be made. 

The following summer (1902) the sub-committee prepared a second 
preliminary report in accordance with the above instructions, which 
was accepted, and is incorporated in the present Pharmacopceia > 
with the exception of certain changes which were made while the 
work was going through the press. 

While the treatment represents certain advances, it is, however, 
inadequate for purposes of identification of not only powdered drugs 
but crude drugs as well, and it becomes necessary to consult other 
works for additional information on the identity characters of the 
official drugs, this feature of the book comparing unfavorably with 
that portion devoted to the descriptions of chemicals, which are 
quite replete with identity tests that are sufficient for all practical 

It is not my object to discuss this matter other than for the pur- 
pose of showing how a resolution of the Convention may affect the 
work of the Committee of Revision, and how the work of a special 
or sub-committee may be hindered by the votes of twenty or more 
men who are not familiar with the progress that has been made, 
and with the trend of events in a particular field outside of their 

This is probably one of the weakest places in pharmacopceial 
revision, where men who are specialists in one line are permitted to 
vote on other subjects in which they have not special knowledge, 
and I, on my part, have hesitated during the course of revision to 
vote on questions which I did not feel competent to consider. 

As we have no assurance that the same arguments will not be 
put forth again in connection with the revision of the Pharmacopoeia, 
we may briefly consider them at this time. 

It seems to me to be a sad commentary on the status of pharma- 
ceutical education in this country, that the Committee of Revision 

88 Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. { A FebruaryTfff* 

should be prevented from considering the scientific problems arising 
during the course of revision on their merits, or in such a manner 
as the importance of the subject warrants, or the practice of the 
times demands, by reason of the oft-expressed contention that phar- 
macists are not educated in such a manner as to be able to make 
use of the knowledge given, or to appreciate its importance. If, 
however, it be admitted that this contention is true, then the ques- 
tion narrows itself down to this, that pharmacopceial revision is 
directly influenced, or hindered from making progress, by the inade- 
quacy of the pharmacist's education. 

Whatever may have been true of the past certainly cannot long 
continue to be true of the future, for the reason that the responsibility 
must be directly assumed by the schools and colleges of pharmacy 
and by the boards of pharmacy. We can therefore but trust that 
this argument relating to the pharmacist's education will never 
again be raised in connection with pharmacopceial revision. 

The second argument when reduced to final analysis means that 
we are more concerned in avoiding prosecutions and litigation than 
in safe-guarding the quality of the drugs which the pharmacist 
handles. This, however, is a question which is now in the hands of 
the Government, and it would seem that the sooner the Pharmaco- 
poeia recognizes powdered drugs and modernizes its attitude 
toward the whole subject of vegetable drugs, the more weight and 
authority it will have as a legal standard. There are some who 
still contend that drugs in the powdered or comminuted condition 
are not official and therefore are not required to be subject to the 
official standards. Technically there can be no question that both 
crude and powdered drugs should conform to the same standard. This 
is true of the foods and spices for which the government has estab- 
lished standards. Furthermore, as I have already pointed out, 
there are a number of products official in the U. S. Pharmacopoeia 
which are used for spices or for flavoring purposes for which no 
definite standards are given, while the U. S. Government has adopted 
exact standards relating to the quality of these products. This 
emphasizes the desirability that the revisers of the Pharmacopoeia 
take 'advantage of scientific investigation pertaining to every offi- 
cial product and fix exact standards for them. In other words 
standards are fixed legally according to the advance in our scientific 
knowledge of the subject. 

A Feb J rXr'y^9 a o8 m '} Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 89 

Not much need be said in regard to the third objection, as no 
principle is involved, other than to suggest that in the next revision 
the space in the Pharmacopoeia be provisionally apportioned in 
advance, so that one department need not be handicapped or denied 
a proper amount of space on the ground that other departments 
require it. 


It is rather difficult to say at this time just what will be done by 
the next Revision Committee with regard to the subject of vege- 
table drugs, but it may safely be assumed that it will not be con- 
tent to lag much behind the other pharmacopoeias in this respect- 
Not only is this true, but if closer relations are established between 
physicians and pharmacists, will not the physician expect that when 
he uses such drugs as aconite, digitalis, ergot and others that the 
pharmacist shall be familiar with the latest researches on these 
drugs, just as he, in turn, is expected to be familiar with the latest 
advances in medicine ? In order that the pharmacist may live up 
to this requirement and be assured that the drugs which he buys 
are genuine and of good and uniform quality, it is necessary then 
that the framers of the Pharmacopoeia take cognizance of the 
advances in pharmacognosy, as has already been done by other 

With the increased use of the microscope in the examination of 
various technical products, and with the appearance of so many 
works on the microscopical study of drugs, foods and spices, and 
with courses of instruction in all of the reputable colleges of phar- 
macy, in which the microscope comes into daily use, its value in the 
examination of both crude and powdered drugs can not be ques- 
tioned. In this connection, I may refer to some of my earlier papers 
on this subject, 1 and before considering briefly the specific applica- 
tion of the microscope in the study of vegetable drugs, I desire to 
say something on 


It would probably be supposed that as I have devoted consider- 
able attention to the study and development of methods for the 

1 American Journal of Pharmacy, 69 (1897), p. 400; and 71 (1899), p. 

90 Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm, 
\ February, 1908. 

examination of powdered drugs I might be led to overlook the 
relative value of crude and powdered drugs. We all know the rela- 
tive perishability of crude drugs depending upon the nature of the 
constituents, some deteriorating so rapidly as to make it necessary 
to use them in a fresh condition, as Pulsatilla, bryony and conium. 
It is true that there are a few vegetable drugs which are improved 
by keeping them for a certain length of time, but generally speaking 
they deteriorate more rapidly in the powdered condition than in the 
crude condition. Another objection to the use of powdered drugs is 
the fact that they lend themselves more readily to adulteration and 
to the use of poor grades of drugs, which ofttimes would be rejected 
if offered for sale in the crude condition. 

Dr. Squibb's papers 1 on the study of rhubarb are not without 
interest at this time. From his observations he concluded that " no 
ordinary judgment is at all to be depended upon in the selection of 
powdered drugs," and he even went so far as to say that " the im- 
portation of any drug in powder is prima facie evidence that there 
is something to be concealed by the condition of being in powder, 
and this evidence should be taken as overbalancing all other evi- 
dence in the case of medicinal substances, until it can be annulled 
by proof to the contrary." At this time we do not insist that every 
powdered drug upon the market should be looked upon with sus- 
picion, but that it is much more difficult to identify and pronounce 
upon the quality of a drug in the powdered condition than in the 
crude condition. In view of these various considerations it would 
probably be better if pharmacists made their preparations from 
crude drugs. But inasmuch as comminuted and powdered drugs 
are mostly purchased by retail druggists it becomes necessary for 
the Pharmacopoeia to consider methods for their examination if the 
revisers desire the Pharmacopoeia to be of use to pharmacists in this 
respect. That the work is technical does not argue against its con- 
sideration, but should, it would seem, be all the more reason for 
giving it attention. Either the Pharmacopoeia should admit des- 
criptions of powdered drugs, or extend the descriptions of the his- 
tological characters of crude drugs, the elements being identical in 
each case, only in the crude drugs they have a relation to one 

1 Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 16 (1868), p. 452: 
17 (1869), p. 398 ; and 19 (1871), p. 497. 

A F4br°u U a ry!S m ' } Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. 91 

another in the arrangement or grouping into tissues. As already 
pointed out the latter method is followed in the German pharmaco- 


The microscope furnishes the surest means ol determining the 
identity of a powdered vegetable drug at our command, and is 
also useful in determining the quality of powders, as in strophan- 
tus, hydrastis, ginger, black pepper, amylum, etc. The microscope 
also furnishes the most reliable means of detecting and determining 
adulterants in powdered drugs. It is furthermore useful in 
detecting the presence of worm-eaten drugs or powders of certain 
classes of drugs which have been exhausted in whole or in part. 

When the active principles of starch-containing drugs have been 
removed this is indicated by an alteration in the starch grains, as 
in belladonna, calumba, ipecac, rhubarb, licorice, etc. Exhausted 
oleo-resinous drugs are readily detected by the use of chloral as a 
mounting medium, which has the effect of bringing out the oil and 
resin cells in the genuine drug. There are also a number of micro- 
chemical tests which apply to individual drugs that are coming into 
use. The presence of added lime in cochineal and other drugs 
may be detected by the use of 25 per cent, sulphuric acid, as a 
mounting medium which causes a separation of crystals of calcium 

I have had a great many occasions to use the microscope not only 
in the detection of adulterants but also in determining drugs which 
were mislabeled. On one occasion a jobber sent out comminuted 
belladonna root for inula, and discovered later that the bin in which 
the drug was kept was wrongly labeled. On another occasion when 
I ordered genuine " almond meal " and a mixture marketed as 
almond meal, I found the labels were interchanged, apparently not 
wholly accidentally, but on account of the finer appearance of the 
spurious article. 

The Value of the Microscope in the Examination of Crude 


In addition to the aid furnished in identifying crude drugs by a 
microscopic examination as in digitalis, solanaceous leaves and 

92 Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs. { A Feb J ruar' y P XT' 

arnica flowers, there are very many cases in which the microscope 
will be found an aid in judging of the quality. A good deal may 
be learned about the quality of a drug by taking into consideration 
the microscopic appearance of other cell constituents than the active 
ones, as of starch, calcium oxalate, inulin, chloroplasts, and aleurone 
grains. The time of gathering the drug, the method of drying it 
and the length of time it has been kept may all be judged in many 
instances by the use of the microscope. 

The spurious character of the crude drugs that have been sold in 
times past is well known. Some of the admixtures or substitutes 
can be detected with the naked eye, but in many instances a micro- 
scopic examination furnishes the surest means of determining 
them, as in the detection of ruellia in spigelia, spurious cascara 
barks, etc. I do not desire to multiply examples, but may con- 
clude by saying that one who is accustomed to the examination of 
drugs by means of the microscope finds it an advantage to use it 


When invited to discuss the subject of this paper I felt bound to 
accept the invitation, and to do all I could to assist in future revisions 
of the work, and to make clear the necessity of the consideration of 
the progress in the scientific study of vegetable drugs and its appli- 
cation in their examination. 

I have pointed out what has been done by the other pharma- 
copoeias and reviewed the difficulties which beset revision work in 
this department in our own Pharmacopoeia. 

I have shown that crude drugs are on the whole better in quality 
and less liable to adulteration than powdered drugs, but as commi- 
nuted and powdered drugs are so largely used, the pharmacist must 
be able to determine them and judge of their quality. 

This being the case the Pharmacopoeia should either only give 
definitions of vegetable drugs, leaving it to be inferred that the 
pharmacist will acquaint himself with the standard scientific works 
pertaining to them, and that these constitute the standard the 
Pharmacopoeia prescribes, or it should make the descriptions so 
complete as to apply to the various commercial forms of vegetable 
drugs, as I have already stated. 

A Feb J ruary P f9 a o r 8 m '} Poison Ivy Fruit — Share- Holding to Stop. 93 

By A. B. Stevens. 

In an article on Poison Sumac (American Journal of Pharmacy, 
79, 522), Mr. Warren and the writer referred to Pfaff's statement 
that he found the poison in the fruit of the poison ivy and poison 
sumac, and declared our belief that he must have employed fruit 
collected in the green state, as we had repeatedly examined the ripe 
fruit of both species and each time were unable to find poison. 
Since writing the above we have examined two samples of mature, 
but unripe fruit of poison ivy, and both were poisonous. 

A physician once asked if poison ivy, growing in the city, was 
poisonous. In this connection it is interesting to note that one of 
the above specimens grew in Weehawken, N. J., near the dueling 
grounds of Hamilton and Burr, the other in the Old Dutch Ceme- 
tery in Tarrytown-on-the-Hudson. 

By some oversight a part of the original copy, containing 
acknowledgements, was omitted and we take this opportunity to 
express our thanks to Frederick Stearns and Co. for their generosity 
in maintaining a fellowship in the School of Pharmacy, University of 
Michigan, which made part of this work possible, and also to Adolph 
Ziefle for continued assistance, especially in the collection of the latex. 
In the illustration, p. 506, Mr. Ziefle appears on the right and Mr. 
Warren on the left. 


" Section 4 of Article I of the By-Laws of the Philadelphia 
County Medical Society provides : * Any physician who shall pro- 
cure a patent for a remedy or for an instrument of surgery, or who 
sells or deals in patent medicines or nostrums, or who shall give a 
certificate in favor of a patented or proprietary remedy or patent 
instrument, or who shall enter into an agreement with an apothe- 
cary to receive pecuniary compensation or patronage for sending 
his prescriptions to that apothecary, shall be disqualified from 
becoming or remaining a member.' 

" The holding of shares of stock in a company making or deal- 
ing in patented or secret medicines is, therefore, incompatible with 
membership in the Philadelphia County Medical Society. This 

94 American Pharmaceutical Association. { A FebruaryTiw) r 8 m ' 

notice shall be printed in three successive issues of the Weekly 
Roster of the medical organizations of Philadelphia." 

The foregoing action, adopted at the annual meeting on January 
15th, means expulsion for offenders from the County Society, the 
State Society and the American Medical Association, after expira- 
tion of the three notices mentioned. 


The stated meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, for January, was devoted to a discussion 
of the valuation of drugs and assay processes. The meeting was an 
unusually interesting one and demonstrated, more than any of the 
previous meetings, the imperative need for post graduate work on 
the part of retail pharmacists, if they wish to keep abreast of the 
needs and requirements of the science of pharmacy to-day. 

The first paper was one contributed by Professor W. A. Puckner, 
of Chicago, entitled : "Recent Progress in the Chemistry of Alkaloid 
Estimation." This paper included quite a comprehensive review of 
the progress that has been made during the past twenty years in 
the quantitative estimation of alkaloids in crude drugs. 

A paper by Mr. W. A. Pearson on : " The Pharmacopoeia from 
the View Point of a Scientific Worker," included a number of sug- 
gestions for the elaboration or modification of the tests for official 

Mr. Pearson also pointed out the need for adopting physiological 
standards and tests for such drugs as aconite, colchicum, digitalis, 
ergot, thyroid gland and suprarenal gland. 

A joint paper by Dr. E. D. Reed and Mr. Charles E. Vankerkleed 
on : " The Standardization of the Preparations of Digitalis by 
Physiological and Chemical Means," brought out a number of 
interesting facts relating to the possibilities of adopting standards 
for this really important drug. The work done by Dr. Reed and 
Mr. Vankerkleed shows that there is a remarkable uniformity 
between the results obtained by physiological tests and the quanti- 
tative determination of the contained digitoxin by chemical means. 
The results so far obtained it was thought would warrant the con- 
tinuation of the belief that digitoxin represents fairly well the active 
constituents of digitalis. 

A reb J r°uaryffm m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 95 

Prof. Henry Kraemer read a paper on : " The Pharmacopoeia and 
the Microscopic Examination of Vegetable Drugs." In the course 
of this paper he reviewed the descriptions of crude and powdered 
drugs that have been included in the more recent European phar- 
macopoeias and discussed at some length the reasons why equally 
satisfactory descriptions had not been included in the recent, eighth 
decennial, revision of our own pharmacopoeia. Even at the present 
time the value of the compound microscope in determining the 
identity of crude drugs and in detecting adulterations, contamina- 
tions, deterioration and changes caused by exhausting the drug, is 
thoroughly well established and the very near future will undoubt- 
edly demonstrate that the microscope is absolutely indispensable 
in the examination and valuation of all drugs of vegetable origin. 

Prof. Chas. H. LaWall, in discussing the papers that had been 
presented, pointed out that the subject of alkaloidal assay was one 
of very great importance and suggested that variations in results 
are not infrequently obtained through careless sampling. 

Prof. I. V. S. Stanislaus suggested the advisability of working out 
a reliable method for determining the camphor content of camphor 
liniment and spirit of camphor. 

The papers were liberally discussed by a number of the members 
and visitors present. 

The meeting of the local branch, for February, will be devoted to 
the consideration of: "The Retail Druggists' Responsibilities in 
Connection with the Great Black Plague." 

M. I. Wilbert, 



The quarterly meeting of the members of the College was held 
December 30, 1907, at 4.30 p. m. in the Library. The president, 
Howard B. French, presided. Twelve members were present. The 
minutes of the semi-annual meeting, held September 30th, were 
read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees for the 
meetings held September 12th, October 1st and 5th, and November 
6th were read by the Registrar and approved. 

A large portrait of the late James T. Shinn, treasurer of the college, 
was presented by our fellow member, F. Gutekunst, the well known 

g6 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { A Feb J r°uary P ?™* 

photographer of Philadelphia. The portrait is an enlargement of 
the one published in the November Journal in connection with the 
biographical sketch of Mr. Shinn by Dr. John F. Hancock. The 
portrait is printed on Willis and Clements best platinum paper, 
which is said to be very durable. 

The portrait was an admirable likeness of Mr. Shinn and the 
members were greatly pleased in receiving such a speaking likeness 
of the late treasurer. It was unanimously voted that the thanks of 
the College be tendered the generous donor. 

The president announced that the death of Mr. Shinn occurred 
on October 4th, after an illness of a few hours. 

The president reappointed the following named gentlemen to the 
Committee on Legislation : M. N. Kline, chairman ; Joseph P. 
Remington, M. I. Wilbert, William Mclntyre, W. H. Poley. 

Mr. George M. Beringer, on behalf of Mrs. Mary Procter Green, 
of Florida, a daughter of the late Prof. William Procter, Jr., pre- 
sented a number of letters from the correspondence of her father, 
and in view of their great historic value, he suggested that they 
be carefully preserved, and also published in the American Journal 
of Pharmacy, and that suitable acknowledgment be made to Mrs. 
Green, which was approved. 

The letters are as follows : — 

To William Procter, Jr. 

Esteemed Friend : On behalf of the Board of Trustees of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy it has become our pleasing duty to inform you that at a 
special meeting of that body, held at their hall last evening, you were unani- 
mously elected Professor of Pharmacy in the School of Pharmacy of that Col- 
lege. With the best wishes for your health, and for the successful prosecution 
of the arduous and untried duties devolving upon the station you have been 
chosen to fill, we subscribe ourselves, your friends. 

Thomas P. James, 
Chairman of Board oj Trustees. 

Edward Parrish, 

Philadelphia, June 2d, 1846. 

(This letter bears evidence of having been written by Edward 
Parrish, with the exception of the signature of Thomas P. James.) 

American Philosophical Society, 
Independence Square, 

Philadelphia, 16th April, 1847. 
Sir : I have the honor of informing you that you have been this day elected 

A Feb J rua r rVf?9o r 8™'} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 97 

a member of the American Philosophical Society, held at Philadelphia for pro- 
moting useful knowledge. 

I am, sir, 

Your obedient servant, 

John F. Frazer, Secretary. 

Wm. Procter, Jr., 

RESPECTED Friend : Thy official note of the 16th inst., conveying the 
information of my election to membership in the American Philosophical 
Society was duly received. Be pleased to inform the Society that I am sensible 
of the honor conferred on me by their act of consociation, originating as it did 
in their body, and that I accept it. 

With much respect, 

I am thy friend, 
Whiiam Procter, Jr. 

To John F. Frazier, 

Secy, Am. Phil. Society. 

Philadelphia, April 17, 1847, 
Dear Sir. — I have the pleasure to inform you, that, last evening, you were 
elected a member of the Amer. Phil. Society. You will be officially notified 
of your election, by one of our secretaries, in the course of a few days. You 
are indebted to this honor, to the talents and industry you have shown in your 
various chemical and pharmaceutical researches, and no one thinks it more 
justly deserved than 

Your sincere friend, 

Franklin Bache. 

Prof. William Procter, Jr. 

April 3d, i860. 

My Dear Mr. Procter : I send you herewith, most cheerfully, my check 
for $100, which I consider but a small compensation for the services rendered 
by you to the Committee of the Col. of Physicians in revising the Pharma- 

Very truly yours, 

George B. Wood. 

The secretary called attention to the accumulation of returned 
certificates of membership from those who had resigned or forfeited 
membership. The safe was being encumbered with them and some 
disposition should be made of them. Several members suggested 
destroying them. The President suggested preserving them on 
account of the historic value of the signatures of the Faculty and 
officers attached to them, and instanced one case where all the sig- 
natures were those of deceased persons. He further suggested 
preserving them in a large book and said that room could be found 
for some of them in some of the cases in the Library. 

No further business appearing, adjournment was had at 5 P. m. 

98 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 


September 12, 1907. 

Committee on Property reported that the plans for the new labo- 
ratory were completed. The cost for building and fixtures would 
be about $22,000. 

That the new microscopical laboratory was practically finished. 

The question of raising funds to pay for the New Pure Food and 
Drug Laboratory was discussed, and among the plans suggested 
was that of securing the cooperation of the Alumni. 

Committee on Library reported a number of accessions to the 

Committee on Museum and Herbarium reported the purchase and 
delivery of the Bartram reprints. 

Committee on Scholarships reported additional requirements 
governing the award. 

Committee on Examinations reported the names of G. C. Davy, 
E. J. Fry, C. R. Keiser, and J. L. Wade, who had satisfactorily pas- 
sed all examinations in Special Chemistry, and were entitled to cer- 
tificates of Proficiency in Chemistry. 

The secretary reported that a communication had been received 
from the secretary of the Board of Public Education stating that a 
scholarship had been awarded to a graduate of the Central Manual 
Training School. 

October 1, 1907. 

A communication received from the secretary of the college 
announcing the re-election of Richard M. Shoemaker, Edward M. 
Boring, and Charles Leedom, as members of the Board of Trustees 
for the ensuing three years. 

Committee on Property reported the addition to the microscopical 
laboratory completed, and that the facilities for instruction were 
greatly increased. Also that bids for the New Pure Food and Drug 
Laboratory were received from several bidders. 

Committee on Library reported a number of valuable accessions 
to the library. 

Committee on Alumni requested an appropriation for the use of 
the Alumni Association — granted. 

Committee on Scholarships reported that there were seventeen 

A F4b J r°^ry!?9 a o r 8 m -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 99 

applicants, and recommended the award to seven of the applicants, 
which was agreed to. 

Committee on Examinations reported that the examinations for 
advanced standing were held September 27th — and were well at- 

New business. — The contract for the new building and fixtures 
was awarded to H. A. Havens. 

The Committee on Membership reported favorably on the appli- 
cation of William E. Lee for membership in the college, who was 
duly elected. 

October 5, 1907. 

A special meeting of the Board was called to take action on the 
death of James T. Shinn, Treasurer of the College. Remarks— 
which were all tributes of respect — were made by Messrs. French, 
Baer, Mattison, Sadtler, Meyer, Rumsey, Cliffe and Wiegand. 

A committee of three, Messrs. Sadtler, French and Baer, was 
appointed to draft suitable resolutions. It was also voted that the 
college be closed on the day of the funeral and that the entire 
Board should attend the funeral, which was to take place from the 
Haverford Meeting House. 

In this connection was stated the interesting fact that since the 
founding of the college the office of treasurer had always been filled 
by a member of the Society of Friends. Richard M. Shoemaker 
was elected Acting Treasurer. 

November 6, 1907. 
The Special Committee appointed to draft resolutions on the 
death of the late Treasurer James T. Shinn, made their report, as 
follows : 


November 6, 1907. 

Whereas, We have been recently called upon to record the sudden and 
very unexpected removal from our midst, by death, of our fellow-member, 
James T. Shinn, and, 

Whereas, His services to the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy had been 
so conspicuous and had extended through so long a term of years, and, 

WHEREAS, His personal relations to each and all of us had been so close, 
and he had endeared himself so strongly as a friend to all of his associates in 
the Board, therefore, be it, 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { 

Resolved, That we testify in a minute to be placed upon the permanent 
records of this Board to our feeling of the great loss sustained by the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy, its members, officers, students, and all connected 
in any way with its activity, in the death of James T. Shinn, the late Treasurer 
and Trustee of the college. Be it also further, 

Resolved, That American pharmacy has lost a most conspicuous and credita- 
ble exemplar, an ex-President of the American Pharmaceutical Association, 
and a member of the same for nearly half a century, but, above all, a type of 
the honest, intelligent practicing pharmacist that brought credit to the pro- 
fession. Be it further, 

Resolved, That in the death of our friend, the community in which he lived 
has lost a useful citizen, and a public spirited friend and benefactor of many 
charities, and helpful civic organizations, and public movements. Be it further, 

Resolved, That this minute be placed upon the records of the Board of Trustees 
of the college, and a copy thereof be transmitted to the family of our late friend. 

The resolutions were unanimously adopted, ordered entered on 
the minutes, and a copy directed to be sent to the family. 

Committee on Property reported the burning out of the dynamos 
on account of extreme pressure, and that, until repairs were com- 
pleted, arrangements had been made with the Philadelphia Electric 
Company to supply current. 

The Aimwell School building had been torn down, the cellar for 
the new building practically dug, and good progress was being 

Committee on Library reported a number of accessions to the 

Committee on Museum and Herbarium reported that the Bartram 
reprints were framed and were being hung in the museum. 

Special Finance Committee reported further in securing funds for 
the new laboratory building. 

Committee on Instruction reported some details of the rules 
governing students who had taken instruction in other institutions. 

Mr. W. A. Rumsey was appointed chairman of the Committee on 
Commencement, and Joseph W. England to succeed Mr. James T. 
Shinn, deceased. C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 


Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Howard B. French, 
Jacob M. Baer, 


Recording Secretary. 



MARCH, igo8 


By W. A. Pearson. 
In searching for an accurate method for determining alcohol in 
concentrated nitrous ether, I tried the method described by Dupre 
(Allen, Vol. I, page 102 and J.A.C.S., Vol. XX, page 495) and found 
it to be very accurate for dilute alcoholic solutions containing from 
O'l gramme to 0-3 gramme in 20 c.c. The accuracy was tried on 
dilute solutions of alcohol of known strength, the results of analyses 
differing from the actual amount of alcohol present by only one or 
two units in the second decimal place, if proper conditions are 

The next step was to separate the alcohol from the nitrous ether. 
Various methods were tried, with varying success, but the evapora- 
tion of the concentrated nitrous ether in a flask containing water, 
and passing the vapor through water seemed advantageous. At 
first a small Erlenmeyer flask about one-fourth full of ice-water was 
weighed accurately, 20 to 35 grammes of concentrated nitrous 
ether poured in, and again accurately weighed. Anticipating your 
objections to direct weighing of so volatile a liquid under these 
conditions, will say that only a very slight error will be made if 
flask and concentrated nitrous ether are very cold and having the 
subsequent apparatus near the scales, ready to be connected with 
the flask. The proper weights are placed on the scales slightly 
below the correct weight of flask, ice-water and concentrated nitrous 
ether, and as the weight changes, at the proper moment remove the 
flask from scales and connect at once with the apparatus. 

If this method be carefully followed not more than 1 milligramme 


102 Alcohol in Concentrated Nitrous Ether. { Am M£Sh,3o£ rM * 

will be lost, and the error is not large because only from 10 to 20 
per cent, of this is alcohol 

Various forms of apparatus were used, at first merely connecting 
with upright condensers and allowing the nitrous ether to evaporate 

at room temperature ; later a modification of this method was 
adopted, which works quite satisfactorily. The flask is connected 
with an upright spiral condenser and in the top is poured ice- water. 
If the lower opening is quite small, a spiral column of ice-water 
will be held in the condenser by the pressure developed by the vol- 
atilizing concentrated nitrous ether, and will necessitate each bubble 
of gas passing through this spiral column of cold water. (Fig. 1.) 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1908. 

Alcohol in Concentrated Nitrous Ether. 


Another form by which I obtained good results consisted of a 
bulb thistle tube connected at the top by a large glass spiral and 
at the bottom by the flask containing the nitrous ether. Water 
was placed in the spiral in such a way that it remained at the bot- 
tom of each turn ; water was also placed in the bulbs of the thistle 
tube. (Fig. 2.) 

The later apparatus used was merely a series of five tall wash- 
bottles, three-quarters filled with water, with the outlet of each bottle 
reaching nearly to the bottom of the next bottle. This form has 
simplicity as its chief advantage, and also temperature conditions 
can be carefully controlled. 

In any of the above apparatus at least three days should be 
allowed for the evaporation of the concentrated nitrous ether. 

When volatilization is complete, the water in the apparatus is 
combined and put in a measuring flask of such size that, when diluted, 
20 c.c. of it will contain from o-i gramme to 3 gramme of alcohol. 
The apparatus is carefully washed with ice- water, and washings 
added to measuring flask, making the proper volume. 

After mixing well the combined washings and dilute solution 
of alcohol from the apparatus, 20 c.c. are accurately measured into 
a clean magnesium citrate bottle which can easily be obtained 
with a tight stopper. This solution contains the alcohol and 
some nitrous ether, depending on the form of apparatus used 
and the rate of volatilization. The proper amount of oxidizing 
agent must now be added to destroy the nitrous ether and ioc.c. 
more of the chromic acid mixture added to change the alcohol pres- 


104 Alcohol in Concentrated Nitrous Ether. { Am iil™hjm* m ' 

ent into acetic acid. Potassium permanganate, either solid or in 
solution, may be added to destroy the nitrous ether and has the 
advantage of roughly showing the amount of nitrous ether present. 
Potassium iodide with sulphuric acid cannot be used to destroy the 
nitrous ether, owing to later volatilization of the iodine. 

It is well to titrate a portion with tenth normal potassium per- 
manganate, to form an idea of the amount of nitrous ether present. 
I prefer to do this and then use sufficient chromic acid mixture to 
both destroy the nitrous ether and convert the alcohol, as potassium 
permanganate leaves a muddy residue. One or two trials may be 
necessary to determine the exact quantity to be used. After the 
addition of the chromic acid, the bottle is firmly closed and heated for 
two hours in a steam-bath at ioo° C. At the end of this time the 
solution should not be green, but should have a small excess of 
chromic acid. The bottle must now be cooled to room temperature, 
opened, and a small piece of metallic zinc added to destroy the excess 
of chromic acid ; when solution is green, it is poured into a distilling 
flask, the bottle washed into same flask and carefully distilled, using 
a well-cooled condenser. When liquid in distilling flask is nearly 
to dryness, add more water and again distil almost to dryness. It 
last few drops of distillate are acid to litmus paper, again refill and 
distil. Test distillate with a drop of barium chloride solution to be 
positive no sulphuric acid has been carried over, and titrate with 
standard alkali and compute alcohol present in original sample. 


Using flask connected with thistle tube and air-cooled glass spiral, 
the following results were obtained : 

No. Per cent. 

1. Using KI and H 2 S0 4 to destroy nitrous ether present, alcohol indicated 6'n 

2. " KMnO, " " w " " " " 1173 

3. " chromic acid " " " " " " " H'53 

4. " " " " " " " " " " 15*30 

5. " " " " " " " " " " 15-02 

Using series of five wash-bottles with different amounts of dilute 
alcohol and chromic acid and on different days, the following results 
were obtained : 

Am M J ai-ch,f908. rm '} Alcohol in Concentrated Nitrous Ether. 105 



Ale. Sol. 

Chromic acid 

Per cent, of 
Standard alcohol 
Alkali required in original 


December 24 . 

. 20 c.c. 

20 C.C. 

7 '4 c.c. normal 16*5 

2 . 

24 . 

. 20 c.c. 

20 C.C. 

Bottle broken in steam-bath 


24 . 

. 20 C.C. 

15 c.c. 

7'5 c.c. normal 16*7 


24 • 

. 15 C.C. 

20 c.c. 

5'5 c.c. " 16-4 



. 10 c.c. 

12 C.C. 

37 c.c. " 16-5 


" 24. 

. 10 c.c. 

13 c.c. 

' 37 c.c. " 16-5 


26 . 

. 20 c.c. 

23 c.c. 

7*2 c.c. " i6 # o 


26 . 

. 20 c.c. 

23 c.c. 

7'35 c.c. " 16-3 


:' [ j> " 26 . 

. 15 c.c. 

18 c.c. 

55 - 1 c.c. " tenth i6"4 


26 . 

. 15 c.c. 

18 c.c. 

54-4 c.c. " " i6"2 

' i6'44 

A 4-8376 gramme sample of the original nitrous ether was 
weighed in a cold 100 c.c. flask, diluted at once to 100 c c. with 
alcohol, and tested in nitrometer for absolute ethyl nitrite. 


1. 5 c.c. of this solution liberated 65 c.c. of nitric oxide 

2. 5 c.c. " " " " 65*2 c.c. " " " 

Average 65*1 c.c. 

65-1 c.c. of nitric oxide represents 82 63 per cent, of absolute ethyl 
nitrite in sample. The indicated composition of this sample is, 
therefore: alcohol, 16*44 P er cent., ethyl nitrite, 82-63 P er cent. 


Alcohol can be estimated in concentrated nitrous ether by the 
method of Dupre, using certain modifications, as outlined. The ex- 
perimental error is large, unless exceptional care is taken at every 
step, because the final error is magnified by multiplication in com- 
putation. Aldehydes, if they be present, will be estimated along 
with alcohol, and some of the methods for estimating aldehydes 
must be used for this correction. In the samples above examined 
no aldehyde was detected by addition of ammonia or solution of 
sodium bisulphite. Reduction tests for aldehydes, of course, are 
useless in the presence of ethyl nitrite. 

Any ethyl nitrite left dissolved in the water along with the alcohol 
is also changed into acetic acid. This error is so slight that it may, 
in most cases, be ignored. A correction may be subtracted for this 
error by estimating the amount of ethyl nitrite in the water by 
means of a nitrometer. 

From Research Laboratory of 

Smith, Kline & French Company. 


Modification of the Soxhlet Extractor. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1908. 


By Horatio C. Wood, Jr., 
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania. 

The apparatus here shown for continuous extraction by volatile 
solvents has proven itself efficient and offers certain advantages 
over the Soxhlet extractor, notably in its simplicity and inexpen- 
siveness. It consists of a narrow percolator (P) the lower end ot 
which is connected by means of a tightly fitting cork with a siphon- 
shaped glass tube, and the upper end closed with a perforated cork 
into which is fitted a glass " T " tube. The rectangular limb of this 
tube is connected by a very short piece of rubber with a glass tube 

Modified Soxhlet Extractor. 

bent at^rightjangles which passes down to the flask containing the 
solvent. When the contents in the flask (F) are boiled, the vapors 
pass up through the tube (A) into the tube (T) ; the upper end of (T) 
is'connected with a reflux cooler into which the vapors pass and, 
being'condensed, run down into the percolator (P) and thence back 
through (S) into the flask. 

Besides the advantages over the Soxhlet apparatus of being less 
expensive and much less fragile, the facts that by simply removing 
the corks in each end of the percolator, the apparatus can be easily 
and quickly cleaned, and that by simply substituting different sizes 
of percolators it can be adapted for either large or small quantities 
of drugs with comparatively little trouble, have persuaded me to 
describe it. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1908. 

Therapeutic Virtues of Digitalis. 



By Horatio C. Wood, Jr. 
Associate Professor of Pharmacology, University of Pennsylvania. 

Within the last year or two there has been a revival of the idea 
that was prevalent a generation ago that digitoxin might be 
regarded as the active principle of digitalis. In 1871 Nativelle 
was awarded the Orfila prize for the discovery of the active 
principle of digitalis. Although he named his substance digi- 
taline — under which title it is still recognized by the French 
Codex — it is generally regarded as identical with the substance 
described by Schmiedeberg as digitoxin. This discovery at- 
tracted much attention, and naturally the crystalline principle 
enjoyed for a time considerable popularity. It failed, however, to 
sustain its place as a practical remedy, and its use outside of France 
was almost entirely abandoned. Recently, however, largely on 
account of vigorous advertising by certain drug manufacturers, digi- 
toxin has again come to the fore as representing the therapeutic 
properties of digitalis in a compact and pure form. There are cer- 
tain observations which would seem to throw some doubt on the 
justice of this claim. 

In the first place, attention may be called to the small amount, ot 
digitoxin found in digitalis leaves in comparison to the relative tox- 
icity of the crude drug and of the glucoside. While it is true that 
digitoxin is the most actively poisonous of the principles which 
have so far been discovered in digitalis, it seems well established 
that the dose required to influence the circulation is disproportion- 
ately large when compared to the amount contained in the leaves. 
Digitalis is a drug showing such great variations in potency that it 
is difficult to draw accurate conclusions concerning the comparative 
physiological activity of the digitalis leaves without a simultaneous 
chemical and physiological study of the same individual specimen 
of the drug. The proper method to arrive at the conclusion con- 
cerning the quantitative action of an active principle would be to 
take a specimen of the crude drug, determine by chemical assay 
the proportion of principle present, determine by physiological 
experiment the dose of the crude drug required to kill, also the 
dose of the principle required to kill, and if the principle accurately 


Therapeutic Virtues of Digitalis. 

/ Am. Jour. Pharm* 
\ March, 1908. 

represented the drug, then the fatal dose of the principle should 
correspond to the amount chemically found in the single dose of the 
crude drug. Unfortunately, as far as I know, there has been no 
such study made of digitalis, and we have to rely upon more or less 
indirect evidence. For instance, in the research carried out some 
years ago (Amer. Joum. Medical Sciences, August, 1900) by Dr. 
Arnold and myself we found that the average dose of digitalis 
immediately fatal was, for a dog, 0*15 gramme per kilo of body 
weight, and that the fatal dose of Merck's digitoxin was about 3 
milligrammes per kilo. The average content of digitalis leaves in 
digitoxin would seem to be, frcm various reports, between 015 and 
0*3 of 1 per cent.; if we allow 0-2 per cent, as an average, in the 
fatal dose of digitalis for a dog there would be contained but 0-3 
milligramme, or about one-tenth of the quantity of digitoxin 
required to kill. These figures, for the reasons just mentioned, would 
not in themselves be convincing, but they find confirmation in clini- 
cal experience which makes them very suggestive. From the 
reports of a considerable number of authors it would seem that 
from clinical experience 0-5 milligramme may be regarded as the 
average therapeutic dose of digitoxin 1 corresponding to the effects 
of 0-06 gramme of digitalis leaves. This quantity of digitalis leaves, 
however, would contain but 0-12 milligramme, so that while the dis- 
crepancy is not quite so great as in our experiments, there is still 
a difference of more than 400 per cent, to be accounted for. 

It would seem evident, therefore, that digitoxin does not repre- 
sent in activity more than one-fourth of the power of digitalis, and 
any assay process of digitalis based upon the quantity of digitoxin 
it contains, discards three-fourths of the active substance of the 
plant. As rational would it be, apparently, to assay opium for the 
codeine in it, neglecting the morphine, as to assay digitalis for its 
digitoxin alone. 

If digitoxin possesses the precise physiological and therapeutic 
properties of digitalis leaf, the mere quantitative difference becomes a 
matter of minor importance, since it only necessitates the giving of a 
comparatively large amount. But this does not, from our present 
knowledge, seem to be the case. One of the most interesting re- 

1 See Wenzel {Therap. Monatsch., 1S95, ix), Von St arc k( Ibid.), Masius {Bull. 
Acad. Roy. Belg., 1893, vii), Curioni [Clin. Med. Hal., 1901), etc. 

Am. Jour.'Pharm. \ 
March, 1908. J 

Therapeutic Virtues of Digitalis. 


searches bearing on this point is that of Fraenkel (Archiv.fur Exper. 
Path, und Pharm., Vol. li, p. 84). This observer found that after the 
administration of minimum lethal doses of digitoxin no slowing of the 
pulse occurred for from twelve to twenty- four hours, but when the 
effect of the drug began, it passed through the therapeutic stage into 
poisoning and even death. He found that it was well-nigh impossible 
to produce from a single dose of digitoxin any therapeutic slowing of 
the pulse which was not followed later by toxic manifestations; 
in other words, the border-line between the therapeutic dose and the 
poisonous dose was so extremely narrow that no one could walk 
therein. By the administration, however, of comparatively small 
doses for several days, he could produce easily a marked slowing ol 
the pulse. But here again the peculiar persistency and tendency to 
show a cumulative effect of digitoxin above the other principles 
became manifest. For instance, whereas, he could continue adminis- 
tering one-half of the lethal dose of digitalin daily for many weeks 
without toxic symptoms, one-third of the fatal dose of digitoxin 
repeated daily for three days caused violent poisoning. 

Again, as before, these results have been confirmed by clinical 
experience. Hatcher (Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Vol. xlvii, p. 2059) 
says, in speaking of digitoxin: "Among these disadvantages are : 
its insolubility in water and consequent irritant action, slowness to 
act, and tendency to cumulative effect ; its proneness to decomposi- 
tion, whereby toxiresin is formed ; the narrow margin between the 
effective dose and that which causes cumulative effects on con- 
tinued use ; and its marked vaso-constrictor effects, which may or 
may not be objectionable, dependent on the case in hand. . . . 
This insolubility also seems to be responsible for the delay of forty- 
eight hours or more in inducing the cardiac effects." 

For the above reasons it would seem extremely doubtful that 
digitoxin represents digitalis either quantitatively or qualitatively ; 
for while in a general way the effects of digitoxin upon the circula- 
tion are similar to those of digitalis, there are certain differences 
which may seem slight, but yet which are of great practical impor- 
tance. Kakowski (Archiv. Inter nat. die Pharmac. und die Therapy 
in a series of studies upon the isolated heart of both the frog and 
the mammal, reached the conclusion that none of the principles thus 
far found in digitalis had the same effect upon the heart muscle as 
did the tincture or infusion of digitalis. The principles he studied 
included digitoxin, digitalein and digitalinum. 

1 1 o Standardize! Hon o f Preparations. { A % J ™£ t Sg. rm ' 

In closing, I quote, as having some bearing on the question of the 
practical utility of digitoxin, from Dixon {Manual of Pharmacology , 
1906, p. 169) : " The samples of digitoxin at present on the market 
vary in activity even more than the galenical preparations." 


By Dr. E. D. Reed. 

The question of the physiological standardization of drugs is one 
that has been attended by a great deal of interest both by pharma- 
ceutical chemists and physicians. No one can deny the desirability 
and the value of knowing the exact physiological activity of any 
preparation to be used as a medicine. However, the methods com- 
monly employed for physiological testing are by no means accepted 
by everyone as correct, or as showing the real activity of a drug. 

Without doubt, wherever a chemical assay is possible, it forms 
the most reliable means of anticipating the physiological or thera- 
peutic activity of any given preparation. This, however, does not 
rule out the desirability of a control test by physiological methods; 
but whether or not this should be carried out in all instances is a 
question hard to decide. 

Perhaps no drug has received a greater amount of attention in an 
effort to formulate a reliable method for standardization than digitalis 
and other members of the so-called digitalis series. 

It is not necessary to consider the other members, such as 
strophanthus, hellebore, squill, etc., as digitalis is the most 
important member of this series. The isolation of the active prin- 
ciples of digitalis is rather difficult, and it has been maintained by 
a number of very competent observers that a chemical assay of 
digitalis and its preparations is of little value in estimating the 
physiological activity of the drug. Digitalis and the other mem- 
bers of this family are noted for their stimulating action upon the 
heart. A great many other properties, namely diuretic, and action 
on the central nervous system, have been claimed for digitalis, and 
several attempts have been made to show that various therapeutic 
properties depended upon one or the other of the several glucosides 

^MiJShJfiS™'} Standardization of Preparations. ill 

occurring in the drug. More recent experience, however, has shown 
that the active principles of digitalis act primarily on the heart and 
blood-vessels, and all other effects are secondary; but in many cases 
the secondary action of the drug is undesirable. 

Of the active principles of digitalis, digitoxin is by far the most 
important and possesses the heart-stimulating property to a much 
greater degree than any of the other principles. 

The cardiac action of digitalis is its most important effect and 
one which has been studied very widely, particularly on the heart 
of the frog. The action of digitalis on the frog's heart is very 
characteristic. After administration it can be observed that the 
rhythm of the heart is slowed and that on contraction it occupies 
a smaller volume and does not dilate as fully as under normal con- 
ditions. The ventricle is observed to be whiter during contraction, 
and on dilation does not become so red. A tracing forms a plateau 
when the heart is in systole. 

A frog killed by digitalis dies with its heart in systole. This 
happens very rarely, if at all, with the mammalian heart, and was 
thought for a long time to be a distinguishing feature between the 
action of digitalis on cold-blooded and warm-blooded animals. 
However, recent research shows that the changes which take place 
in a frog's heart under digitalis are very closely related to those 
taking place in the mammalian heart. We can divide the action of 
digitalis on the mammalian heart into three stages : First, the thera- 
peutic stage, in which the rhythm of the heart is slowed and 
there is an increased and prolonged systole. The ventricles more 
nearly empty themselves of blood, and by their prolonged con- 
traction maintain a higher blood-pressure in the vessels than nor- 
mally. In the second stage, the rhythm of the heart and pulse is 
very slow and becomes irregular. During diastole the ventricles 
dilate more fully, while the systole is not so regular and many times 
weaker, so that more blood remains in the heart than before the 
drug was administered. This serves to distinguish the first and 
second stages; namely, in the first stage more blood is pumped out 
or expelled by the ventricle than normal ; in the second stage, less 
blood is thrown out than normal. 

The important clinical observation which distinguishes the one 
stage from the other is the irregularity of the pulse. When this 
occurs, the action of the drug is reaching the second stage and 
should be immediately withdrawn. 

112 Standardization of Preparations. { Am March,f908. rm ' 

The third stage is the stage in which the toxic action of the drug 
is the most marked. In this stage the rhythm of the heart is 
markedly increased, sometimes the pulse is very much faster than 
normal, but the most characteristic feature of this stage is the 
extreme irregularity of the contraction of the ventricle. If we 
examine this by, means of a tracing, we get a curve which is char- 
acterized by the extreme irregularity of the up-stroke, which repre- 
sents the contraction of the ventricle. During this stage the effect 
of digitalis on the central nervous system is quite marked. Vom- 
iting and convulsions are prominent symptoms. Death rapidly 
follows and is immediately preceded by an extreme irregularity and 
rapidity of the beat, the so-called " delirium cordis." On autopsy, 
the heart in mammals is found to be dilated and full of blood. 

The first or therapeutic stage is the important one to consider in 
the administration of digitalis as a medicine. It has little, if any, 
relation to the second or third stage, and in fact any of the symp- 
toms of the second and third stage are danger signals to be heeded, 
and call for the immediate withdrawal of the drug. 

The question of physiological standardization of digitalis has 
resolved itself into the specific action of the drug on the heart 
of the frog. Frogs were treated with digitalis in varying quantities, 
and that amount of digitalis which would kill a, frog of definite 
weight, and which on autopsy showed its heart to be in systole 
was considered to be an index of the physiological activity of the 

While no objections can be offered against this method as showing 
one of the actions of digitalis on the heart, we do not think that it 
is an absolute or even a safe method for the standardization of this 
drug. It is, after all, only a toxic effect, and the fact that the frog 
dies with its heart in systole is not any more characteristic than the 
mammalian heart in diastole. In either case the animal dies, and the 
cause of its death is the action of digitalis on the heart, and this 
method of the physiological standardization of digitalis is nothing 
more than a determination of the lethal dose. 

Recognizing the great irregularity of the frog in its response to 
digitalis, in which the season of the year plays a very important 
role, the difference with which different species of frogs respond to 
digitalis, and the necessity of carrying out tests on frogs of equal 
weight, it was deemed advisable to standardize digitalis by using a 

Am Mwch,i9of. rm '} Standardization of Preparations. 113 

mammal, particularly the guinea-pig, which is quite sensitive to 
digitalis and which does not appear to offer so wide a variation as is 
observed in testing this drug on frogs of different kinds and at dif- 
erent seasons of the year. 

It was thought desirable also to determine what, if any, relation 
there was between the lethal dose of a digitalis preparation and the 
amount of digitoxin present, which principle is more easily deter- 
mined by chemical means than the other principles accompanying 
it. The results of these experiments will be detailed in the second 
portion of the paper. 

Experiments with various preparations of digitalis and with the 
active principle digitoxin point very clearly to the fact that digitoxin 
represents, if not all, by far the most important properties of digi- 

In determining the lethal dose of any digitalis preparation, guinea, 
pigs are selected of 240 grammes weight. The preparation to be 
tested, if a tincture or fluidextract, is freed from the greater part of 
alcohol by evaporation at a low temperature and diluted with water 
to the desired quantity. Progressively increasing amounts are 
injected subcutaneously into the guinea-pig. A poisonous dose is 
followed within twenty minutes to a half hour by symptoms of ex- 
citement in the animal. The animal runs around its cage, trembles, 
and a very decided nausea is present. This is rapidly followed by 
convulsions, which rapidly increase in intensity and in the intervals 
between them. The animal usually dies during one of these con- 
vulsions. It has been observed after experiments on many animals 
that a dose of digitalis or its preparation which does not kill the 
animal within two hours is never fatal. This has been accepted 
arbitrarily as a standard, and that dose of digitalis which kills the 
guinea-pig of 240 grammes weight between an hour and a half and 
two hours after administration, we fix as our lethal dose. Upon 
determining the lethal dose of a given preparation by means of a 
series of guinea-pigs, we take the lethal dose so determined and ad- 
minister that amount to five or six other pigs as a control. With- 
out exception, we have found that the dose determined in a series 
invariably kills the same size pig under the same conditions. 

How closely this lethal dose is related to the digitoxin present in 
a given preparation will also be shown in the second portion of the 
paper. Our work so far seems to justify us in using the toxic dose 

ii 4 

Standardization of Preparations. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
March, 1908. 

determined for a warm-blooded animal as a control over the chemi- 
cal assay rather than the commonly accepted method of standardiz- 
ing digitalis by means of its action on the frog's heart. 

The idea is rapidly gaining ground among clinicians that digi- 
toxin is the real active principle of digitalis, from which all the 
effects of digitalis preparations can be obtained. Its use in a pure 
condition probably is a long way off, as no satisfactory preparations 
have yet been made available, and we must still depend for the most 
part on a reliable tincture or fluidextract for digitalis therapy ; but 
as there are several other principles in digitalis other than digitoxin, 
which are not inert, but evidently reinforce digitoxin in its action, 
and as these principles are not easily determined by chemical assay, 
it seems advisable that digitalis should be standardized, as to digi- 
toxin content, which assures us of its therapeutic effect and, further, 
more, the toxic action of the combined principles should be deter- 
mined by means of physiological test. 


By Charges B. Vanderkeeed. 

Both the title of the fourth paper on our programme this evening 
and the time at our disposal limit the scope of this contribution to 
a discussion of the standardization of digitalis preparations, and, 
therefore, to review the chemical work on this interesting drug, of 
such men as Homolle, Nativelle, Schmiedeberg and Keller, the 
monumental researches of Kiliani, or the more recent discus- 
sion of the latter with Cloetta in regard to his (Cloetta's) so-called 
amorphous digitoxin is uncalled for. Moreover, it is not yet possible 
to settle beyond all doubt the accuracy of the various chemical views 
about the digitalis glucosides that have been supported by the vari- 
ous investigators, although it is generally conceded that Kiliani's 
work affords us the most exhaustive and reliable data concerning 
this very interesting and, in part, very valuable substance. It may 
not be out of place, therefore, to endeavor to sum up briefly such 
facts as all are agreed upon in order to have before us a clear view 
of the digitalis standardization problem. 

All authorities agree that digitalis leaves vary greatly in physio- 
logical activity, that those of the first year's growth are practically 
inactive, and that those only of the second year's growth, collected 
preferably at the commencement of flowering, should be employed. 

Am M£Sh,iM& DD "} Standardization of Preparations. 115 

Moreover, it has been shown not only that moist leaves quickly be. 
come worthless, and that only the dried, or almost completely dried, 
leaves can be kept for any appreciable length of time without de- 
terioration, but that great care must be exercised in the process of 
drying, in order that the very process which is intended to aid in 
preserving the activity of the leaves be not instrumental in destroy- 
ing it. (In Caeser and Loretz's report in the Apotheker Zeitung, 
1907, p. 794, Dr. C. Focke is quoted as stating that to dry leaves 
until 1-5 per cent, moisture remains is a guarantee against deterior- 
ation. It is probable that this only means that when all but 1-5 
per cent, of moisture has been removed, enough has been eliminated 
to guard against deterioration due to the hydrolyzing effect of the 
moisture, whereas, on the other hand, the drying has not been pro- 
longed so far as to injure the delicate active principles. 

It is perfectly apparent, therefore, that the appearance of the drug 
per se can be no criterion of its activity. The National Standard 
Dispensatory (page 530) states that there is no satisfactory method 
of distinguishing leaves of the first from those of the second year's 
growth. Moreover, the process of drying would serve further to 
render more difficult a macro- or microscopic distinction between 
active and inactive leaves, and the same sample of leaves, although 
originally good, but improperly dried, would be difficult to distin- 
guish from the same lot when dried under proper restrictions as to 
heat and light. It has been my experience in examining samples 
of digitalis leaves for several years, that physical appearance is not 
a reliable criterion of quality, although the identity of the leaf can 
be established with comparative ease. 

No one will deny, therefore, that some sort of standardization of 
digitalis leaves is not only highly desirable, but is indispensable to 
the putting, of uniformly reliable preparations into the hands of 
physicians. Tested leaves only should be used for the preparation 
of infusion of digitalis to be used extemporaneously, and all prep- 
arations of digitalis intended to be kept for some time, such as the 
tincture and fluidextract, should themselves be subjected to some 
method of testing whereby not only proof of their activity, but its 
degree as well may be established. It is well recognized that the 
fact that tinctures and fluidextracts have been prepared from assayed 
drugs is not in itself a guarantee of uniformity. 

The physiological action of digitalis is primarily that of a cardiac 

n6 Standardization of Preparations. { Am ^{rchJm Tm ' 

tonic or stimulant, followed by a pronounced diuretic effect, as was 
brought out in the first portion of the paper. Assuming Kiliani's 
work to be the most nearly correct, we have present in digitalis 
leaves three principal glucosides — digitoxin, digitalin, and digitonin. 
Digitoxin is a crystalline glucoside, soluble in alcohol and chloroform 
and in a mixture of alcohol, glycerin and water, slightly soluble in 
ether and insoluble in water and petroleum benzine ; digitalin is an 
amorphous glucoside, soluble in alcohol and in a mixture of alcohol 
and chloroform, but only sparingly soluble in ether, chloroform and 
water ; while digitonin is a crystallizable glucoside, soluble in alcohol 
and in a mixture of alcohol and chloroform, but sparingly soluble in 
chloroform alone, and differing from the other glucosides in being 
somewhat more soluble in water. Moreover, this glucoside renders 
digitalin and possibly also digitoxin more soluble in water — this effect 
being retroactive on the digitonin, increasing its water solubility. This 
effect is probably further increased by other constituents of the leaves 
such as saponins. It is in this way that the activity of an infusion 
of good digitalis leaves is accounted for. In this connection I wish 
merely to mention some experiments in which we attempted to 
prepare a permanent aqueous solution of the digitalis glucosides 
directly from the drug, depending upon the permanence of this 
mutually reactive, increased water-solubility effect. They were un- 
successful, however, since, although fully active at first, they gradu- 
ally deteriorated, until, after two or three months, scarcely a trace 
of heart-stimulating principles remained in solution. It is apparent, 
therefore, that only hydro. alcoholic preparations, or those in which 
part of the alcohol has been replaced by glycerin, will be practically 

Of these three glucosides digitonin is present in greatest amount, 
but is devoid of all heart-stimulating action. Digitoxin is present 
in next to largest amount, while true digitalin comes last. Digi- 
toxin is the substance which is by far the strongest heart-stimulating 
principle in the drug, although the true amorphous digitalin also 
possesses the heart-stimulating action to a marked degree. 

Much of the confusion of prevalent ideas about the relative 
activity of the digitalis glucosides is due to the unfortunate jumble 
of names applied to them. Thus, commercial German digitalin, of 
variable activity, is composed principally of digitonin, while crystal- 
lized French digitalin is probably identical with digitoxin. 

Am MaSi P 9of. rm *} Standardization of Preparations. 117 

The difficulty of standardizing digitalis preparations, therefore, 
lies in the fact that no single constituent represents the entire phys- 
iologic effect of the drug. But this is not the only case of that 
kind — we have many drugs with which this condition exists, such, 
for example, as strychnine and brucine in nux vomica ; and morphine, 
codeine, narcotine, etc., in opium. This fact has not deterred us 
from officially adopting an assay process for nux vomica, based upon 
the strychnine content ; for opium, based upon the morphine per- 
centage ; and for cinchona, based upon the amounts of the alkaloids 
relatively more soluble in ether, namely: quinine, cinchonidine and 
quinidine. Why, then, should we not consider equally valuable an 
assay process for digitalis based upon the percentage of its most 
active heart-stimulating glucoside, digitoxin ? May it not be that 
such a standardization of digitalis will prove to be quite as accurate 
and efficient as the standardization of cinchona bark, based upon 
the percentage of ether-soluble alkaloids which it contains ? 

The object of this joint paper is to throw light upon that ques- 
tion. We shall endeavor, by means of a table with parallel columns, 
to show that a fairly constant ratio exists between the chemical 
assay, based upon the single constituent digitoxin, and the result of 
the physiological test on standard guinea-pigs, which, of course, is 
that due to the combined effect of all of the active principles. It 
is not necessary that the constituent which is determined should 
possess the entire activity of the drug, nor is it claimed to be so in 
this case. It is only necessary that the amount of the readily deter- 
mined principle bear a fairly constant ratio to the combined action 
of all of the drug constituents, in order to make such an assay proc- 
ess valuable. In this connection, however, Dr. Robert A. Hatcher 
states in the Journal of the American Medical Association for Decem- 
ber 22, 1906, in referring to the digitalis glucosides, that " digitoxin 
more nearly represents the leaf," and that " despite the numerous 
disadvantages of digitoxin, it bids fair to displace digitalis in thera- 
peutics." While I do not believe that Dr. Hatcher has given 
sufficient consideration to the great disadvantage of the insolubility 
of digitoxin in neutral media, thereby rendering its hypodermic use 
impossible, I fully agree with him in believing that digitoxin is by 
far the most important constituent of digitalis, and that it sufficiently 
nearly represents the drug to enable us to standardize the drug by 
means of it. 

Ii8 Standardization of Preparations. { Am M J £ch*<m? m ' 

The physiological method of testing was described in the first por- 
tion of the paper. The chemical method for determination of 
digitoxin employed is essentially that of Keller, as outlined in 
Lyon's little book on the "Assay of Drugs," and is based upon the 
relative solubility of the digitalis glucosides in chloroform and 
water, depending for the final purification of the digitoxin from other 
principles on its complete insolubility in light petroleum benzine. 
The method, as used in our laboratory, is as follows : 

Twenty grammes of the powdered leaves are exhausted by per- 
colation with 70 per cent, alcohol, and the percolate is evaporated 
at low temperature on the water-bath until all alcohol has been dis- 
sipated (or if a tincture or fluidextract is to be tested, 200 c.c. of 
the former or 20 c.c. of the latter are taken and evaporated). The 
residue is diluted with or dissolved in sufficient water to make 150 
c.c. Fifteen cubic centimeters of solution of lead subacetate (25 per 
cent.) is then added, and the mixture diluted to 200 c.c. The pre- 
cipitate is filtered out and allowed to drain thoroughly, after which 
sufficient water is passed through the precipitate on the filter to insure 
saving all retained mother liquor. The united filtrates are again 
diluted to 2CO c.c. and the excess of lead is precipitated by means 
of dried and powdered sodium sulphate or sodium phosphate. 

After standing for twenty-four hours the precipitate is filtered 
out, allowed to drain well, and is then rinsed with water, in order to 
save all of the solution. (The taking of aliquot parts, thereby 
avoiding the necessity for completed filtrations and the washing of 
precipitates, cannot be recommended in digitalis assays on account 
of the vast bulk of the lead subacetate, sodium sulphate, or sodium 
phosphate precipitates.) The solution is transferred to a separatory 
funnel, 2 c.c. of 10 per cent, ammonia water added, and the mix- 
ture shaken out with five portions of chloroform of 30 c.c. each. 
The united chloroform solutions are evaporated to dryness on the 
water-bath in a tared flask and the residue of crude digitoxin redis- 
solved in 3 c.c. of fresh chloroform. Ten cubic centimeters of ether 
and 70 c.c. of light petroleum benzine (the so-called 86°, which must 
leave no trace of residue on evaporation) are added and the flask 
allowed to stand in a cool place, covered by an inverted beaker for 
twenty-four hours. (In hot summer weather the flask is placed in 
a refrigerator.) 

The digitoxin in micro-crystalline form will be found adhering to 

Am iilrch,i908. rm '} Standardization of Preparations. 119 

the sides and bottom of the flask, from which most of the superna- 
tant liquid can be decanted. The last few drops are evaporated and 
the residue dried to constant weight at 6o° C. The weight of digi- 
toxin so obtained, multiplied by five, will express the percentage 
present in the drug. 

The following table shows the comparative results of a series of 
chemical and physiologic tests on the same preparations : 

Physiologic assay : 
Chem. assay : grammes amount to kill 240 gramme 
No. Preparations digitoxin in 100 c.c. pig in two hours 

1. U. S. P. tincture 0*0377 o*6 c.c. 

2. " " o 023 1 to 1*25 c.c. 

3. " " 0*0277 075 c.c. 

4. " " 0-0254 1 c.c. 

5. Fat-free " . 0*027 1 to 1*25 c.c. 

6. Fluidextract ....... 0*264 o" 1 c - c - 

7. " " 0*2405 0*09 to o*i c.c. 

8. " " 0*234 0*08 c.c. 

9. Powd. extract (1*061 percent.) 0*019 to 0*025 grammes. 

It will be seen from the table that quite a uniform relationship 
exists between the percentage of digitoxin found and the amount 
of the preparation required to kill a standard-weight guinea-pig in 
a definite time. Taking any one of the preparations in the table as 
a starting-point, as the amount of digitoxin in column two increases, 
the amount of the preparation required to kill in the third column 
decreases, the amounts being inversely proportional. These results 
would lose much of their meaning and value if the preparations 
assayed had all been prepared from one lot of drug. Such, how- 
ever, was not the case, as the experiment extended over a consider- 
able period of time and covered several different shipments of digi- 
talis leaves. 

The fat-free tincture referred to in the above table is one prepared 
from drug which has first been exhausted with petroleum benzine 
to remove fats, volatile oil, etc., thereby making the preparation 
miscible with aqueous solutions without causing precipitation. This 
treatment has apparently little or no effect on either the chemical 
or physiological assay. 

A summary of my records on the assay of digitalis leaves, going 
back about four years, shows the following facts : 

Highest percentage of digitoxin 0*455 per cent. 

Lowest " 0*171 " 

Average " " 0*313 '* 

120 Notes on Compound Re sorcinol Ointment. { An Mi?cb,i908. rm ' 

In two experiments on the rate of deterioration of preparations of 
digitalis, one fluidextract lost in 17^ months 22-6 per cent, of its 
digitoxin, and another fluidextract in 25 months lost 15-9 per 
cent. These were preparations which came back to the laboratory 
after having been out in the trade, and we have no knowledge of 
the conditions as to light, heat, etc., under which they were kept 
during the time specified. These results would indicate, however, 
that under ordinary trade conditions fluidextract of digitalis deterior- 
ates at the rate of about 1 1 per cent, per year. 

Research Laboratory of the 
H. K. Mulford Company, 
January 7, 1 908. 


By E. Fuu^rton. Cook, P.D. 

This ointment has been the source of considerable discussion and 
some annoyance on the part of pharmacists throughout the country, 
owing to the difficulty which is experienced in preparing it when 
the N.F. directions are strictly followed. Resorcinol is described in 
the Pharmacopoeia as " colorless needle-shaped crystals," etc., and 
the paragraph further states, " it acquires a pinkish tint on exposure 
to light and air." 

Until very recently resorcinol, as found in the pharmacy, was a 
needle-shaped crystal corresponding to this description ; conse- 
quently, in preparing this ointment, for which there has been con- 
siderable demand, it is necessary to finely powder the crystals in 
order to incorporate them in the wool-fat, as directed in the N.F. 
The experience has usually been that it is very difficult to obtain 
a smooth ointment at this point, owing to the difficulty of powdering 
the resorcinol. In fact, the water has a tendency to separate from 
the wool-fat, producing a spongy mass. This condition was experi- 
enced with an old sample of hydrous wool-fat, a sample newly pur- 
chased, and with one prepared by incorporating 30 per cent, of water 
with anhydrous wool- fat. The difficulty in incorporating resorcinol 
with the wool-fat may be overcome in one of two ways: either by 
obtaining resorcinol in an impalpable powder, which has recently 
been offered the trade, or by dissolving the crystal resorcinol in the 

Am Marchj908! m '} Notes on Compound Resorcinol Ointment. 121 

30 per cent, of water, which would normally be present in the 
hydrous wool-fat, and incorporating this solution with the right 
amount of warmed anhydrous wool-fat. 

The next difficulty which confronts the manipulator is the addition 
of the melted paraffine and petrolatum to the mixture of resorcinol, 
zinc oxide, bismuth subnitrate, and hydrous wool-fat. 

My experience at this point in the preparation of the ointment 
I find to be similar to many others. When this melted mixture of 
paraffine and petrolatum is added to the remainder of the ointment, 
whether it be in a mortar or on an ointment-slab, the paraffine will 
separate in small white particles, owing to its having a much higher 
melting-point than the petrolatum, and, consequently, cooling more 
quickly, and when this condition is experienced the usual remedy 
which the pharmacist adopts is that of rubbing small portions at a 
time until they are uniform. This involves much labor and the 
result, at best, is unsatisfactory. Having spoken with a number of 
pharmacists, I understand that this experience is common, and the 
strict following of the directions given in the N.F. for its prepara- 
tion will, I believe, always be unsatisfactory. 

After a number of experiments the following modification of the 
N.F. directions for preparing this ointment, without changing the 
ingredients, is offered : Dissolve the resorcinol (6 parts) in 10^ parts 
of water, with the aid of a little heat. Warm 24^2 parts of anhy- 
drous wool-fat contained in a porcelain dish on a water-bath, using 
just a sufficient amount of heat to soften the wool-fat, and add 
the solution ot resorcinol, stirring continuously ; then add the 
6 parts of bismuth subnitrate and 6 parts of zinc oxide, continuing 
trituration until perfectly smooth. Having melted the paraffine and 
petrolatum together, add the mixture to the warmed wool-fat, to 
which the other ingredients have been added, stirring continuously. 
Finally, incorporate the 12 parts of oil of cade, and continue the 
stirring until the ointment is firm. 

An ointment made in this way is perfectly smooth, and although 
the detail here given may seem unnecessary to those who have not 
tried this ointment, one experiment with each, which may require 
two hours of hard work to accomplish by the N.F. method, and 
fifteen minutes by the proposed method, resulting in a superior 
product, should convince the most skeptical of the need for a change 
in the N.F. directions. 

122 Notes on Compound Resorcinol Ointment. { An Mirch,im rm * 

One other point should be spoken of in connection with this 
ointment. It is directed in the N.F. that this ointment should be 
protected from light. The change of color which occurs is quite 
striking and is attributed usually to the resorcinol, which, as a phenol, 
becomes pinkish, as is recognized in the Pharmacopoeia, when 
exposed to light and air. This change of color is undoubtedly due 
to the presence of this phenol, since the mixture of all the ingre- 
dients excepting the resorcinol will not show such a change, but, on 
the other hand, if the ointment be prepared to the point of adding 
the oil of cade, and this mixture allowed to stand, the creamy white 
color is not noticeably modified by exposure to either light or air for 
at least ten days. The conclusion which must be drawn is that the 
resorcinol and the oil of cade together are responsible for the color 
changes. To a sample of the ointment, completed, excepting the 
addition of the oil of cade, creosote was added. There is no change 
in color. 

Acetic acid was added to another sample, likewise without affect- 
ing the color. It is evident that some other principle is present in 
the oil of cade to cause this rapid oxidation. 

These color changes are quite striking. The ointment, when first 
prepared, is of a light, reddish-brown color. Within one-half hour 
it has changed to a gray-brown on the surface and inside of one 
hour it develops a distinct, pinkish tint. If this be exposed to light 
and air for twenty-four hours, it has assumed, on the surface, a pur- 
plish color, much darker than at first. This change seems to be due 
more to contact with air than to light, for the same change seems 
to occur in an ointment kept in a closed ointment jar, although the 
change is only upon the surface ; the ointment one-eighth of an inch 
below the surface showing no purplish color, but the same gray-brown 
which it had assumed soon after preparation. It has been suggested 
that the ointment be prepared, excepting the addition of the oil 
of cade, and that the oil of cade be added when the ointment is 
dispensed. This, if followed, will insure a uniform product when 
the ointment leaves the pharmacy. 

Am Ma°rch,r9of. rm "} Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine. 123 


By Anna S. Kugler, M.D. 

The claims made by the Hindus in regard to the antiquity of 
their medical science exceed those made by any other people. The 
Ayur Veda, or Science of Life, is considered to be a portion of the 
fourth or Atharva Veda. Brahma communicated the Ayur Veda 
to Dakshprajapati, who, in turn, communicated it to the Ashvini 
Kumars, the twin sons of the Sun. 

The Ayur Veda consisted of one hundred adhyayas or sections, 
of one thousand slokas or stanzas each. It is divided into eight 
parts, as follows : 

(1) Skalya (surgery). This includes the methods of removing 
foreign bodies, of using surgical instruments, of applying bandages, 
and of treating various surgical diseases. 

(2) Shalakya. Treatment of diseases of parts above the clavicles 
or collar-bones, such as diseases of the eyes, nose, mouth, etc. 

(3) Kaya Chikitsa. General diseases affecting the whole body, 
such as fever, diabetes, etc. 

(4) Bhoot Vidya. Demoniacal diseases. 

(5) Kanmara Bhritya. Management of children and diseases of 
mothers and nurses. 

(6) Agada. Antidotes for poisons. 

(7) Rasayana treats of medicines preserving vigor, restoring 
youth, improving memory, and curing and preventing diseases in 

(8) Vajikarana. This treats of how the increase of the human 
race could best be promoted. 

It is said that the oldest existing treatise on Indian medicine is 
that ascribed to a son of the Vedic Saint Atreya, and hence called 
the Atreya Samhita. This is a very large work, consisting of several 
divisions. Atreya is said to have met some of his pupils on the 
northern face of the Himalayas. 

Harita, one of the pupils, asked questions on the origin and treat- 
ment of disease. Atreya explained that the Ayur Veda or Medical 
Science could not be fully explained within the limits of human 
life, and that his pupils must be content with his own composition, 
which is completed within 1,500 stanzas. These treat of almost all 

124 A ncien t and Modern Hindu Medicine. { Am M J a ° r ch . Sff m ' 

varieties of diseases and prescribe remedies for the same. Diseases 
are classified as curable, incurable, curable by charms, and scarcely 
possible to be cured. The medicinal qualities of different kinds of 
water are explained ; also of the different kinds of milk, and of the 
flesh of animals. One chapter treats of the moral causes of dis- 
eases. In another chapter diseases are treated of in detail. Inter- 
mittent fever is of four varieties, according as to whether it recurs 
in one day, three days, four days, or longer. Dysentery, diarrhoea, 
indigestion, consumption, etc., are discussed. 

The two most highly revered and most frequently quoted of an- 
cient medical writers among the Hindus are Charaka and Susruta. 
It is extremely difficult to arrive at a correct estimate of the date 
of these authors. According to some, Charaka lived 320 B. C. 
Professor Wilson, who is authority on many things in India, states 
that, as he is mentioned in the Puranas, he must have lived before 
the tenth century. Be that as it may, he was the greatest physi- 
cian of his day, and his Charaka Samhita is still held to be a 
standard work on medicine. It was his desire to teach men to so 
manage their bodies as to avoid all unnecessary pain on earth and to 
ensure happiness after death. Charaka stated that he received the 
contents of his work indirectly from Atreya. Like that of Atreya, it 
is divided and subdivided, and covers a wide range in its consideration 
of the origin, nature and treatment of disease. One division treats of 
drugs which cause vomiting and purging, and six hundred remedies 
of this character are mentioned and classified according to the place 
they come from. Another division describes how medicines 
should be introcuced into the body by means of syringes and tubes, 
and in what cases emetics, purgatives and enemas should not be 

The work of Susruta is held in as high esteem by native vaichyas 
or physicians as an authority on surgery as is that of Charaka on 
medicine. The cause assigned for the meagerness of the surgical 
instruments and appliances of the ancients is that their acquaint- 
ance with the properties and virtues of drugs was so great that most 
of the diseases and injuries now dealt with by the surgeon were 
then cured by medication. An abscess was made to subside by 
plasters or brought to maturity by poultices. Cases of urinary cal- 
culi were treated by antilithics and diuretics. And yet in their 
works no less than 125 surgical instruments are described. 

, Am M J a?ch', : f£s. rm '} Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine, 12$ 

Hindus were experts in forming new ears and noses, owing to the 
punishment so common then in India of cutting off the nose and 
ears. Dr. Hirschfeld, of Berlin, is quoted as saying : " The whole 
plastic surgery of Europe took new flight when these cunning 
devices of Indian workmen became known to us. The transplanting 
of sensible skin-flaps is also an entirely Indian method." The 
Hindus are also credited with discovering the art of cataract couch- 

In Cesarean section and other abdominal operations, and in am- 
putations, they are said to have been experts. Inoculation for small- 
pox is said to have been known to them at a very early date. 

According to Dr. Wise, the Hindus were acquainted with practi- 
cal anatomy, and Sir Bhagavat-Singh Jee says that they taught and 
practiced the dissection of the human body, but the consensus of 
opinion seems to be that anatomy was the weakest side of Indian 
medicine. The following method of studying the structure of the 
human body is given : 

Let the physician have the corpse, together with its receptacle, 
fastened in a brook to' macerate. At the end of seven days the 
corpse should be rubbed with pieces of bark and all the external 
and internal parts can then be seen. 

The human body is said to consist of 6 members, the 4 extremities, 
the trunk and the head ; and has 7 membranes, 7 segments, 70 
vessels, 500 muscles, 900 sinews, 300 bones, 212 joints, 24 nerves, 
9 organs of sense, etc. The vessels contain not only blood, but 
carry also bile, mucus and air. 

Very explicit directions are given in regard to the surgeon and the 
way in which he is to acquire manual dexterity. He was to 
practice scission or cutting on flowers, incision on skins or bladders 
filled with paste, lancing on the hollow stalks of plants, sutures on 
skins, ligatures and bandages on well-made models of human limbs. 
Susruta directs that the surgeon, before commencing his art, should 
equip himself with all the requisites, such as the instruments, salts, 
bandages, honey, oil, water, etc. He should have practical experi- 
ence in his art and should have seen many operations performed by 
others. He should be intelligent, steady and skilful, and should 
have a light hand. He should have steady and strong attendants 
to assist him. A certain incense should be kept burning in the 
operation-room. The surgeon should not leave his patient without 

126 Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine. { Am i/ a ° r "b,]9os. rm ' 

offering a prayer to the Almighty for his recovery. Should the 
wound cause intense pain, a cloth soaked in melted ghee and licorice 
may be applied. The operations were performed on auspicious 
days, and the patient was made to sit or stand with his face to the 

In cases of patients dreading the knife, and of children, sharp 
pieces of bamboo or glass were substituted. Leeches, caustics, and 
hot charcoal were used in the treatment of certain affections. The 
surgical instruments were to be made of the best steel and kept in 
handsome portable wooden boxes. It is thought that the disap- 
pearance of surgery from Hindu medicine is chiefly due to the aver, 
sion of the Brahmins to touching a dead body, and to coming into 
contact with pus, blood, etc. Surgery thus passed from the 
priestly class into the hands of the lower classes, and for lack of 
encouragement declined altogether, until bleeding was left to the 
barbers, bone-setting to the herdsman, and the application of blis- 
ters to every man. 

The obstetric art is considered a branch of surgery and is treated 
at great length. External circumstances were supposed to act very 
powerfully on the physical and moral qualities of the offspring. On 
this account the woman, from the time of conception, should be kept 
happy, should remain pure, and should wear ornaments and white 
clothes. She should not touch a dirty, diseased or imperfectly 
formed individual. Great attention should be paid to the diet: 
during the first three months the food should be very cool and 
thin, as rice and milk. When abortion is threatened, cold water 
and cold bathing should be used. On a favorable day in the ninth 
month the pregnant woman is to be removed to a temporary hut 
built for the purpose, the door to the east or south. Four expe- 
rienced women should be selected to assist at delivery. Sour gruel 
in large quantities was to be given to assist in the expulsion of the 
foetus. In case of delay the smoke of the skin of the black serpent 
was to be applied to the vagina. 

When the infant was born, a little fine salt and ghee were mixed 
and put in the mouth, a mixture of linseed, margosa leaves, and 
ghee was rubbed upon its head, and a piece of oiled cloth put over 
it. The cord was tied eight fingers from the navel and then divided, 
and one end was tied around the neck to prevent evil. A little cold 
water was then thrown over its face, and the father offered up the 

Am Mar°ch r ; 5o* rm ' 1 A ncient and Modem Hindu Medicine. 1 27 

prescribed prayers. Much was written in regard to dystocia, and 
directions were given in regard to Caesarean section. 

The ancient Hindus paidgreat attention to hygiene and prescribed 
rules for the regulation of the life of the individual, both in sickness 
and in health. Health was thought to be promoted by the exhibi- 
tion of an emetic once a fortnight, a purgative once a month, and 
blood-letting once a year. 

Having thus briefly glanced' at surgery, as practiced by Susruta 
and others, we return to the subject of medicine by giving a descrip- 
tion of a good physician. He must be a person of strict veracity, 
of the greatest sobriety, of good moral character, and be versed in 
all the commentaries of the Ayur Veda. He must be a man of 
sense and benevolence, his heart must be charitable, his temper calm, 
and his constant study how to do good. He should daily improve 
his mind by an attentive perusal of scientific books. He should 
have his hair dressed and his nails pared ; should have clean clothes 
and carry a stick. To treat a patient conscientiously was supposed 
to bring punyam or merit to the physician. For the sake of his 
livelihood he will be justified in expecting a fee from well-to-do 
people. The Hindus are enjoined not to approach a king, a pre- 
ceptor or a physician empty-handed. 

The Hindus were then, as they are now, very particular about the 
selection of auspicious days for the preparation of their medicines 
and the beginning of treatment. For instance, Mondays, Tuesdays 
and Saturdays were inauspicious days for certain drugs. Tuesdays, 
Thursdays and Sundays were the best days for the administration of 
purgatives and emetics. 

In regard to prognosis, diseases were classified as curable (sadhya), 
incurable (asadhya), and controllable by remedies only (yapya). The 
physician is warned to refrain from treating a disease that is quite 

They claimed that of all diseases the etiology was as follows: 
Adverse correlation, absence of correlation, and excessive correla- 
tion of time, mind and the organs of the senses. Time here means 
not only that which is divided into days, weeks, etc., but infancy, 
youth, manhood and old age. All morbid phenomena were attrib- 
uted to the disordered condition of the three principal humors of 
the body, called doshas, viz.: wind, bile and phlegm. These three 
humors were supposed to fill the whole body, but the principal seat 

128 Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine. { A VaXfm m ' 

of the wind is between the feet and the umbilicus, of the bile be- 
tween the umbilicus and the heart, and of the phlegm, between the 
heart and the vertex. Wind predominates in old age, bile in 
middle life and phlegm in childhood. 

The whole system of Hindu medicine centers around these three 
forces. These words do not have the same meaning attached to 
them in ordinary language, but are technical terms used to imply 
certain states of the body. Treatment is regarded as depending 
upon the physician, nurse, patient and drugs. 

Omens played an important part in the mind of the Hindu phy- 
sician. A few good omens were : an umbrella, cow with calf, woman 
with baby, two Brahmins, horse, elephant, dancing-girl, and full 

Among unlucky omens were grass, snake, raw cotton, oil, enemy, 
butter-milk, one-eyed person, crow, corpse, and empty water-pot. 

The messenger sent to call the physician should be of the same 
sex and caste as the patient, of good breeding, clever, clean, well 
dressed, driving a horse or bullock, and holding fruits and white 
flowers in his hands. A widow or a beggar is not a suitable mes- 
senger. Importance was attached by the physician to the dreams 
of the patient. When other remedies failed, the horoscope was 
consulted. The duration of a disease was believed to be influenced 
by the day on which it manifested itself. 

Among the causes of disease Karma or Fate took an important 
place. Thus, the murderer of a Brahmin suffered from anaemia, a 
cow killer from leprosy, etc. Diseases caused in this way may be 
cured by propitiatory rites, or if these fail, the progress of the disease 
will be checked in the life to come. 

Demons also were recognized as agents in the causation of cer- 
tain affections. Such diseases, as well as many others, were cured 
by amulets and charms. 

In diagnosing disease, physical signs, such as palpation, percus- 
sion and auscultation, etc., were recognized and referred to in the 
work of Charaka. The materia medica of the Hindus was most 
elaborate, and in it were described the properties of drugs belong- 
ing to the animal, vegetable and mineral kingdoms. Charaka 
gives 50 groups of 10 herbs each, which he thought enough for 
the purpose of an ordinary physician. 

Susruta arranged 760 herbs in 37 sets. Other writers classified 

Am Mi?ch*,f908. rm '} Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine. 129 

remedies as antispasmodic, cathartic, expectorant, diuretic, hypnotic, 
hydragogue, anaesthetic, etc. 

In addition to Charaka and Susruta, there were many authors of 
note in ancient and medieval India. An oft-quoted Sanscrit stanza 
states that " Madhava is unrivaled in diagnosis, Vagbhatu in 
principles and practice of medicine, Susruta in surgery and Charaka 
in medicine." 

During the palmy days of Buddhism in India, under the reign of 
Asoka,in the third century,priests associated themselves in companies 
for the education of children, the relief of the sick, and the propagation 
of the Buddhist religion. Hospitals were erected and a regular system 
of medical administration established throughout the kingdom. 
With the decline of Buddhism these institutions disappeared. We 
close this part of our subject with a quotation from Prof. Wilson : 
" The ancient Hindus attained as thorough a proficiency in medi- 
cine and surgery as any people whose acquisitions are recorded." 

Several things combined to bring about a decline of Hindu medi- 
cine and surgery. Of these a very important one was the contempt 
with which the Mohammedan conquerors of Hindustan regarded 
the scientific knowledge of the Hindus. The diffusion of the Euro- 
pean system of medicine also acted as a discouragement to the 
study of the Sanscrit works. As time went on the ancient works 
became more inaccessible, and imperfect copies were substituted. 
Thus confidence diminished and superstition and quackery increased. 

Let us now turn to the condition of Hindu medicine as it exists 
in India to-day. 

Of the native physicians of to-day, an experienced Hindu 
apothecary writes, that " most of the native doctors are those who, 
having failed in other spheres of life, adopt the healing profession as 
an easy means of getting a living." He also writes : " In villages 
where no English medical aid is available and where the patients 
are poor, they cannot but have recourse to native doctors. If the 
disease or complaint is an ordinary one, these poor people get well. 
If severe and complicated, they are sure to die by maltreatment. 
My belief is that those unfortunate beings who fall into the hands 
of native quacks are up to 50 or 60 per cent, killed by over-drug- 
ging or poisoning by aconite, arsenic or mercury." The descrip- 
tion given by this gentleman is similar to my own experience. 

In the bazaars of every large town in India will be found one or 

130 Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine. {^ii£^ml m ' 

more shops in which are kept for sale an assortment of English 
medicines, and native medicines are found in all the bazaars. 

The ordinary native doctor, whose preparation consists in the 
purchase of a few bazaar drugs and the assumption of a knowledge 
he does not possess, often succeeds in making a very good living. 
Mercury is much used as a remedial agent, and it is not un- 
common to see ankylosis of the jaw, necrosis of the maxillary bones, 
and gangrene of the cheek as the result of its use. 

The actual cautery is much used, and a common way of applying 
it is by means of wicks dipped in boiling oil. Every newborn child 
is burned a number of times over the abdomen. Paralysis, convul- 
sions, abdominal and pelvic disorders are treated with the actual 
cautery, and we often have patients brought to us covered with 

The superstitions of the people are taken advantage of by the 
native doctors. This is especially true in the case of the devil doc- 
tors. Many forms of nervous and mental diseases are believed to 
be the result of devil possession, and I have known of well- 
marked cases of hysteria, mania, etc., being treated as such. A few 
months before I left Guntur, I spent several hours with three devil 
doctors, two old men and their nephew. They had inherited the 
profession from their father, and would pass it down to their sons. 
They gave me a very elaborate account of their method of exorcising 
devils, the principal feature of which was the repetition of mantrums 
or prayers, which are composed of various combinations of sixty-four 
letters. After the devil has been exorcised the doctor ties a charm 
around the neck of the patient. Thurston, in his " Ethnographic 
Notes," devotes a large space to omens, evil eye, charms, etc. 

Mantrams or consecrated formulas are considered so powerful 
that even the gods can be brought under control. They are effi- 
cacious in curing diseases, in protecting children against devils, and 
women against miscarriage. Many of the disorders of children are 
attributed to the evil eye. The following is one of the many reme- 
dies : Some chillies salt, human hair, nail-cuttings, and finely pow- 
dered earth from the pit of the doorpost are mixed together, whirled 
three times in front of the baby, and then thrown on the fire. 

Votive offerings also occupy a large place in the thoughts of the 
people, and the temples are daily thronged with those who have 
come to fulfil vows made during illness or because illness has 

Am Ml?ch.f9of. rm *} Ancient and Modem Hindu Medicine. 131 

been averted. The offering may be a beautiful little daughter 
who will be married to one of the temple gods and brought up to a 
life of shame. One lady in South India has devoted her life to the 
rescue of these little temple girls. The cholera and small-pox god- 
desses are held in great esteem by the masses. During the cholera 
epidemic, in 1906, a great sacrifice was made in Guntur to the god- 
dess, and at such a time buffaloes, goats, and chickens are offered. 

In addition to these irregular methods of treatment, there is what 
may be called the regular school of Hindu medicine, to which a small 
class of native doctors belong. I have frequently met some of these 
men in the homes of the people, and not infrequently they are in 
attendance upon the patient at the same time as myself. These 
men are not averse to being interrogated as to their training, meth- 
ods of treatment, etc. They have acquired their knowledge from 
their fathers and grandfathers, and from books handed down in the 
family. These books have been written in modern times, but are 
based upon those of the ancients, Charaka, Susruta and others, but 
are greatly inferior to them. The practice of the regular Hindu 
physicians of to-day is based upon a false knowledge of anatomy and 
physiology, and upon erroneous theories as to the cause and nature 
of disease. They have never dissected, have never seen the inside 
of the human body, have no knowledge of the clinical thermom- 
eter, the stethoscope, the microscope, etc., have attended no medi- 
cal schools, read no medical journals, and belong to no medical 
society. For them the human body is composed of 306 bones, 210 
joints, 900 ligaments, 700 vessels, etc. 

In the diagnosis of disease great stress is laid upon the pulse, 
which in the male must be felt in the right wrist, in the female 
in the left. Many explanations are given for this, one being that 
the blood-vessels are differently distributed in the two sexes. The 
character of the pulse is largely depended upon for determining the 
predominance of one or other of the three humors of the body. If 
the pulse feels like the creeping of a serpent or a leech, wind is 
predominant, if it be jumping like a frog, or similar to the flight of a 
crow, bile predominates. When it strikes the finger slowly and re- 
sembles the strutting of a peacock it shows that the phlegm is in 
excess. As the health of the individual depends upon the proper 
relation of these three humors, disease is the result of a want of 
correlation, and the treatment of disease consists in the restoration 

132 A ncient and Modern Hindu Medicine. { ^i^h, i<m? m ' 

of this disordered relation. The use of drugs is based upon this 
theory, and all remedies are considered with reference to their effects 
upon these three humors. 

According to them, every substance, whether animal, vegetable, or 
mineral, possesses five properties, namely rasa, guna, veerya, vibaka, 
and prabhava, which may be interpreted as taste, virtue, power, con- 
sequence of action and inherent nature. Some of the remedies 
derived from the animal kingdom are the bone of a goat, the tooth 
of an elephant, milk, human milk in eye diseases (this is very com- 
mon), goats' milk in phthisis, etc. Kasturi or musk and the venom 
of snakes are much in use. Urine is used both internally and ex- 
ternally. Among the minerals used are metals, salts, precious stones 
and clay. The process of purification of the metals is very long 
and tedious. 

The application of remedies to the eye as counterirritants, and to 
the crown of the head, are among the favorite methods in use. 

Caste to-day rules the medical as well as every other profession 
in India, and the practice of the native doctor is well expressed in 
the words of one who said to me : " We treat all castes, but in cases 
where we find it objectionable to feel the pulse, we get full partic- 
ulars regarding urine, etc., and then give necessary treatment." 

Surgery has entirely fallen into the hands of Mohammedans and 
barbers. A number of arms and legs have been amputated in our 
hospitals as the result of the bamboo splints applied by the bar- 
bers. Midwifery is entirely in the hands of the barber women, or, 
as they are called in Southern India, the mantrasani. These women 
always wash their hands after the delivery of their patient, and we 
have had hundreds of their victims come to us, sometimes too late 
for craniotomy to save the mother, sometimes suffering from acquired 
atresia of the vagina, or it may be with vesico-vaginal fistula and 
other injuries of the birth-canal. 

Some of the more intelligent of the Orthodox Hindu doctors are 
recognizing the limitations that hinder their development, and are 
endeavoring to bring about a revival of the Ayur Vedic system of 
medicine. The late Maharajah of Mysore established a college 
wherein a complete training, according to the Ayur Vedic system, is 
available. This system is also taught in Calcutta, Benares, Bombay, 
Madras and other cities. 

The oldest and largest of the two schools of this kind in Madras 

Am Ma°rch, i& rm " } Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine, 133 

is known as the Madras Ayur Vedic College, and is under the aus- 
pices of the Sri Kanyaka Paramesvari Charities. The course of 
study extends over three years. The works of Charaka, Susruta, 
Bahata and other Ayur Vedic writers are taught. Anatomy, physi- 
ology, materia medica, midwifery and hygiene are also taught by 
graduates of the English Medical College of Madras. The students 
who pass the required examinations receive diplomas stating that 
they are qualified physicians of the Ayur Vedic system. At present 
they have only a dispensary in connection with this school, but they 
hope soon to have a hospital. From 200 to 300 patients are treated 
daily at this dispensary. When in October, 1906, I visited this in- 
stitution, the superintendent, Pandit D. Gopala Charlu, was most 
courteous in his attention and showed me everything of interest. 
In the waiting- and treatment-rooms there was nothing to distinguish 
them from the ordinary Government dispensary. The prescriptions 
are written in Sanscrit and compounded in the drug-room by the 
students. The drugs are obtained largely from Mysore and Mala- 
bar, but a few herbs are cultivated in the garden adjoining the 
building. Pills, powders, tinctures, honeys, waters, ointments and 1 
oils are upon the shelves of the drug-room. Arsenic, strychnine, nuxr 
vomica, lead, zinc, mercury, iron and gold are used in different 
forms. The superintendent belongs to an old family of Hindu phy- 
sicians and is on very friendly terms with European members of the 
medical profession. He has made a special study of plague, and 
has a special remedy for it. He writes : " In the good old days,, 
more than a thousand years ago, when several of the nations now 
held up as models of civilization were naked savages, fighting (at 
existence with many of their more formidable enemies, the great 
medical men of India were grappling with this formidable disease." 
It is the ambition of the Pandit to have an Ayur Vedic dispensary 
in every district of the Madras Presidency. 

In conclusion, we may ask : What is the condition of medicine in 
India to-day ? 

It seems to me that the condition of medicine is not unlike that 
of religion. There is the quackery that has arisen because of the 
decline of ancient Hindu medicine ; a system based on hypocrisy 
and deception, succeeding in proportion to the superstition and 
ignorance of the people, having its counterpart in modern Hinduism, 
with its temples and priests. There are the comparatively few hered- 


Progress in Pharmacy. 

( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
1 March, 1908. 

itary medical practitioners who are, I believe, in many instances 
honestly trying to practice the healing art by closely adhering to 
the medical teaching that has come down through the ages, 
corresponding in part to the so-called Orthodox Hindu who goes 
back to the Vedas for his religious teaching. There are those who, in 
the recently established Ayur Vedic schools, are trying to combine 
the ancient and the modern systems, corresponding to the Brahmo- 
Somaj and other reform societies. 

And, lastly, there is the medical science that, by means of the 
English Government and the medical missionary, has come from 
the West, bringing with it much that is good, not a little of which 
has been received from the East, to which it is brought, something 
in the way that Christianity, though originating in the East, is now 
brought back from the West. 

What will be the outcome of it all ? As concerns religion, it is 
not my purpose to attempt an answer here. I know of no one who 
has attempted to answer, as regards medicine. 

It seems not too much to hope that, as the years go by, more 
attention may be paid to Ayur Vedic medicine by all students of 
medicine, and that that which is good in it may be incorporated into 
a system which, being neither that of the East nor of the West, 
may be a universal system of medicine whose chief object shall be 
the amelioration of human suffering and the prevention of disease. 



Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Food and drug legislation is again attracting the attention of all 
branches of the drug trade. This is due to the fact that in a num- 
ber of States the Legislature is considering the enactment of laws 
more or less in harmony with the Federal Act of June 30, 1 906. 

The Federal law has been in operation long enough to demon- 
strate that it is a factor for the bringing about of better conditions, 
despite the fact that it comes far, very far, from correcting all of the 
abuses that it was expected to remedy. 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
March, 1908. 

P-r ogress in Pharmacy, 


The surmise that Congress would be tempted to modify or amend 
the Federal law at an early date appears to have been well founded, 
as at least several bills amending the Pure Food and Drugs Act are 
now pending in committee, though it is hoped they will be allowed 
to remain securely pigeonholed until the law has been sufficiently 
tested to demonstrate its shortcomings and needs. 

One of the proposed amendments, introduced by Senator Gallin- 
ger, of New Hampshire, proposes to make the Homeopathic Phar- 
macopoeia of the United States a drug standard of equal standing 
with the Pharmacopoeia of the United States. Apart from the fact 
that legislation of this kind would appear to be introducing con- 
flicting standards, it has been pointed out that the Homeopathic 
Pharmacopoeia of the United States is but one of several homeo- 
pathic pharmacopoeias that are now in use in this country, and that 
it is not generally recognized by homeopathic practitioners. 

A bill that has been introduced in the House by Representative 
Mann, of Illinois, is designed to correct the abuse that has grown 
out of the form of guarantee that is now allowed on the label. 
Practically the same object is sought by a bill that has been intro- 
duced in the Senate by Senator Heyburn. 

While it is true that the present style of guarantee has been 
abused to some, extent, attention is being called to the fact that 
manufacturers and others have but recently accommodated them- 
selves to the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act, and it would be 
a hardship to compel them to destroy their stock of labels, now on 
hand, and revise the form of guarantee to conform with the modifi- 
cation proposed by either of the proposed measures. 

The U.S. P.. and N.F. propaganda is attracting considerable atten- 
tion in various parts of the country. Retail pharmacists appear to 
have been uniformly successful in calling the attention of phy- 
sicians to the articles official in the Pharmacopoeia and the National 

It has been pointed out repeatedly that if this propaganda is to 
meet with the continued success that it rightfully deserves, retail 
pharmacists must take cognizance of their own shortcomings, from 
a scientific point of view, and endeavor to meet the increased de- 
mands that will be made on them. They will also be required to 
recognize their sins of omission and commission in connection with 
the nostrum traffic, and correct at least many, if not all, of the abuses 


Progress in Pharmacy. 

/Am. Jour. Pnarro. 
1 March, 1908. 

that are now so manifest. This latter need appears to have been 
dwelt upon at some length at a joint meeting of retail druggists and 
physicians recently held in Chicago. 

Another need that has manifested itself is the improvement of 
many of the preparations enumerated in the National Formulary ? 
also a few, at least, of the preparations of the U.S.P. This need has 
been recognized by the several branches of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, and a concerted attempt is now being made to 
institute investigations looking to the possible improvement of 
U.S.P. and N.F. formulas. 

The Chicago branch has been particularly active in this line of 
work and a number of valuable suggestions have been brought 
forward by members of this branch. 

Discouraging the Prescribing of Secret Remedies. — That the present 
move to discourage the use of secret remedies by physicians is 
attracting the attention of thinking men in all parts of the world is 
evidenced by the action of the British Columbia Medical Associa- 
tion. At the annual meeting, held in Victoria, B. C, this Associa- 
tion adopted resolutions deprecating the use and sale of patent 
medicines and the prescribing of proprietary remedies by physi- 

The British Columbia Medical Council was requested to commu- 
nicate with all physicians in the province, drawing their attention to 
the undesirability of prescribing secret proprietary remedies. {Phar. 
Jour., December 7, 1907, page 769.) 

In England the British Pharmaceutical Codex is being made the 
basis of a concerted propaganda on the part of the pharmaceutical 
societies. This book, but recently published by the Pharmaceutical 
Society of Great Britain, presents many interesting possibilities that 
are well worth careful consideration on the part of American phar- 

Proprietary and Trade Names. — Among the many features of the 
British Pharmaceutical Codex, the treatment that has been accorded 
the admittedly complicated problem of proprietary and trade names 
is perhaps the most interesting. In this connection an attempt has 
been made to introduce short and euphonious names for the more 
lengthy chemical names for substances not protected by patents. 
Among the titles thus introduced to take the place of trade names 
we find : 

Am. Jour. Pbarm. \ 
March, 1908. J 

Progress in Pharmacy, 


Acetannin for tannigen. 

Acetomorphine hydrochloride for heroin hydrochloride. 

Acid salaceticum for aspirin. 

Adrenine for adrenalin. 

Benzylmorphine hydrochloride for peronin. 

Betacaine hydrochloride for /9-eucain. 

Chloramide for chloralamid. 

Chlorbutol for chloretone. 

Ethylmorphine hydrochloride for dionin. 

Formamine for urotropine, and many others. 

Formamol for citramin, helmitol and others. 

Malourea for veronal. 

Quinalgen for analgen. 

These are but a few of the many new titles that have been intro- 
duced and serve to indicate the effort that has been made to intro- 
duce short, easily remembered names for articles sold under pro- 
prietary names. While it is true that many of these titles are 
open to criticism, it does appear as though the move is one to be 
commended as being a step in the right direction. 

Sunday Rest. — In Prussia the apothecaries appear to have suc- 
ceeded in their efforts to secure a whole, or at least a partial, day of 
rest on Sunday. A recent circular order sent out by the Prussian 
Government not alone permits, but actually provides for the intro- 
duction of increased facilities for Sunday rest on the part of phar- 
macists and their employees. In places where there are several 
pharmacies, Sunday closing is to be achieved by mutual agreement 
among the several proprietors, while in places with but one phar- 
macy, the police authorities are permitted to arrange for restricted 
hours. (Chem. and Drug., January 4, 1908, p. 8.J 

Origin of Titles. — According to Le Clere's famous " History of 
Medicine," the term Apotheke was first used to describe the store- 
houses of the herbalists. These traders were called Rhizotomoi and 
Botanologi by the Greeks, and Herbarii in Latin. 

The title Pharmaceutes and Pharmacopes originally meant dealers 
in medicaments and became terms of reproach because of their 
dealing in poisons, love-philters and the various quackeries of the 

In Rome the business was still more divided. Besides the her- 
balists, there were shops for medicaments, others for perfumes, others 


Progress in Pharmacy. 

/ Am. Jour. Pharm- 
X March. 1908. 

for colors; curiously enough it was the Pigmentarii who seem to 
have been the most respected, and who ultimately absorbed the 
trade of the others. (Chem. and Drug., December 28, 1907, page 

Pill Excipient for Oxidizable Substances. — Pills of readily decom- 
posed chemicals, such as silver nitrate, potassium permanganate, 
gold chloride and mercuric iodide, are readily massed by the aid of 
two parts of kaolin and one part of dried sodium sulphate with suffi- 
cient water to moisten. 

The mass must be carefully and rapidly mixed and rolled out 
without delay, as it remains plastic only for a short time. The pills 
are said to dissolve much more readily than pills made with kaolin 
alone. {Pharm. Zeifg, December 21, 1907, page 1059.) 

The Lumiere Process of Color Photography. — For many years 
experimenters have sought for a simple and readily followed method 
for fixing color by photographic means. A number of more or less 
complicated processes have been worked out, but it has remained 
for the Messrs. August and Louis Lumiere to simplify the process 
so that it is now possible to produce photographs containing all of 
the shades and colors of the original, true to nature. 

The Lumiere process is, in fact, a practical application of the well- 
known three-color processes, and consists essentially of a screen 
containing the color elements, orange, green and violet, in the form 
of finely divided particles, spread evenly over the surface of a 
specially sensitized plate. These colored particles, with the addition 
of an equalizing screen, are utilized to act as a color screen in the 
taking of the picture, and serve to reproduce the color of the 
original object when the resulting picture is projected on a screen 
or viewed by transmitted light. 

So far it has been possible to produce the pictures only in the 
form of glass positives, one at a time. Even this offers a wide 
field of usefulness, as the resulting pictures can be utilized as trans- 
parencies, or as lantern slides, and promise to be of great educa- 
tional value. 

fi-Barbaloin. — Leger has succeeded in transforming barbaloin into 
an isomeric substance which he terms /5-barbaloin. This isomeric 
aloin also occurs naturally in various species of aloes. 

/9-Barbaloin is uncrystallizable, but yields a crystalline chloro-de- 
rivative. Leger has identified ^-barbaloin in Cape aloes and in 

Am. Joar. Pharm. \ 
March, 1908. J 

Progress in Pharmacy. 


Uganda aloes, but only the merest traces of it exist naturally in 
Barbadoes aloes or other aloes rich in crystallizable aloins. {Chem. 
and Drug., January 1 1, 1908, page 48, from Jour, de .Pharm. et de 

Estimation of Eucalyptol in Oil of Eucalyptus. — Schimmel & Co., 
in their semi-annual report, for October 1 907, give the following 
easily applied method for estimating the amount of eucalyptol in oil 
of eucalyptus : 

" Ten cubic centimeters of the oil containing eucalyptol are mixed 
in a cassia flask of ico c.c. capacity with so much of a 50 per cent, 
resorcinol solution that the flask is filled for about four-fifths of its 
capacity. The mixture is then thoroughly shaken for five minutes, 
and the oil portions which have not entered into reaction are brought 
into the neck of the flask by adding resorcinol solution, and their 
volume determined. By subtracting this volume from ten, the 
eucalyptol content of the oil is obtained ; this is then expressed in 
percent, by volume by multiplying by ten." 

Oils very rich in eucalyptol are suitably diluted beforehand with 
an equal volume of turpentine oil, as otherwise the eucalyptol 
resorcinol might crystallize out and cause the whole liquid to 

Determination of Eucalyptol. — C. T. Bennett has experimented with 
the resorcinol method for the determination of eucalyptol in oil of 
eucalyptus, and finds that it gives results that are quite misleading. 
Bennett finds that the use of resorcinol solution gives results that 
are from 25 to 50 per cent, too high. The process of estimation 
given in the United States Pharmacopoeia, on the other hand, Ben- 
nett finds, gives results that are invariably too low. (Chem. and 
Drug., January 1 1, 1908, page 55). 

Eucerine.— Unna claims that wool-fat does not owe its power of 
absorbing water to its cholesterin ethers, as stated by Dietrich, but to 
its free cholesterin and oxycholesterins ; the oxycholesterins and their 
derivatives are free from odor and are unalterable, while the odor 
and gradual hardening of wool-fat is due to the cholesterin group of 
bodies. Unna has separated the oxycholesterin group of bodies and 
terms a mixture of 5 per cent, of them with 95 per cent, of paraffin, 
anhydrous eucerine, mixed with its own weight of water. This is 
eucerine, which is claimed to be an ideal ointment base for the exhi- 
bition of numerous substances that are to be absorbed. {Chem. 
and Drug., January 11, 1908, page 48.) 

140 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am March.% rm * 

Cacaosin is the name given to a substitute for oil of theobroma 
that is now being marketed in Germany. The substance has a melt- 
ing-point of 28 5 and a congealing-point of 26-6, and is said to be 
admirably adapted as a vehicle and base for suppositories. It is 
probably a mixture of cocoanut oil with fats of a higher melting- 
point. {Pharm. Zen?h., 1908, page 86.) 

Constituents of Kola Seeds. — Perrot and Goris, in a critical review 
of the constituents of kola seeds, conclude that only three well-de- 
fined bodies have been isolated from this drug ; caffeine, theobro- 
mine and kolatin. The last-named substance has been obtained 
from fresh seeds in small, white crystals that are slightly soluble in 
water, readily soluble in alcohol, acetone and acetic ether. {Pharm. 
Jour., January 11, 1908, page 31, from Bull, des Sci. Pharm?) 

Chinosol. — The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the Amer- 
ican Medical Association, in a recent report {Jour. A.M. A., January 
25, 1908, page 293) calls renewed attention to the fact that this 
article has been studied in Germany and found to be quite as pois- 
onous for rabbits as lysol, and when given subcutaneously it is 100 
per cent, more poisonous, but when absorbed from the peritoneum 
it is 50 per cent, less poisonous. While it is admitted to possess 
considerable antiseptic action, it was found to be decidedly deficient 
as a disinfectant. 

The chemical composition of chinosol also varies from the claims 
that are made for it by the manufacturers and the American agents, 
who assert it to be potassium oxychinoline sulphonate. Chemical 
examination appears to indicate that it is really a simple mixture of 
potassium sulphate and oxychinolin sulphate. 

Alexipon. — This is acetylsalicylic acid ethyl ester and has been 
recommended as an antirheumatic {Phar. Zeifg, January, 1, 1908, 
page 9). 

Borovertin is the trade name for a combination formed by the ■ 
reaction of 1 molecule of hexamethylenamine on 3 molecules of 
boric acid, resulting in the liberation of 3 molecules of water, the 
conversion of the boric acid into metaboric acid and the combina- 
tion of the latter with the hexamethylenamine. 

The trade article occurs as a white, slightly acid powder, having 
a salty taste. It is soluble in 1 1 parts of water and in 48 parts of 
96 per cent, alcohol. The composition is readily decomposed by 
heating. {Pharm. Zenfh. y 1907, page 941.) 

Am MOTch,f908. rm '} Progress in Pharmacy. 141 

Ferrated Milk. — Dr. Schmitgen (Ber. klin. Wochenschr., 1907, page 
1902), asserts that milk containing an unusually high percentage of 
true organic iron may be obtained from cows that are fed on spec- 
ially prepared dry fodder containing readily absorbable iron com- 
pounds. This milk does not differ materially from ordinary milk 
but is said to contain from three to eleven times the amount of iron 
that is usually found in milk, and is said to be advantageous in the 
treatment of various forms of anemia. (Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, page 

Ferroplasma is said to be an organic iron compound, extracted 
from cultivated plants of Rumex crispus [Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, page 
1014). In Merck's report for 1 906 it is asserted that the roots of 
Rumex crispus have the faculty of absorbing considerable quantities 
of iron when grown on soil containing iron compounds. 

Guaiodol.- — This is an iodine derivative of guaiacol. Each guaia- 
col molecule is said to contain one atom of iodine and one free 
hydroxyl group, so that the preparation represents approximately 
50 per cent, of iodine. It is said to be useful in all diseases of a 
tubercular nature. [Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, page 1060.) 

Hetraline, dioxybenzol hexamethylenetetramine, is being intro- 
duced into England as an intestinal antiseptic, particularly for the 
urinary tract. It is said to represent 60 per cent, of hexamethylene- 
tetramine in true chemical combination with resorcinol. 

Hetraline crystallizes in perfectly stable, snow-white needles that 
are soluble in 4 parts of hot water, or in 14 parts of cold water. It 
may be given in doses of 0*5 gm. {J — y 2 gr). (Pharm. Jour. y Jan- 
uary 11, 1908, page 44.) 

Hydropyrin. — Acetylsalicylate of sodium is being introduced in 
Austria as a substitute tor acetylsalicylic acid. It is said to have 
the advantage of being freely soluble in water. (Pharm. Zeifg, 1907, 
page 105 1.) 

Jute and jute seeds, according to Kobert (Munch, med. Wochen- 
schr., 1907, page 1 143), contain a glucoside, corchorin, that is ten 
times as bitter as quinine. The lethal dose per kilo of animal, hypo- 
dermically, is 0*2 mg. for rabbits, 0*8 mg. for dogs and 2 9 mg. for 
horses. The toad is said to be singularly immune to the action of 
this poison, being 1 00 times less susceptible to its action than the frog. 

In the latter animal the drug slows the heart- beat and causes a 
systolic paralysis of the ventricle. 

142 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am Mirch,i908 rm ' 

Corchorin belongs to the digitalis group of medicaments and is 
closely related to andromedotoxin. 

Me tadinitro benzol as a Reagent for Sugar. — The reagent consists 
of I gm. of metadinitrobenzol dissolved in 100 c.c. of alcohol and 35 
c.c. of a 33 per cent, soda solution ; 10 c.c. of this solution, when mixed 
with a 1 per cent, solution of maltose, dextrose, lactose, galactose or 
arabinose gives a violet color in one minute, and with levulose in two 
minutes. Saccharose and glycogen produce no color. Aldehydes 
and ketones produce a red color and albumen, albumose, amido- 
acids, urea and keratin give a yellow coloration. (Pharm. Ze7i?h. y 1907, 
page 994). 

Methylencitrylsalicylic acid is said to be produced by interaction 
between salicylic acid or salicylates and the dihalogens of methy- 
lencitric acid. The resulting substance is tasteless and nonirritating, 
and in this respect is said to be superior to acetylsalicylic acid. It 
is decomposed in the alkaline secretions of the intestines, liberating, 
in addition to salicylic acid, a small proportion of formaldehyde. It 
is said to be particularly useful in cases of rheumatism. {Pharm. 
Zenfh., 1907, page 956.) 

Morphine -brom ?nethylate is produced by treating morphine with 
dimethyl sulphate, dissolving the resulting addition product in 
water and converting the same with a saturated solution of potas- 
sium bromide, which also acts as a precipitant for the resulting 
morphin-brom-methylate. The latter is then purified by recrystalliz- 
ing from a solution in warm water. Morphin-brom-methylate occurs 
as white, needle-shaped crystals that decompose and melt at from 
265 to 266 C. 

It is readily soluble in hot water, and at 15 C. is soluble in the 
proportion of 1 in 20 of water. It is but slightly or not at all soluble 
in alcohol, ether or chloroform. Its uses are the same as morphine. 
[Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, page 960.) 

Paralysol is the name given to a cresol soap preparation that is 
being marketed in the form of tablets. 

F. Zernik has recently examined these tablets and found them to 
consist, in round numbers, essentially of 75 per cent, of equal parts 
of m- and p-cresol in the form of a double salt of potassium, 1 5 per 
cent, of a soda soap, and 10 per cent, of talc and bolus. (Apothek. 
Zeifg, 1907, page 11 26.) 

Pyrenol, a substance that was claimed to be benzoyl-thymol- 

Am. Jour. Pharm,\ 
March, 1908. J 

Progress in Pharmacy . 


sodium-benzoyl-oxybenzoate, was examined by F. Zernik, at the 
Pharmaceutical Institute of the University of Berlin, and found to 
consist essentially of a mixture of 49-48 parts of sodium benzoate 
and 49/02 parts of sodium salicylate with 02 per cent, of thymol. 
(Apothek. Zeifg, 1907, page 1091.) 

Resorbol is said to be a combination of iodine with some of the 
higher fatty acids in the form of organic salts that are readily ab- 
sorbed. It occurs as a brown liquid containing 10 per cent, of iodine 
in combination, but no free iodine. Resorbol has a specific gravity 
of 1-072 and mixes readily with water or alcohol in all proportions. 
It does not stain the hands or the clothing and is readily removed 
by washing. Resorbol has been used with reputed good results in 
cases of sciatica, neuritis and inflammation. {Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, 
page 858.) 

Solandrine. — Dr. J. M. Petrie has communicated to the Linnean 
Society of New South Wales an account of an alkaloid from Solandra 
Icevis to which he gives the name solandrine. This alkaloid belongs 
to the atropin group and resembles hyoscine, but differs from it and 
its aurochloride in not reddening litmus phenolphthalein and in 
yielding atropic acid instead of tropic acid when hydrolyzed. The 
exact constitution of the alkaloid has not been worked out, but the 
results so far obtained appear to indicate the existence of a tropeine 
alkaloid in the plant. (Chem. and Drug., January 4, 1908, page 14.) 

Spirosol is the monoglycolester of salicylic acid and occurs as an 
oily, nearly odorless and tasteless fluid that is readily soluble in 
alcohol, ether, chloroform and benzol, and in about 1 10 parts of 
water. It boils at from 169 to 170 C. 

Spirosol has been recommended to be used as a local application 
in cases of rheumatism, and is also said to be useful in cases of 
objectionable perspiration. It is claimed to be quite free from irri- 
tating effects and to be readily absorbed. {Pharm. Zenfh., 1907, 
page 868.) 

Synthetic Suprarenine. — This is said to be prepared by condensing 
catechol with chloracetic acid to form chloracetyl catechol, which is 
then treated with methylamine and the resulting methylamine acetyl 
catechol is reduced to dihydroxyphenylmethylaminomethylcarbinol, 
or synthetic suprarenine, which, in the form of the hydrochloride, is 
said to be indistinguishable, in physiological action, from the natural 
alkaloid of the suprarenal gland. (Chem. and Drug., January II, 
1908, page 48.) 


Book Reviews. 

/ A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1908. 


Kurzes Lehrbuch der Organischen Chemie. Von William A. 
Noyes, Professor of Chemistry in the University of Illinois. Trans- 
lated by Walter Ostwald, and with a Preface by Wilhelm Ostwald. 
Leipzig: Akademische Verlagsgesellschaft m. b. H., 1907. 

It can hardly be denied that our institutions of learning have not 
accorded to pure organic chemistry the prominent place this subject 
occupies in the German Universities, nor that the American contri- 
butions to its literature, both in text-books and original memoirs, 
will bear no comparison with the output of the German chemists. 
It might seem, therefore, like carrying coals to Newcastle to translate 
into German an American text on organic chemistry ; and yet this 
has been done repeatedly and successfully. The present translation 
was made at the suggestion and under the direction of Professor 
Ostwald, who recognizes u the independent and original manner in 
which the author has conceived and solved his problem," as well as 
the fact that the modern developments of physical chemistry are 
adequately brought out by the author. As the book was first pub- 
lished five years ago, it seems unnecessary here to call special atten- 
tion to its lucid style and logical arrangement, nor to the truly 
scientific spirit that pervades it. The German version leaves nothing 
to be desired ; it reads like an original, and embodies a number of 
changes that enhance its usefulness to German students, as well as 
many additions and corrections supplied by the author. The type, 
printing and paper are decidedly superior to those used in the 
making of the American book ; the cuts, however, are not up to the 
standard set by the best German and French text-books. 

If the novel arrangement of the subject matter appeals to other 
German teachers as it did to Professor Ostwald, this translation may 
become even more popular than the original. 

H. F. Keller. 

Central High School, Philadelphia. 

Pharmaceutical and Chemical Problems and Exercises with 
Explanatory Text, including pharmaceutical and chemical arith- 
metic, weights and measures, specific density and specific volume 
and chemical notation and nomenclature, chemical equations, prob- 
lems in oxidation and reduction and stoechiometry, together with 

Am. Jour. Pharm.T 
March, 1908. J 

Book Reviews. 


the elementary theoretical chemistry necessary to their understand- 
ing. Intended as an aid to students, teachers and examiners. By 
Oscar Oldberg. Fourth edition, revised and enlarged. Chicago: 
Chicago Medical Book Company. Price, $3.00. 

With the appearance of several books on pharmaceutical arith- 
metic, it is becoming apparent that a comparatively small proportion 
of the students of pharmacy have been grounded in the fundamental 
principles of arithmetic, or have devoted themselves to the mastery 
of these principles to the extent of being able to apply them with 
certainty in solving the every-day problems of the laboratory and 
prescription counter. This is not the place to discuss the question 
as to why this deficiency in the pharmaceutical student's education 
exists, nor to consider the ways for remedying this defect. Certain 
it is that books of the character of this one, by Professor Oldberg, 
are always welcome to both students of pharmacy and pharmacists, 
and when the subject is elaborated and presented so systematically, 
as in the present instance, it rises to the dignity of a distinct branch 
and presents a legitimate claim to a place in our curriculum. 

The book contains two excellent chapters, of about 45 pages 
each, devoted to the review of elementary arithmetic (including 
fractions, reciprocals of numbers and their uses, proportion, per- 
centage and alligation), and elementary theoretical chemistry. 

The chapters on weights and measures, and solutions and mix- 
tures, supplemented as they are by miscellaneous examples in pro- 
portion and percentage, are of particular value to the retail pharma- 
cist. Teachers and the examiners on boards of pharmacy will find 
not only in the problem?, but also in the text, a large amount of 
material that will be helpful in framing practical questions. 

The problems and exercises relating to chemistry are equally well 
presented, and the chapters on the periodic system, chemical nota- 
tion, oxidation and reduction, stoechiometry, are specially commended 
for the manner in which they are written. Part VI treats of specific 
density and specific volume, and will be found of great practical 
value, containing, as it does, a large number of miscellaneous prob- 
lems on the relation of weight and volume, and rules for reducing 
Baume degrees to specific gravity and vice versa. 

Professor Oldberg's book is the best one we have seen relating to 
pharmaceutical and chemical problems, and should be in every labor- 
atory and on the dispensing counter of every pharmacist, for use at 
a moment's notice. 


Book Reviews. 

/Am. Jour. Pbarm. 
I March, 1908. 

A Manual of Materia Medica, especially designed for students 
of pharmacy. By Prof. Edsel A. Ruddiman. Philadelphia and New- 
York: Lea Brothers & Co., 1907. Cloth, $2.25. 

The purpose of this book is set forth in the following statement 
taken from the preface : " In the multiplicity of books treating of 
the various phases of materia medica, there seems to be a place for 
one especially condensed and written for the student of pharmacy. 
The author has attempted to present, in as few words as possible, 
the work usually given to such students." While one may present 
the essential principles of a subject in a condensed form, or present 
an elementary treatise on a given subject, this is not the time to 
provide short cuts and quick turns for pharmacy students. On the 
other hand, the aim should be to inculcate the principles in each 
branch as thoroughly as possible, and at the same time to broaden 
the student's grasp of the subject. 

Professor Ruddiman's Manual bears evidence that he was especially 
guided in his selection of material by the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, 
Hare's Therapeutics, and Culbreth's Materia Medica. One won- 
ders why, in a book of this kind, which is presumably written 
for students supposed to have a good preliminary training, weights 
and measures given in grains and inches are prominently brought 
forward, while the metric equivalents are given in parentheses, con- 
trary both to the spirit and language of the Pharmacopoeia, when 
apparently the latter was the source of the data given in all cases. 
The condensed treatment of the subject of constituents is unfor- 
tunate, so far as pharmacy students are concerned. This is the 
feature that should have been extended rather than that on the 
action and uses of drugs. 

The reviewer believes that thoroughness and efficiency should be 
made the watchwords in the training of pharmaceutical students, 
and he uses this occasion to put pharmaceutical teachers and authors 
on their guard, lest they unduly condense and shorten the matter 
presented to their students. 

Prescription Practice and General Dispensing. An elemen- 
tary treatise for students of pharmacy. By Prof. J. H. Beal, 1908. 

In the preface Professor Beal states that " the principal object of 
the following pages is to afford an outline of a systematic course of 
study for the novice in extemporaneous compounding, and is not 

Am Mi?ch,f908 mu } Medical Schools and Pharmacopeia. 147 

intended as a general treatise or handbook for the experienced prac- 
titioner." A question may be raised as to what the author means 
by " the novice in extemporaneous compounding." If he means one 
who has not had a prescribed course of training and study, then 
there is a possibility of the book's doing more harm than good, for 
such an one should not be permitted to engage in that most 
responsible of all the work which the pharmacist has to do, namely, 
extemporaneous compounding. If, however, he means the recent 
graduate of pharmacy, then the book does not fill a real want, for 
the graduate of pharmacy will supposedly be able to use the " gen- 
eral treatise " or " handbook," to which reference has been made. 
The book contains some good things, but why the author should 
have chosen this method of presenting them at this time is not 
clear, particularly when there are so many excellent books which 
the beginner, as well as the pharmacist, should have. 


At an informal conference, called by Prof. Joseph P. Remington, 
of the teachers named below, in the medical schools of Philadelphia, 
the following resolution was passed : 

" Resolved, that it is of the utmost importance for accuracy in 
prescribing, and in the treatment of disease, that students of Medi- 
cine be instructed fully as to those portions of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia which are of value to the practitioner, and that 
members of the Medical profession be urged to prescribe the prep- 
arations of that publication, and further, that this resolution be 
forwarded to the Medical and Pharmaceutical Journals, and to the 
teachers of Medicine and Therapeutics in the United States." 

James Tyson, John H. Musser, John Marshall, Horatio C. Wood, 
Jr., H. A. Hare, J. W. Holland, Alfred Stengel, David L. Edsall, 
Seneca Egbert, M. C. Thrush, James Wilson, E. Q. Thornton, John 
V. Shoemaker, I. Newton Snively, J. M. Anders, S. Solis Cohen. 

February 3d, 1908. 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

/ Am. Jour. Phariru 
\ March, 1908. 



The stated Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was held Tuesday, January 21, at 3 o'clock, with Warren 
H. Poley, a member of the Board of Trustees, in the chair. A num- 
ber of practical points were brought out in the discussion of the 
various topics on the programme which would consume too much 
space to record, but which emphasize the advisability of attendance 
by those who desire to profit from the discussions. 

Mr. Joseph W. England read a paper on the " Comparative Com- 
position of Milks," which was published in the February number 
of this Journal, p. 55. 

Dr. Horatio C. Wood, Jr. exhibited a modified Soxhlet apparatus 
(see page 106). 

Dr. W 7 ood also read a paper having the title, " Does Digitoxin 
Represent the Therapeutic Virtues of Digitalis?" (see page 107). 

Mr. England said that he had reached the same conclusion as Dr. 
Wood, namely, that digitoxin is not wholly representative of digitalis, 
which was based on its chemical behavior. He referred to the in- 
solubility of digitoxin, and thought that in view of this property it 
is probably not present in the infusion of digitalis. 

Dr. C. B. Lowe enumerated the more important constituents of 
digitalis, giving their solubilities and therapeutic properties. He said 
that the infusion of the drug contains certain principles which render 
it valuable as a diuretic, and condemned the practice of preparing the 
infusion from the fluidextract. 

With regard to the solubility of digitoxin, Mr. Chas. E. Vander- 
kleed stated when extracts of digitalis are made, the digitoxin is 
extracted along with other constituents, and that during the course 
of assay, according to the Keller method, it exists in solution, being 
present in the lead subacetate solution, from which, however, it 
separates out in the course of two or three months, and will not 
again dissolve. 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert referred to German digitalin, which is a mixture 
containing some digitoxin, and said that the digitoxin is rendered 
soluble by the other substances present, and expressed the opinion 
that by reason of the presence of the associated principles there is 
probably some digitoxin in the infusion of digitalis. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
March, 1908. J 

Pharmaceutical Meeting. 


In answer to a question by Mr. Vanderkleed, as to whether it 
would be practicable to standardize digitalis preparations on the 
basis of the digitoxin content, Dr. Wood gave a negative reply, 
and said that some years ago he had come to the conclusion that 
digitalin probably represents the drug better. 

Dr. E. D. Reed said that Dr. Wood's experiments and his own 
did not wholly agree. He said that the cumulative action of digi- 
toxin is very pronounced, and stated that when a toxic or one-third 
toxic dose of digitoxin is given to a dog, and followed in twelve 
hours by a similar dose, it will cause the death of the dog, the result 
being attributed to the cumulative action. Dr. Reed said that prob- 
ably the association of the digitoxin with other principles in prepara- 
tions was an advantage, but claimed that the therapeutic effects on 
blood-pressure and diuresis were due to digitoxin. While making 
the further claim that where so much confusion exists we are war- 
ranted in considering digitoxin as the most important constituent 
of digitalis, Dr. Reed said that we are not warranted in saying that 
digitoxin is as valuable as the preparations, namely, the fluidextract 
and tincture, due to its physical condition in these preparations, and 
perhaps to a slight action of the other constituents. 

J. T. Harbold, apothecary at the Pennsylvania Hospital, said that 
the physicians at the hospital manifest more satisfaction with the 
tincture of digitalis than with digitoxin. 

Mr. Poley stated that according to his observation the infusion is 
being prescribed more than the tincture. 

Prof. E. Fullerton Cook gave some " Notes on Compound Resor- 
cinol Ointment, N.F.," and demonstrated an improved method for 
its preparation (see page 120). 

In discussing the paper, Mr. F. M. Apple said that owing to the 
small quantity of the salts, his practice was to mix the bases and 
to add the correct proportion of the salts at the time of dispensing 
the ointment. 

Mr. Aquila Hoch stated that he had found that when white 
petrolatum was used in the preparation of the ointment, the color 
changed in a less degree, due probably to the lesser proportion of 
sulphur compounds which would react with the zinc salts. 

Edgar R. Buzzell, a student of the college, read a paper on 
■< Glycerite of Bismuth, N.F.," and F. S. Bonnell, also a student, 
read a paper on 4< Antiseptic Solution, U.S.P., and Alkaline Anti- 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
I March, 1908. 

septic Solution," in which he called attention to the variation in the 
finished products, due to the difference in character of the essential 
oils used. 

This group of papers was further discussed by the chairman, 
W. L. Cliffe, Ambrose Hunsberger, C. E. Vanderkleed, M. I. Wilbert, 
and Harry Martin. 

In this connection Mr. Wilbert demonstrated a method for incor- 
porating resinous solutions with aqueous solutions, which was 
originated by Valentine Smith, a German. It consists in adding the 
alcoholic solution slowly to the aqueous solution contained in a 
bottle, and then revolving the bottle very slowly, holding it in a 
horizontal position. 

William Mclntyre, chairman of the Committee on Special Schools 
of the Board of Education of Philadelphia, read an interesting 
paper entitled : " The Public School Gardens of Philadelphia." 

Prof. Henry Kraemer called attention to a series of back volumes 
of the American Journal of Pharmacy, a copy of the 1830 edition 
of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia, and a copy of " Wegweiser," which had 
been presented by Mr. Jacob Eppstein, a local apothecary, where- 
upon a vote of thanks was tendered Mr. Eppstein. 


The meeting for February was held on Tuesday evening, February 
1 8th, with Dr. Adolph W. Miller, corresponding Secretary of the 
College, in the chair. 

The meeting was devoted to an illustrated lecture on "A Glance 
at Ancient and Modern Hindu Medicine" by Anna S. Kugler, M.D. 
(see page 123). Dr. Kugler is a graduate of the Woman's Medical 
College of Pennsylvania, and has just completed twenty-five years 
of medical practice at Guntur, India, where, under the auspices of 
the General Synod of the Lutheran Church, she has helped to 
establish a large hospital for women. 

Dr. Kugler's paper, as here published, is an abstract of two papers 
prepared in 1905 and 1906 for the Oriental Society of the American 
Evangelical Lutheran Mission, Guntur, India. 

Florence Yaple, 
Secretary pro tern. 



APRIL, ipoS 


By Prof. Virgii, Cobi.fnTz and Otto B. May, Ph.D. 

A criticism has been made that the percentage strength of phos- 
phoric acid, determined by the present alkalimetric titration, does 
not give results in accordance with those obtained from the specific 
gravity and its table (page 66 1, U.S.P.). Experiments having con- 
firmed this criticism, it was decided to investigate our official 
method, in addition to others, which might be available for phar- 
macopceial purposes. It was also noted that, with different dilutions, 
the percentage strength indicated by the specific gravity did not 
always coincide with the gravimetric determinations. These will be 
investigated later. For the following experiments, a sample of 
phosphoric acid fulfilling the US.P. tests for purity was assayed 
gravimetrically. This contained 84 84 per cent, of absolute phos- 
phoric acid. From this acid, 10 and 5 per cent, dilutions were 
prepared and the results calculated to that of the original acid 
employed. The 10 or 5 c.c. employed for each titration was care- 
fully measured from a burette and titrated with normal potassium 
hydroxide, V. S., using phenolphthalein as indicator. 

1 This, with such other similar publications as may appear in the columns 
of the Journai, OF Pharmacy, represent research work carried out by Dr. Otto 
May, under the direction of V. Coblentz, chairman of the Sub-corn tnittee on 
Inorganic Chemicals of the Committee of Revision of the U.S. Pharmacopoeia. 



Phosphoric Acid. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Normal Potassium Absolute 
Hydroxide, V. S. Phosphoric Acid 
(N/i KOH, V. S.) (H 3 P0 4 ) 

Per Cent. 


10 c.c. 

16-3 c.c. 

corresponding- to 8172 


10 " 

169 " 



10 " 

i8-i " 

" 88-05 


10 " 

" + 10 " " " " 

i8'i " 



10 " 

l8'2 " 



10 " 

" + 10 " " " " + 90 c.c. HoO. 

18-3 " 

" 89-04 


10 " 

" + 10 " " " " " " 

18-35 " 



10 " 

" + 10 " " " " " " " . 

18-35 *' 



10 " 

20-6 " 



10 " 

" + " " " +100C.C. H 2 . 

20'2 " 



IO " 

I9-2 " 

93 40 


10 " 

19*3 " 

93 88 


IO " 

20 2 " 



IO " 

20*2 ". 



IO " 

" + 20 " " " " + 80 c.c. H 2 . 

226 " 


When the acid is titrated without dilution, the end-reaction is not 
sharp, phenolphthalein giving a rose tint when two thirds of the 
acid has been neutralized, thus : 

H 3 P0 4 + 2KOH = K 2 HP0 4 + 2H 2 0. 

This irregularity in the alkalimetric estimation of phosphoric acid 
is brought about through the variable valency of the H atoms of 
the acid, influenced by its dissociation. Although H 3 P0 4 possesses 
three replaceable hydrogen atoms, yet it is only a feeble acid, that 
is, there are but few H ions present in its dilutions. As shown by 
its relative conductivity, only H and H 2 P0 4 ions are present in any 
quantity. In the alkalimetric titrations the kations HP0 4 and P0 4 
have the tendency to go over into the stabler H 2 P0 4 ion, according 
to the equations : 

Na 3 — P0 4 + H — OH = Na 2 — HP0 4 + Na — OH. 
Na 2 — HP0 4 + H — OH = Na — H,P0 4 + Na — OH. 

Since NaOH dissociates completely, free OH kations are present 
in its solution. The color change of the indicator is dependent on 
the degree of concentration of the dissociated — OH ions, which 
in turn is governed by the extent of dilution and the presence of 
an ionizable salt. This explains the irregularities among the results 
of experiments 3 to 15, inclusive. 

The differences between the lower gravimetric results (84 84 per 
cent.) and those of experiments 3, 4, 5, etc. v '88 to 89 25) might be 
explained, according to the preceding ionic theory, by the conver- 
sion of eleven-twelfths of the acid into Na 2 HP0 4 and one-twelfth 

Am ApXim rru } Phosphoric Acid. 153 

into Na 3 ?0 4 . Again, as in experiment 9, a mixture of 32 per cent, 
of K 3 P0 4 and 78 per cent, of K 2 HP0 4 will have required 20 6 c.c. of 
N/i KOH, V.S. for the neutralization of the acid used. The results 
of these titrations, while corresponding quite satisfactorily when car- 
ried out under the same conditions, are invariably high and fluctu- 
ating, through variations in dilution and ionizable salts. A few 
titrations, with methyl orange as indicator, are added : 

N/i KOH, V.S. H3 PO4. 

Per Cent. 

10 c.c. H3PO4 (10 per cent.) 10 c.c. sat. sol. NaCl 8.9 c.c. KOH corresponding to 86*59 
10 " " 10 " " " " 9-05 " " " 88*05 

10 " '• 10 " " " " 9*05 " !< " 8805 

10 " " 10 " " " " 9*05 " " " 88-05 

Among other methods possibly available for pharmicopoeial pur- 
poses, the following iodometric one, proposed by A. Christensen 
(Jahresberichte d. Phar. y 96, 338) has been found to be very satisfac- 
tory. The method is simple and gives uniform results, agreeing 
accurately with gravimetric determinations. This method is based 
on the reaction taking place between phosphoric acid, potassium 
iodide and bromate in solution, whereby a molecular equivalent 
quantity of iodine is liberated for each molecule of phosphoric acid 
present. Thus : 

6H 3 P0 4 + 6KI + KBrO s = 6KH 2 P0 4 -f l\ + KBr + 3 H 2 
6 x 97 29 p. H 3 P0 4 =6x 125-9 p. I = 6 x 24646 p. Na 2 S 2 3 , or 
97 29 p. H 3 P0 4 = 125 9 p. I = 246-46 p. Nd 2 S 2 3 , or 
icc.N /ioNa 2 S 2 3 , V.S. (0-024646 gm.) = 0-009729 gm. H 3 P0 4 . 

A 5 per cent, solution of the original sample of phosphoric acid 
was employed in these estimations and the results calculated to the 
strong acid, for comparison. Like all iodometric methods of this 
class, the operation is carried out in a securely stoppered bottle. In 
an accurately fitted glass-stoppered bottle of about 150 c.c. capacity, 
5 c.c. of the sample of phosphoric acid (measured from a burette) 
was introduced, followed by approximately 2 grammes of potassium 
iodide, 5 c.c. of a saturated solution of potassium bromate and 
30 c.c. of water. After securing the stopper, the bottle and con- 
tents were nearly immersed in a bath of water at the temperature 
of 65 C. for ten minutes; ater cooling thoroughly, removing 
(rinsing the neck and stopper), the liberated iodine was estimated 
as usual with sodium thiosulphate, V. S. 

154 Oil of Bitter Almonds. {^ m A J prn;S 

Sodium Thiosul- H3PO4 abs. in 

H3PO4 phate, V. S. Original Sample. 

5 c.c 21 -9 85*24 per cent. 

5 " 21-8 85-84 " " 

5 " 217 84*44 " " 

5 " 21-8 84-84 " " 

5 " . • • • 2r '9 84 24 " " 

5 " 21-8 84-84 " " 

Exposure to temperatures above 65 C. entail a loss in iodine 
through failure of (even specially constructed) pressure vials to seal 
securely. Digestion for longer periods, at lower temperatures, 
cause a further liberation of iodine due to secondary reaction. 
Experiments were then made to determine the feasibility of a cold 
method whereby the objectionable features of the above might be 
avoided. It was found that the reaction (according to theory], is 
complete after a period of 2-5 to 3 hours, when the securely stop- 
pered flask and contents are exposed to a room temperature of 20° C. 
These conditions must be strictly followed, otherwise low or high 
results will be obtained. 

Sodium Thiosul- ^PO^ abs. in 

H3PO4 phate, V. S. Original Sample. 

5 c.c. ,3 hours 287 c.c. 84-44 per cent. 

5 " 3 " 21-8 " 84-84 " " 

5 " 3 " 21-8 " 84 84 " " 

5 " 2/ 2 " ........ 21-8 " 84-84 " " 

5 « 2 / 2 " ........ 21-85 " 85-00 " " 

The gravimetric estimation of abs. H 3 P0 4 in the original sample 
being 84.84 per cent., further comparisons are unnecessary to 
demonstrate the value of this method for the accurate titrimetric 
estimation of phosphoric acid. 

By Frank O. Taylor. 
It is well known that the oil of bitter almonds of commerce is 
largely substituted by artificial benzaldehyde, and even that which 
is natjral is not often derived from the almond, but from the kernel 
of the apricot ; but the extent of this substitution of benzaldehyde 
for the genuine oil is frequently not realized, and many times oil of 
bitter almonds may be purchased by retail dealers which is, in truth, 
nothing more than the much cheaper product, benzaldehyde. The 

Am. Jour. Pharnj. t 
April, J9(j8. > 

Oil of Bitter Almonds. 


presence of hydrocyanic acid in the oil is always certain if it be 
genuine and has not been treated to remove this constituent, but 
the presence of the acid is by no means a guaranty of its genuine- 
ness, for we will find oils consisting of benzaldehyde to which has 
been added the requisite amount of hydrocyanic acid to meet the 
requirements of the trade or of the Pharmacopoeia. The U.S. P. 
tests are as comprehensive and exacting as we can well expect, and 
there is good reason to believe that an oil which will meet these 
tests is an excellent one; but it would appear, after an examination 
of results which are here submitted, that some of these requirements 
are erroneous, particularly the assay for benzaldehyde. Subjoined 
in tabular arrangement are the results of the application of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia tests, with the exception oi the benzal- 
dehyde assay (which will be treated of separately), to twenty-two 
samples of oil derived from various sources : 



Chlorinated Compounds 

Hydrocyanic Acid 


in 70 per cent. 

Copper AgNTOg 




at 13 


Test. Test. 

Per cent. 




absent absent 


2 23 




present present 





absent absent 


I '054 


present present 


I 055 


< t 


I '053 








absent absent 


I -075 





I ""5 I 




I -054 


present present 





I*0 5 8 


a < < 


1 24 


I '060 


< s ( « 








1 .063 




I -053 


ti (( 



I-0 5 8 


<( (( 

« « 







i 'ot)8 


( < ( < 




1 057 


« < 



1 '060 


< < < < 


Specific Gravity. — The specific gravity recorded by the U.S P. of 
1-045 to 1-060 at 25 is about equivalent to 1*052 to 1 067 at 15 C. 
These (1-045 to 1*060) are the limits for 15 C. as given by Gilde- 

1 5 6 

Oil of Bitter Almonds. 

Am. Jonr. Pharni. 
April, 1908. 

meister and Hoffmann, but more recently Schimmel & Co. {Schimmel s 
Report, April, 1906, 72) state that it should be 1-45 to 170 at 15 ; 
equivalent to 1-38 to 1-63 at 25 C. Oil which is lower in specific 
gravity than this lower limit is suspicious and may probably con- 
tain added alcohol, which is sometimes used as a preservative, part- 
icularly in view of the fact that the chemists of Schimmel & Co. 
have shown {Schi?jtmels Report, April, 1895, 1 1) that a small quantity 
of alcohol materially decreases the oxidation to benzoic acid. Spe- 
cific gravity higher than these limits indicates the presence of ex- 
cessive quantities of hydrocyanic acid, not however as such, but in 
the form of benzo-nitrile produced by the interaction of benzaldehyde 
and hydrocyanic acid. For example, sample number 9, with a spe- 
cific gravity of 1075, w ^ De seen by tne table to have a very large 
quantity of hydrocyanic acid present (644 per cent.); the high 
gravity of numbers 12, 19 and 20 is probably due to the presence 
of considerable benzoic acid. 

Alcohol Solubility. — Of the solubility requirements of the U.S.P., 
the one having most importance is that in 70 per cent, alcohol. This 
was applied by carefully measuring out exactly 5 c.c. of the oil in a 
graduated cylinder and adding the 70 per cent, alcohol from a burette 
with constant shaking until a perfectly clear solution resulted. By 
this means a very accurate determination of the solubility of the oil 
may be effected. None of the samples failed to meet this test, while 
some of them, it will be noted, required slightly less of the alcohol 
to produce a clear solution. The test is of value and, to get the 
most out of it, should be applied in some such manner as the above. 
Schimmel & Co. {Schimmel 's Report, April, 1906, 72) consider that 
a pure oil requires one to two parts of 70 per cent, alcohol for solu- 

Chlorinated Compounds.- — The presence or absence of chlorinated 
compounds has been shown to be a very excellent criterion of the 
genuineness of the oil from the fact that natural oil does not contain 
any compounds which, by the application of either of these tests, 
show the presence of chlorine, and that benzaldehyde synthetically 
produced from toluene invariably contains some traces of chlorinated 
compounds. These chlorinated compounds may be either those 
produced by the introduction of chlorine direct into the benzene 
nucleus or compounds having the chlorine in the side-chain. This 
statement is made in the present tense, though it should in reality 

Am A J p°rL r ;im rm "} Oil of Bitter Almonds. 157 

be modified, because it is becoming possible to obtain benzaldehyde 
produced by chemical synthesis which shows no presence of these 
intermediate chlorine-bearing compounds. All the substitutions of 
genuine oil of bitter almonds by benzaldehyde occurring in the oils 
here recorded have been easily detected by the presence of such 
chlorinated bodies. It is interesting to note in this connection that 
there was at one time a controversy between the chemists of Merck 
& Co., and those of Schimmel & Co., the former claiming to have 
found traces of chlorine even in genuine oil of bitter almonds. This 
fact was subsequently proven to be erroneous by Schimmel & Co., 
and they at that time proved the efficacy of their qualitative test* 
giving also processes for the quantitative estimation (comparatively 
at least) of chlorine present both in the substituted compounds and 
the organic chlorides (SchimmeVs Report, April, 189 1, 3). 

Copper Test. — This is the well-known test for the detection of 
halogens in organic compounds, and its exceeding delicacy makes it 
very valuable, though it is probably no more delicate than the silver 
nitrate test ; but at least it is not undesirable to have two such 
excellent tests to check each other, particularly when we consider 
possible sources of error in silver nitrate tests, to which we will 
have occasion to refer later. By this test only five of the twenty- 
two samples were shown to be absolutely free from any trace of 
chlorine. These are numbers I, 3. 8, 9 and 10, and hence may be 
considered genuine oils, the remainder being in whole or in part 
artificial benzaldehyde. 

Silver Nitrate Test. — This test, which is the only one given in the 
U.SP., 1 890, is very reliable, it being both extremely delicate when 
properly handled and capable of giving some approximate idea of 
the quantity of organic chlorine-containing bodies present. The 
only difference between this and the preceding test is that while 
inorganic and non-volatile chlorides will give no indications by this 
test, their presence will be demonstrated by the copper test. The 
U.S.P. test is so worded as to exclude any possibility of error due 
to the production of silver cyanide instead of silver chloride, and 
the consequent misinterpretation of the test, but it fails completely 
to take cognizince of another and very much more important 
source of error, and one which I do not remember having seen any 
notice of in this immediate connection, viz.: the possibility of the filter 
paper used containing chlorides. 

158 Oil of Bitter Almonds. { Am A$i;£8£ Tm ' 

Mallinckrodt and Stull (Jour. Am.'Chem. Soc, 1904, 1029) called 
attention to some difficulty they had in testing potassium iodide for 
iodate by reason of the presence of nitrites in the filter paper 
which they had used, and went on to show that all the samples of 
filter paper which had been kept in their laboratory showed more 
or less marked traces of nitrites. Procter (your. Soc. Chem. lnd. y 
1904, 9), in an article regarding water analysis, also calls attention to 
the ready absorption of ammoniacal and acid vapors from the air of 
the laboratory and the necessity of washing filter papers prior to 
their use, which were desired to be free from any traces of these 
bodies. We have found the same thing to be true in the applica- 
tion of this silver nitrate test. 

The Pharmacopoeia directs that after burning the oil in the 
presence of water to absorb the volatile chlorine compound the 
resulting solution shall be filtered free from carbon and the 
filtrate tested by the addition of silver nitrate. By the appli- 
cation of this test exactly as directed there was not a single one of 
the twenty-two samples that did not show a more or less distinct 
test for chlorides in the aqueous solution. The water used was 
found to be absolutely free from the minutest taste of chlorine, 
and in looking further for a possible source of error, it was found 
that not a filter paper in the laboratory but would give at least a 
slight test for chlorine when extracted with water. The tests on 
these filter papers included every variety in stock, from the heaviest 
sheet filter to the various grades of Schleicher & Schull's quantita- 
tive filters. An aqueous extraction of the filters also showed the 
presence of ammonia by Nessler's reagent, so that this source of 
error is due to the absorption from the atmosphere of the laboratory 
of the vapors of ammonia and hydrochloric acid, the resulting am- 
monium chloride being readily extracted, in part at least, by the 
passage of even a small quantity of water through the filter. Two 
methods may be adopted to obviate this source of error: First, the 
filter papers used may be washed carefully with water free from 
chlorine immediately before use; or, second, the test for chlorides 
may be made without filtering off the carbon produced in process 
of the test. Tne second method is preferable, as it renders unneces- 
sary the additional time and trouble to wash the filter, and the 
finely divided carbon floating on the surface of the liquid does not 
in any way interfere with the delicacy of the test. Thus the clos- 

^ApSim™'} Oil of Bitter Almonds. 159 

ing section of the description of this test in the U.S. P. should be so 
modified in wording as to obviate the fallacy of its present reading. 

Hydrocyanic Test, Qualitative. — This well-known test requires 
no comment, and we may pass it by, merely calling attention to the 
fact that six of the samples, which were in whole or part evidently 
artificial benzaldehyde, yet contained hydrocyanic acid, showing that 
an attempt had been made to duplicate more nearly the genuine oil.. 

Hydrocyanic Acid Estimation. — The determination of hydrocyanic 
acid present in oil of bitter almonds may be accomplished with a fair 
degree of accuracy with the method given in the U.S. P., and although 
the U S.P. specifies that magnesium hydroxide free from chlorides 
shall be used, yet an hydroxide containing chlorides will be equally 
useful if a blank test be run alongside of the assay. The quantities 
found range from 69 per cent, in number 15 to the very high 
figure of 6 44 in number 9, which sample is also the one having the 
highest specific gravity. Numbers 13 and 31 are below the U.S.P. 
standard, while the remaining four are within the limits of 2 to 4 
per cent. Three of these four, however, it will be seen by reference 
to the chlorinated compound test, were not natural oils. 

Benzaldehyde Estimation. — Few practical problems in connection 
with the whole field of volatile oil analysis have recently attracted 
more attention than the methods for the estimation of aldehydic or 
ketonic constituents. The method of estimating such constituents 
by use of acid or neutral sulphite of sodium received its early and 
widest application to the estimation of citral in lemon oil, but has 
since been extended to various other oils, and among the more recent 
applications of the method is that to oil of bitter almonds. In con- 
nection with work upon a large number of oils of this character, 
Burgess {Analyst, 1904, 78) applied the method to benzaldehyde 
and oil of bitter almonds, and carried out the estimation by meas- 
urement of the uncombined oil. More recently, S. S. Sadtler has 
applied the observations of Tiemann [Bcrichte, 31, 3334), who 
demonstrated the liberation of alkali by the action of sodium sulphite 
on an aldehyde, to the determination of various aldehydes and among 
them benzaldehyde in oil of bitter almonds. In a paper read before 
the Chemical Section of the Franklin Institute {Jour. Franklin In- 
stitute, December 1903) he described a method for the quantitative 
estimation of aldehydes and ketones based upon this reaction and 
the determination of the alkali formed. Another article of similar 

160 Oil of Bitter Almonds. { Am im rm ' 

character appeared in the Journal of the Society of Chemical Industry, 
1904, 303, wherein he mentions an attempt to apply this reaction 
to the determination of benzaldehyde in oil of bitter almonds, and 
states that they gave " results varying about one-third of the theo- 
retical.'' Sadtler's latest contribution on this subject [Jour. Amer. 
Chem Soc, 1905, 1 3 2 1) deals with the benzaldehyde determination 
slightly more in extenso. He gives results obtained in the estima- 
tion of benzaldehyde in a good quality of the commercial article, 
which ranged on the same sample from 96 8 per cent, to 99 percent. 
No other analytical results are recorded, but we are led to conclude 
that the method works well, although the operation must be carried 
out entirely in the cold, the avoidance of heat being absolutely 
necessary. It is from this work that the U.S.P. method of assay is 
probably derived. 

Judging by the results below, it seems that the introduction of 
this method of assay into the Pharmacopoeia has been a little pre- 
mature, for I have been unable to obtain results that are reliable, 
and it further appears that the same conclusions regarding this 
matter have been reached by the chemists of Schimmel & Co. 
They say {Schimmel 's Report, 1905, 30) " we were compelled to 
reject the use of Sadtler's method for the estimation of citral in 
lemon oil because an exact titration could not be carried out," and 
again {SchimmeVs Report, April-May, 1906, 70, 74 and 122) they 
reiterate this opinion. This is exactly the difficulty which I have 
encountered as being the most serious one. 

The application of this assay to sample number 1, which was a 
sample of the genuine oil from Fritzsche Brothers, and which an- 
swered all the other U.S.P. tests, gave the following results : 

69 - i9 per cent , . . . 68'o6 per cent. 

70- 5 " " 69 46 " " 

68 93 " " ........... 69-34 " " 

The average of these results is 69 25 per cent., and the extreme 
variation among these is 2- 54 per cent., which, when we consider 
the method of assay, is sufficiently close agreement for all practical 
purposes. In view of the requirement of the U.S.P. that oil of 
bitter almonds should contain 85 per cent, of benzaldehyde, these 
results may be looked upon with suspicion as showing not a poor 
quality of oil, but the shortcomings of the process. The quantity 
of benzoic acid present, as shown by two assays, was 95 and 98 

Am 'ipr\i; i P 9 ?8 arm } Oil of Bitter Almonds, 161 

per cent., which shows that the small amount of benzaldehyde is 
not caused by an excessive oxidation to benzoic acid. To further 
try the process, a sample of hijrli-grade commercial binzildshyde 
was obtained and assayed. This sample had a specific gravity of 
1-053 at 1 5 C. and in fractional distillation gave the following 
results : 

Pressure, 739 m.m. 
Per Cent. Per cent. 

177 to 178° 4 179 to 179/5 IO 

178 " i 7 S-5 c , 26 i79'5°, " 180 5 

178-5° " 179°, 45 Not distilled. 10 

The distillation was from an ordinary distilling flask and over a 
free flame without any special protection of the upper part of the 
distilling flask. Three assays of this benzaldehyde gave as results 
79 8 per cent, 8o-i2 per cent., and 80.07 per cent., which deter- 
minations are very close indeed. The amount of benzoic acid 
present in this benzaldehyde was very small, amounting to nothing 
more than a distinct trace. Here, again, we have results which are 
5 per cent, below the U.S. P. standard, showing that the assay proc- 
ess used is certainly at fault in some particular. 

The results above given, both on the oil and the benzaldehyde, as 
obtained by the writer, were duplicated within the limits of their 
variations by another analyst, so that the trouble is evidently not 
due to a misreading of the end-point. 

Still, a third sample, which was marked " Oil of Bitter Almonds, 
Artificial," assayed 78-4 per cent. 

As we have stated, the chief difficulty with the process is the 
uncertainty attendant upon the determination of the end. point, and 
while Sadtler recommends rosolic acid as giving better results, I 
rather prefer phenolphthalein. Unless extreme care be taken, par- 
ticularly if one is unacquainted with this process, the end-point will 
be considered reached before such is actually the case, for the final 
pink tint of the phenolphthalein is exceedingly faint. For this rea- 
son it is absolutely essential that the titration should be carried out 
in full daylight, a cloudy day even being detrimental to the best re. 
suits. It is evident that results which are fairly concordant may be 
obtained, but it seems equally evident that concordance of results 
is not indicative of accuracy. It is of interest to note here the state- 
ments in the first article of Sadtler's dealing in any way with the 
assay of benzaldehyde by this process, wherein he says that it gave 

1 62 Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. { ^ m '^\\, S». rm ' 

results varying about one-third of the theoretical, as compared to 
the implied, though not definitely worded statement in the last 
article upon the same subject, that the process is accurate. So far 
as I have been able to find, he has given no explanation of this wide 
variation from the theoretical and why at the present time the 
method is to be regarded as satisfactory. Certain it is that these 
results accord far better with the earlier statement. 

Opportunity has been wanting to enter into this process in detail 
with a view of rendering it more accurate, and so perforce the 
results here submitted are destructive without being in addition 

From the Laboratories of Parke, Davis & Co. 

By Wi 1.1,1am H. Harrison. 

The present National Formulary formula yields a product which 
is a thick red-brown liquid, with a very disagreeable gluey odor. 
It is clear in neither reflected nor transmitted light, and of such a 
colloidal nature as to render filtration impossible even under greatly 
increased pressure. The taste is at first pleasant, followed by a 
strongly alkaline and ferruginous after-taste, which persists. 

Heated to above 6o°, the iron is precipitated as ferric hydroxide, 
partly free and partly in combination with peptone. Carbon dioxide 
causes the complete precipitation of the iron in combination with 
peptone and albumoses. The iron content is -735 per cent. 

In the preparation of the above compound the formula directs 
that dry peptone be employed. There is nothing to be gained in 
the use of dry peptone. On the contrary, this is the greatest objec- 
tion to the present formula. 

A. Catillon (Phatm. Joum. (3), XI (1881), 759) points out the 
fact that even in the most carefully prepared dry peptone a strong 
unpleasant odor persists, while freshly prepared solutions of peptone 
from egg albumen are almost free from odor. Most of the com- 

1 Read before the Chicago Brancn ^. the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 

Am ApTn?i908 arm '} Notes on Prote id Iron Solutions. 163 

mercial peptone on the market is made from fish, serum and egg 
albumen of varying quality, either by peptic or pancreatic digestion, 
while not a small quantity is made by the digestion of meat in the 
presence of hydrochloric or tartaric acid with superheated steam. 
The products are as varied as the number of raw materials entering 
into their preparation. 

Peptones from meat are always more or less contaminated with 
meat bases, gelatin, etc. That from fish albumen always has a fishy 
odor. The products from either source are prone to rapid putrefac- 
tion and yield iron combinations of most offensive odors. 

Allen has pointed out that commercial peptones are often adul- 
terated with gum, dextrin, sugars, flour, etc. He cites (Allen, 
Vol. IV, pp. 290-292) that of five samples analyzed, only one con- 
tained over 6 per cent, of real peptone and three contained less than 
I per cent. A. Denaeyer, the so-called peptones, which are pro- 
duced by the action of superheated steam on meat, contain no true 
peptone. The preparation of peptone in this manner is the subject 
of a patent by Etieme and Delhaye (Eng., 1890, No. 10,961). 

The three samples of peptone used in the preparation of the 
samples of liquor ferri peptonati, upon which this criticism is based, 
may be described thus: 

I. " Peptone from egg albumen " contains 30 per cent, insoluble 
matter, chiefly starch. It is a white powder with a slightly starch 
odor and forms a faintly yellowish solution with water. 

II. " Peptone, meat," a dark brown hygroscopic mass, with a strong 
odor of meat bases and glue. Almost completely soluble, giving 
a yellowish-brown solution. 

III. " Peptone, pure." A light yellow powder, soluble in water. 
Odor strong, glue-like. 

The three above samples were all that were obtainable on the 
Chicago market, and fairly represent, I think, the peptones available 
for the present National Formulary preparation. 

A wholesome solution of peptone may be readily obtained by the 
digestion of fresh egg albumen by pepsin in the presence of hydro- 
chloric acid. The best results {1. e., 70 per cent, albumoses and 
peptone) are obtained by digesting the egg albumen at 40 C. for 
six hours, in the presence of -5 per cent, hydrochloric acid. 

A good peptonized iron is readily soluble in a warm dilute solu- 

164 Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. { Am ggg rm 

tion of sodium citrate, the resultant solution being perfectly clear, 
with a rich claret color, odorless and free from ferruginous taste. 
Further, this solution is not rendered turbid by carbon dioxide or 
by boiling. These points prove, I think, a dilute solution of sodium 
citrate a better solvent for peptonized iron than sodium hydroxide, 
where peptonized iron is to be employed in solution. 

Solution of ferric chloride may be advantageously employed in 
place of the more expensive oxychloride solution in the preparation 
of peptonized iron. It yields a product which is not only more 
completely but more quickly soluble in either sodium hydroxide, 
sodium citrate or hydrochloric acid. 

I have been unable to prepare a satisfactory solution of pep- 
tonized iron by the use of the oxychloride solution. The solution 
so made is clear only by strong transmitted light. In view of the 
above facts, which are supported by exhaustive tests covering some 
four months, I have constructed the following formula, which yields 
not only a more beautiful and more palatable product, but one of 
perfect stability : 

Egg albumen, fresh 125 gtn. 

Hydrochloric acid . 15 c.c. 

Pepsin 1 gm. 

Sol. ferric chloride, U.S. P. 8th 60 " 

Ammonium hydroxide 48 c.c. 

Sodium citrate 20 gm. 

Alcohol . - 100 c.c. 

Aromatic elixir 100 " 

Tincture vanilla 100 " 

Angelica wine 100 " 

Sodium hydroxide 

Water q. s. 

Dissolve the egg albumen in 2,000 c.c. of water, add the hydro- 
chloric acid and the pepsin and digest at 40 C. for six to twelve 
hours, or until the solution gives no precipitate of albumen on boil- 
ing. Filter. Dilute the ammonium hydroxide with an equal vol- 
ume of water and add the resultant solution to the solution of ferric 
chloride in small portions, skaking well and waiting after each 
addition until the precipitate which is formed is redissolved. When 
all has been added, dilute to 2,000 c.c. Mix the two solutions thor- 
oughly and add sufficient dilute sodium hydroxide solution (25 c.c. 
official solution to 100 of water) to render the mixture faintly alka- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1908. J 

Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. 


line to sensitive litmus paper. Transfer to a tall cylinder and allow 
to stand until the precipitated peptonized iron has subsided (over 
night) ; then decant off the supernatant liquid and wash repeatedly 
by decantation with water until the washings give but a faint 
opalescence with silver nitrate solution. If the precipitate does not 
settle readily or settles incompletely, as often happens, after the 
slight excess of alkali has been washed out, again render the mix- 
ture faintly alkaline. A slight excess of the alkali (about 2 c.c. of -5 
per cent. NaOH per liter) effects the rapid and complete settling of 
the precipitate. 

Transfer to a fine muslin strainer and drain. Transfer the magma 
to a porcelain dish. 

Dissolve the sodium citrate in 50 c.c. of boiling water and pour 
the solution over the magma in the dish. Heat until all is dissolved. 
Cool and add the alcohol, aromatic elixir, tincture of vanilla, 
angelica wine and enough water to make 1,000 c.c. F ilter if neces- 

The finished preparation is a perfectly clear claret-colored solu- 
tion, with no odor except that imparted by the flavoring ingredients. 
Taste sweetish, faintly aromatic, with not a trace ot astringency. 
Samples made four months ago have kept perfectly. 

I have selected -6 per cent, iron as the iron content in place of 
•735, as it seems to be the more universally accepted strength of 
solutions containing proteid iron combinations. 

Numerous attempts to modify the above formula have resulted in 
rendering the product less satisfactory. A good quality of dry egg 
albumen (15 grammes) may be used without altering the nature of 
the product to any extent. Solution of oxychloride of iron (164 
c.c.) used in place of the solution of ferric chloride and ammonium 
hydroxide lessens the number of times the precipitated peptonized 
iron must be washed, but the finished product in this case is quite 

I have cut down the amount of aromatic elixir from 400 c.c. to 
IOO c.c, because of numerous complaints that the preparation of 
the National Formulary is too sweet, and to make it more con- 
sistent with the liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano. The addition 
of the tincture of vanilla and angelica wine has rendered the aroma 
and taste of the finished product all that is to be desired. 

166 Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. { Am April,' im rm * 


When made according to the present formula, with the materials 
obtainable on the market, the National Formulary preparation may- 
be described thus : 

A dark brown sluggish liquid, with a most offensive odor, not 
unlike a mixture of ammonia and putrefied beef extract. Taste 
alkaline, saline and nauseating. It deposits after a time a dirty 
white sediment, which soon covers the bottom of the vessel. 

The finished product contains about *I5 per cent, iron, -145 per 
cent, or less manganese, and -234 per cent, ammonium hydroxide, 
the latter serving the sole purpose of developing more offensive 

I have prepared four samples, in each case using different samples 
of peptonized iron, the finished products being almost identical. 

The trouble with this preparation lies principally with the pepton- 
ized iron and ammonium hydroxide, although there is room for 
improvement elsewhere. 

Of six samples of peptonized iron examined, the products of the 
principal manufacturers of pharmaceutical chemicals, all showed 
that putrefaction was in progress. Of seven examined for iron con- 
tent, only one showed over 5 per cent. Fe 2 O s (3 5 per cent. Fe), and 
this one sample has not yet been on the market under the name 
of peptonized iron or iron peptonate. 

At the time this work was started, but two samples of iron pep- 
tonate and none of soluble manganese citrate were obtainable on the 
Chicago market. 

After some time I succeeded in collecting some direct from the 
manufacturers, seven samples of peptonized iron and two of soluble 
manganese citrate. 

These two samples of soluble manganese citrate, although bearing 
the same title, are entirely different substances. 

(1) A light red-brown powder with a strong odor of acetamide 
and ammonia. It is a manganese-ammonium citrate containing 
about 18 per cent, manganese. Incompletely soluble in water, but 
solution is rendered clear by standing for some time with a slight 
excess of ammonia. 

(2) Pearl-colored scales (evidently made after the formula of 
F. B. Power, Proceedings A.Ph.A., 1902,937). Contains 13-5 per 

Am A P °iii r ;i908* mi "} Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. 167 

cent, manganese. It is a manganese sodium citrate, freely water- 

There are at least two additional soluble manganese citrates, but 
no sample of these was found on the market. (I have myself pre- 
pared the four scale salts and will make these the subject of a 
future paper.) 

Which of the scale salts of the market is to be used ? One gives 
the finished product a manganese content of about '145 per cent., 
the other about -108 per cent. The latter yields a product of about 
the same manganese content as the solution approved by the Com- 
mittee on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the A.M. A.; but in Proceed- 
ings A.Ph.A., 51, 400, we are told that the former was intended. 
But why use these scale salts of variable composition at all ? The 
normal manganese citrate is a definite chemical compound contain- 
ing 23 per cent. Mn. It is freely soluble in ammonium hydroxide 
or sodium citrate solution. It costs about one-half as much (per 
gramme manganese) as the double salts. 

In view of the above facts, it seems that a satisfactory preparation 
according to the present N. F. formula is impossible, although with 
a good sample of peptonized iron it could yield a passable one. A 
sample of peptonized iron which promises to keep well (containing 
about 15 per cent. Fe) has been prepared by the writer, but the 
formula is withheld until it can be proven to keep satisfactorily. 

A liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano may be prepared, however, 
by slightly modifying the formula of liquor ferri peptonati. All 
that is necessary is to increase the amount of sodium citrate to 25 
grammes, and dissolve in the solution of this salt in water 4*4 
grammes normal manganese citrate before adding it to the pepton- 
ized iron. 

The finished product leaves little further to be desired and is 
identical with liquor ferri peptonati, except that it contains in addition 
•I per cent, manganese. 

Attempts to supply the manganese by means of manganese- 
chloride resulted in the product having an objectionable salty taste. 

The iron and manganese cannot be precipitated together as pep- 
tonized compounds, because in the presence of ammonium chloride 
the peptonized iron requires too large an excess of alkali for com- 
plete precipitation, while in the absence of the ammonium salt (#. e. f 
from iron oxychloride solution) the peptonized iron precipitates in 

168 Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. { Am Apriii fm rttJ ' 

such a way as to form turbid solutions with sodium citrate solution 
or alkali. 

It will be seen that the same " base " forms the body of both 
preparations. This has a decided advantage in that further com- 
binations are possible. 

If the formula for L. F. P. be completed to the point where the 
peptonized iron is dissolved in the solution of sodium citrate and 
alcohol added, it will have a volume less than 400 c.c. It may be 
diluted to this volume and filtered. It will now keep indefinitely, 
and may be designated " liquor ferri peptonati base." 

To prepare liquor ferri peptonati, N. F.: 

Base 400 c.c. 

Aromatic elixir 100 " 

Tincture vanilla 8 " 

Angelica wine 100 " 

Water, q. s. to make 1000 " 

Liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano : 

Base 400 c.c. 

Manganese citrate, normal 4*4 grammes. 

Sodium citrate • 5 " 

Aromatic elixir 100 c.c. 

Tincture vanilla 8 " 

Angelica wine 100 " 

Dissolve the sodium citrate in 10 c.c. of water and add to this 
the manganese citrate. When all is dissolved, add the solution to 
the base and then add the other ingredients. 

Liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano et arseno. 

Base a, . 400 c.c. 

Manganese citrate 4*4 grammes. 

Sodium citrate . 5 " 

Arsenous oxide '325 " 

Potassium bicarbonate . . 7 " 

Aromatic elixir 100 c.c. 

Tincture vanilla , 8 " 

Angelica wine 100 u 

Dissolve and add the manganese citrate as in liquor ferri peptonati 
cum mangano. Dissolve the potassium bicarbonate in 10 c.c. water 
and heat with the arsenous oxide until all is dissolved. Add to the 
mixture already prepared. Then add the flavoring ingredients and 
sufficient water to make 1,000 c.c. The finished solution contains : 

Am Aprii; S rm 1 Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. 169 

Fe -6 percent., Mn -i per cent., and As 2 O g -0013 gramme (1-50 
gr.) per 4 c.c. 

Liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano, arseno et strychnina. 
Base 400 c.c. 

Solution of 4-4 grammes manganese citrate as above, solution of 
325 As 2 O g as above, then add a solution of -162 gramme strych- 
nine sulphate in 5 c.c. of water. Next add the flavoring ingredients 
and water sufficient to make 1,000 c.c. 

This solution contains: Fe -6 per cent. Mn -i per cent., and each 
4 c.c. -0013 gramme (I-50 gr.) As 2 3 , and -00065 gramme (i-lOO 
gr.), strychnine sulphate. 

All these formulas have been prepared and thoroughly tried and 
found to meet the demands for these preparations. 

It may be well to add that the above solution of peptonized iron 
has a wonderful power in the masking of the taste of alkaloids. 


The National Formulary product is a brownish-yellow liquid, 
clear in neither transmitted nor reflected light. Taste aromatic, 
sweet, then slightly astringent. The solution cannot be filtered, and 
a more or less gelatinous precipitate soon appears. The National 
Formulary states that each 4 c.c. contains about -026 gramme Fe, 
(corresponding to -65 per cent. Fe), yet the 1 30 c.c. of oxychloride 
solution can only furnish an iron content of '47775 per cent. The 
solution cannot be considered acceptable. 

The formula calls for dried egg albumen, good qualities of which 
are not easily obtainable, at least on the drug market, although 
dealers in bakers' supplies have some excellent samples. The com- 
mercial article is largely adulterated. Of four samples examined, 
but one was fit for use in the N. F. formula. 

With good dried egg albumen hard to procure, it seems prefer- 
able to use fresh egg albumen so readily obtainable. It represents 
about 12 per cent, dried albumen. 

Solution of ferric chloride yields a completely soluble albuminated 
iron, and should be used in place of the solution of oxychloride of 
iron which yields an incompletely soluble albuminate. 

A reconstructed formula based on these points yields a product 
which has a beautiful claret-red color, and is an acceptable prepar- 


Notes on Proteid Iron Solutions. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Egg albumen 

Solution of ferric chloride, U.S.P. 8th 

Ammonium hydroxide 

Alcohol . 

Aromatic elixir 

400 grammes. 


12 c.c. 

Solution of sodium hydroxide 

Water, of each sufficient quantity . 

Dilute the ammonium hydroxide with an equal volume of water 
and add the resultant solution to the solution of ferric chloride in 
small portions at a time, shaking vigorously and waiting after each 
addition until the precipitate formed is redissolved. When all has 
been added, dilute with I, OOO c.c. of water and heat to 50 C. 

Shake the egg albumen with a few pieces of broken glass and 1 ,000 
c.c. of water, strain, filter and heat to 50 C. Filter into the diluted 
iron solution, under constant stirring. When all has been added, add 
cautiously a dilute solution of sodium hydroxide (2 vol. 5 per cent, to 
8 vol. water) until the mixture is perlectly neutral to sensitive litmus 
paper (about 200 c.c. of the dilute alkali being required ; an excess 
must be avoided lest the precipitate be redissolved), whereupon the 
precipitate readily settles, leaving a clear, colorless supernatant 
liquid. Now add 2,000 c.c. of distilled water at 50 C, transfer to 
a tall jar and allow the precipitate to settle. Wash by decantation 
with water at 50 C. until the washings give no test for chlorides. 
(This may be told by boiling about 2 c.c. of the supernatant liquid, 
filtering and testing for CI on the filtrate by means of HN0 3 and 
AgNO s ) If during the washing the precipitate does not settle 
readily, it shows the presence of a little acid in the water (even the 
carbon dioxide usually present in distilled water causes the precipi- 
tate to settle slowly); this should be neutralized with dilute alkali, 
about I c.c. of 1 per cent. NaOH per liter being sufficient. 

The precipitate is then drained and the excess of water pressed 
out. Transfer the magma to a porcelain dish and dissolve in a mix- 
ture of 12 c.c. solution of sodium hydroxide and 25 c.c. of water. 
When solution is complete, add the alcohol, aromatic elixir and 
enough water to make 1,000 c.c. Filter. The finished product is 
perfectly clear in transmitted light and very faintly turbid by 
reflected light. Its iron content is about -6 per cent. 

Northwestern University School of Pharmacy, 
Chicago, 111. 

Am. Jonr. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Benzoic Acid in Catsup. 



By Charges H. I^aWau* and Henry A. Bradshaw. 

The quantitative estimation of benzoic acid in catsup has hitherto 
been attended with some difficulty on account of the fact that there 
is usually a great tendency to emulsification, which can be counter- 
acted only by extreme dilution of the catsup; also, the benzoic acid, 
being obtained by the shaking-out process, requires to be purified 
by sublimation. The following process has proved to be almost 
free from these defects, and work upon known samples has given 
repeatedly concordant results, agreeing within one or two-hundredths 
of I per cent. It is as follows : 

Catsup, 20 grammes; sodium chloride, 2 grammes; hydrochloric 
acid, 5 c.c. ; saturated solution of sodium chloride, 25 c.c. Shake 
the mixture thoroughly for about five minutes, transfer to a 
moistened filter and collect the filtrate in a receiving vessel gradu- 
ated to 100 c.c. Wash the residue upon the filter with a saturated 
solution of sodium chloride until IOO c.c. of filtrate have been 
obtained. Transfer the filtrate to a separatory funnel and shake out 
with three portions of chloroform, using 25 c.c, 15 c.c. and 10 c.c, 
respectively. Evaporate the chloroform at room temperature. If 
the residue is perfectly white and crystalline, as is usually the case, 
dry to constant weight over sulphuric acid in a desiccator. If the 
residue is slightly yellowish and oily, which rarely occurs, dissolve 
it in about 10 or 15 c.c. of weak ammonia water, filter into a sepa- 
ratory funnel, washing the filter and funnel with water. Acidulate 
with dilute sulphuric acid, and again shake out with chloroform. 
The white, crystalline residue of benzoic acid, as obtained by drying 
in a desiccator, may be weighed, preparatory to checking up by 

After obtaining the weight, from 3 to 5 c.c. of alcohol are added 
to dissolve the residue in the capsule from which the chloroformic 
solution has been evaporated, a few drops of phenolphthalein solu- 
tion are added, and the solution is titrated with twentieth normal 
potassium hydroxide solution, and the results calculated to benzoic 
acid. The titration should agree with the gravimetric estimation 
very closely, the difference rarely being more than 1 or 2 milli- 
grammes. The solution resulting from the titration, which is very 

172 British Pharmaceutical Codex. ! ^ m Aprn'; im rm " 

slightly alkaline, is then divided into two portions, to one of which 
is added a solution of manganous sulphate, for the purpose of ascer- 
taining the presence or absence of cinnamic acid, Prof. W. L. 
Scoville having recently called attention to the fact that benzoic acid 
does not produce a precipitate with manganous sulphate, while 
cinnamic acid does. To the other portion is added solution of ferric 
chloride for the purpose of confirming the presence of benzoic acid. 
The amount of benzoic acid, as determined by the foregoing proc- 
ess, may be calculated as sodium benzoate, as it is in this form 
when added to the catsup, and in terms of which it is stated on the 

This process is applicable, of course, only where benzoic acid is 
the sole preservative used, as salicylic acid and saccharin are both 
extracted by this method, and unless tneir absence was assured, 
would be estimated as benzoic acid. 

The principle upon which the above process is based is that out- 
lined by Prof. F. X. Moerk in the " Proceedings of the Pennsyl- 
vania Pharmaceutical Association " for 1 905, page 181, in an article 
on the detection and estimation of benzoic acid and salicylic acid in 
milk, in which he advocates the use of sodium chloride and hydro, 
chloric acid in assisting in the extraction of these preservatives in 
the pure state and preventing emulsiflcation during the process. 



By M. I. Wii^bert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia, Pa. 
No English-speaking pharmacist who is at all interested in the 
science of his calling can afford to ignore the British Pharmaceutical 
Codex, or even attempt to conduct an up-to-date pharmacy without 
a copy of this really valuable compendium. 

Even a cursory inspection of this book must suggest that it 
promises to be an active factor in encouraging rational prescribing 
on the part of medical practitioners, and it will surely prove to be 
a powerful incentive to the development of an active interest in the 
science of pharmacy on the part of the votaries of that calling. 
While the monographs and the descriptions of drugs and chemi- 

Am A J P °ru';r908 arm *} British Pharmaceutical Codex. 173 

cals are of unusual interest and contain much that is novel and valu- 
able, the formulae for galenical preparations that are contained in 
this book are even more interesting to American pharmacists, as 
many of them will be found to be particularly useful, or at least 
suggestive, in connection with the present-day propaganda for the 
use of official or open formula remedies in place of the semi- 
secret proprietaries and out-and-out nostrums that appear to be so 
popular at the present time. 

In this connection it will perhaps not be necessary to reiterate 
the oft-made statement that the dispensing pharmacist, if he desires 
to give generally satisfactory service, must enlarge on his possibili- 
ties and resources so as to be in position to compete with the manu- 
facturer in the preparation of all of the available dosage forms of 
medicine. To do this it will be necessary to be ever on the look- 
out for suggestions that will lead to the development of new forms 
for the administration of active medicaments, to improve on the 
well-known present-day forms and to be able to demonstrate that 
in all particulars the product of the dispensing pharmacist is at 
least the equal and, in some respects is decidedly superior to the 
best that the manufacturer may have to offer. 

Few, if any, books on pharmacy that have come to my attention 
offer a greater number of suggestions along these very lines than 
the British Pharmaceutical Codex, and for this reason alone, if for 
no other, the book would be a valuable addition to the dispensing 
room of any well-organized pharmacy. 

One of the more interesting features, and one that is comparatively 
novel on this side of the water, as the Englishman would say, is the 
use of chocolate as a vehicle. We have, it is true, made use of 
chocolate, or the color of this substance, in the form of variable mix- 
tures of oxide of iron, starch and sugar, to some extent as a coat- 
ing for pills, but as yet the paste itself has not been widely 
exploited as a vehicle in the production of extemporaneous prep- 
arations at the prescription counter. 

Theobroma Paste. — In the British Pharmaceutical Codex this sub- 
stance is directed to be used in the preparation of a class of prep- 
arations designated as Tabellae. The directions for the making of 
this particular class of preparations are simple and readily followed, 
and it will be quite practicable to dispense these extemporaneously. 

Theobroma paste is recommended as a vehicle for such sub- 


174 British Pharmaceutical Codex. { Am a p 7if; im irn 

stances as menthol, pepsin, santonin, the insoluble salts of bismuth 
and a number of the alkaloids. 

Pkenolphthalein Lozenges. — Trochisci phenolphthaleini, B.P C, are 
also directed to be made with chocolate paste and represent approxi- 
mately 2 grains each of phenolphthalein. 

Lozenge Base. — The article on lozenges is a comprehensive one 
and should be worth many times the price of the book to any up- 
to-date pharmacist. Cut lozenges constitute a class of preparations 
that is much neglected and deserves to be brought to the attention 
of physicians. The Codex contains modified formulas for the official 
British bases, the more useful of which are : 


Refined sugar • 88 

Gum acacia, in powder 4 

Mucilage of acacia 7 

Black currant paste 11 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 
Mix and divide into 100 lozenges. 


Refined sugar 96 

Tincture of tolu 2 c.c. 

Gum acacia, in powder 4 

Mucilage of acacia ' 7 

Distilled water, a sufficient quantity. 
Mix and divide into 100 lozenges. 

Compressed Tablets. — The directions for making compressed tab- 
lets are particularly well adapted to the production of these articles 
on a small scale. The vehicles used for granulating the several sub- 
stances are those suggested by White and Robinson in a paper read 
at the meeting of the British Pharmaceutical Conference some five 
years ago. 

While these substances are undoubtedly useful for many of the 
possible combinations of drugs, and have the added advantage that 
the granulations are readily dried by exposure at ordinary tempera- 
tures, they should not be relied on too implicitly, particularly for 
tablets that are to retain a purely white color. 

For extracts and mixtures containing extracts, the more prefer- 
able is : 


Oil of tbeobroma 16-5 

Ether, sufficient to produce 100. 

Am. Jonr. Phariii. 
April, 1908. 

British Pharmaceutical Codex, 



Oil of theobroma 25*00 

Hard soap 3*00 

Tragacanth, in powder 0*50 

Benzoic acid 25 

Distilled water, to produce 100. 

Dissolve the soap in 25 of the water by the aid of heat, add the 
hot solution to the oil of theobroma, previously melted, and mix by 
agitation, then shake in the tras^acanth, add the benzoic acid and 
make up to 100 with distilled water. 

Where the presence of soap is considered undesirable, 15 of gum 
acacia may be substituted for the soap. 

Pastilles. — These are directed to be made with a basis of glyco- 
gelatin, with which, when melted on a water-bath, the active medic 
inal agent is incorporated, either in solution or suspension. The 
melted mixture is then directed to be poured into moulds or into a 
suitable tray, allowed to solidify, and then cut into the required 
number of pastilles. 

Glyco%elatin. — The formula for glycogelatin, B.P.C., the basis for 
pastilles, is as follows : 

Gelatin 12*00 

Glycerin . . 40*00 

Distilled water 2o'oo 

Orange-flower water 20*00 

Sugar 5 00 

Citric acid 2 00 

Oil of lemon o'io 

Solution of caramel, a sufficient quantity. 

Concentrated Waters. — Aquae concentrata, B.P.C. The directions 
of the British Pharmacopoeia for medicated waters involve the dis- 
tillation of the product from the crude drugs. Concentrated waters 
have evidently been included in the Codex to provide for a ready 
method of extemporaneous preparation. They are described as 
being solutions of volatile oils iq alcohol, or mixtures of alcohol 
and water, and are designed for the extemporaneous 'production of 
medicated waters. Ten formulas are included, and these are so de_ 
signed that one part of the product is the equivalent of about 40 
parts of the official medicated water. The resulting medicated 
waters are directed to be clarified by the intervention of calcium 
phosphate. Apart from being a matter of interest, this particular 

176 British Pharmaceutical Codex. { ^ m £g» rm - 

class of preparations has little or nothing to commend it. The 
addition of alcohol to a volatile oil in the making of medicated 
waters is of doubtful utility, and the use of calcium phosphate as an 
absorbent powder is open to the objection that this substance, in 
addition to being subject to contaminations, is itself slightly soluble 
in water. 

A more valuable addition, and one that pharmacists and others in 
this country would, no doubt, desire to have an authoritative 
standard for, is : 


Sodium chloride 0*95 

Water, sufficient to produce 100. 

Boil the water, cool and dissolve the salt. 

There are a number of miscellaneous preparations that are of 
interest at the present time, in connection with our efforts to popu- 
larize open-formula preparations. An alkaline antiseptic preparation 
somewhat similar in character to the alkaline antiseptic of the 
National Formulary is : 


Sodium bicarbonate . i'oo 

" biborate 2*00 

" benzoate 075 

" salicylate 0*50 

Menthol o 03 

Thymol 0*05 

Oil of pine 0.05 

Eucalyptol 0*13 

Oil of wintergreen 0*03 

Glycerin " 10 "oo 

Alcohol 2.50 

Solution of carmine 0*50 

Distilled water, sufficient to produce 100. 

Dissolve the sodium salts in the water, add the glycerin and solu- 
tion of carmine ; then add the menthol, thymol and oils previously 
dissolved in the alcohol. 

This preparation will be found to be generally more acceptable 
than the corresponding preparation of the National Formulary. 
This suggests the suspicion that somewhere in the transcribing of the 
formula for the liquor antisepticus alkalinus, N.F., the quantities 
for the sodium benzoate and the sodium biborate have become trans- 

Am 'A J prn;Soe a . rm *} British Pharmaceutical Codex. 177 

posed. A reversal of these quantities produces a surprising change 
in the character of the preparation and eliminates the objectionable 
sweet taste to which many object. 


Figs, cut small 40*00 

Refined sugar 50*00 

Distilled water, sufficient to make ioo'oo. 

The figs are digested with boiling water and the resulting 
strained liquor evaporated to produce the required volume of syrup 
on the addition of the sugar. The resulting syrup is rather viscid 
and promises to be an excellent vehicle for acrid or bitter substances. 

An excellent illustration of its varied uses is : 


Compound tincture of rhubarb 5*00 

Fluidextract of senna io'oo 

Spirit of cinnamon 1*25 

" " nutmeg (10%) 1*25 

Fluidextract of cascara sagrada, aromatic 5*00 

Syrup of figs, sufficient to make 100 - oo. 

The ingredients here have been altered to comply with the U.S.P., 
as the fluidextract official in the British Pharmacopoeia is directed 
to be made from senna pods. 

A type of the viscid expectorants is : 


Aceto morphine hydrochloride . o*io 

Tincture of hyoscyamus 7-50 

Spirit of chloroform . . 7-50 

Syrup of tolu 15 *oo 

" " wild cherry 15*00 

Glycerin, sufficient to produce ioo'oo. 

A tooth powder that promises to find favor is : 


Magnesium peroxide 10 - oo 

Hard soap, in powder 2*50 

Menthol o'io 

Oil of rose 0*25 

" " wintergreen ; 0*50 

Precipitated chalk, heavy, sufficient to make ioo'oo. 

Triturate the menthol and oils with a portion of the precipitated 

178 British Pharmaceutical Codex. { Am AjrfI;5X rn1, 

chalk, add the soap and the magnesium peroxide and sufficient 
precipitated chalk to take up the required weight. 

Three external remedies that will probably prove useful are: 


Methyl salicylate • . 12*50 

Menthol . 2 50 

Oil of eucalyptus 2*50 

Essential oil of camphor 2 50 

Hydrous wool-fat ......... 25*00 

Paraffin ointment, sufficient to produce 100*00. 


Menthol . 5*00 

Oil of eucalyptus io'oo 

Methyl salicylate, sufficient to produce ido*oo. 

Dissolve the menthol in the liquids. 


Carbolic acid 3*00 

Glycerin . . 10 00 

Tragacanth .... 2*50 

Distilled water, sufficient to produce 100*00. 

Dissolve the carbolic acid in 80 of the water, then mix the 
glycerin with the tragacanth, add the aqueous solution gradually, 
with constant stirring, and make up the required volume by the 
addition o distilled water. 

A preparation of castor oil that will serve as the basis at least 
for similar peparations is: 


Amyl acetate 0*10 

Saccharin 0*30 

Alcohol 5.00 

' Castor oil, sufficient to produce 100 00. 

Dissolve the amyl acetate and the saccharin in the alcohol, then 
add the castor oil. 

The quantity of saccharin in this preparation can readily be re- 
duced and the flavoring can, of course, be changed to suit. Given 
with milk or from a wetted spoon, the preparation is quite 

^ASn'.SosT*} Helen Abbott Michael. 179 

By Edward Kremers. 

Helen Cecilia De S lver Abbott, youngest child of James Abbott 
and Caroline Montelius, was born in Philadelphia, December 23, 
1857. After a careful home education under governesses and 
private teachers, who, without exception, were delighted with her 
affectionate and studious disposition and her extraordinary quick- 
ness of mind, she was inclined to make a specialty of music, a genius 
for which she early manifested. 

She went abroad in 1878, spending the winter in Paris. In May, 
1879, she returned to America, but the season I 880-81 again finds 
her in Paris engaged in the study of chamber music. Returning 
once more to Philadelphia, she took up the study of musical com- 

A copy of Helmholtz's work on optics, purchased in one of the 
second-hand book stalls on the quays along the Seine, caused her to 
seek instruction in physics. From optics her " interest ran to 
zoology and to the dissecting of animals." Next she enters "the 
Woman's Medical College as the open sesame to the undiscovered 
lands." She <l passed the first year's examinations in chemistry, 
anatomy and physiology with a record of one hundred in each 
branch." During the second year of her medical studies " she met 
with a serious accident that interfered with her work, yet she passed 
the examinations with the same record as in the previous year." 

During the previous year she had published a short paper 
entitled, "Some Observations on the Nutritive Value of Condiments/' 
published in The Polyclinic, in which she records the ash content and 
the percentage of P 2 O s in twenty different condiments. As a result 
of her work in Professor Trimble's laboratory in 1884, she read her 
first scientific paper on " Preliminary Analysis of the Bark of 
Fouquieria Splendens," before the A. A. A. S., which met in Phila- 
delphia in the month of September of that year. It is essentially a 
report of a so-called proximate analysis with selective solvents. 

Sickness prevented her from continuing her studies until Febru- 
ary, 1885, when she began the " Chemical Study of Yucca Angusti- 
folia " in Professor Trimble's laboratory, the paper on this subject 
being read at the Ann Arbor meeting of the A. A. A. S. in August 
. of that year. It is a much more extensive report, but along similar 
lines to the one of the previous year. 

180 Helen Abbott Michael. { Am A J p rii;S rm ' 

Having dropped her medical studies, she spent sometime in 1885 
and 1886 in the study of mathematics and the modern languages, 
looking toward admission to the junior class of the University of 
Pennsylvania, with the ultimate hope of attaining a Ph.D. degree. 

However, her enthusiasm for plant chemistry did not abate ; but 
with the exception of two papers, her contributions were rather of 
the character of essays or lectures than of reports of research. 
These two exceptions are the one " On Haematoxylin in the Bark 
of Saraca Indica," and " On the Occurrence of Solid Hydrocarbons 
in Plants," both of which are the result of work under the guidance 
of Professor Trimble in the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Of her lectures she herself records the following in her diary : 
" That season I gave two lectures before the Franklin Institute, and 
I lectured at the Academy of Natural Sciences, and at the Philadel- 
phia College of Pharmacy to large audiences. In the Spring of '87, 
I gave, at Washington, one of the Saturday lectures under the 
auspices of the Philosophical and Anthropological and Biological 
Societies, in the United States National Museum. The subject 
chosen was the chemistry of the higher and lower plants, and 
owing to the courtesy of Dr. Wiley, the government greenhouses 
were placed at my disposal, and a living exhibition of plants, from 
the highest to the lowest, illustrated my lecture. Most of the 
Washington science coterie were present, and after the lecture we 
met at an informal reception." 

The subjects of her lectures are : (1) " Certain Chemical Constitu- 
ents of Plants Considered in Relation to their Morphology;" (2) 
" Plant Analysis as an Applied Science ;" (3) " Plant Chemistry, as 
Illustrated in the Production of Sugar from Sorghum;" (4) "The 
Chemical Basis of Plant Forms ;" (5) " Comparative Chemistry of 
Higher and Lower Plants." 

The summer of 1887 finds her again on the ocean, in search this 
time of a laboratory in which to pursue her phytochemical studies. 
*' The magic of her name," says her biographer, " was an open sesame 
to all doors. Her researches made her known to the learned world 
of England and the Continent." 

The notes taken down, as she went from place to place, and later 
copied into a book, are possibly the most interesting part of the 
volume, 1 since she was not content to see the laboratories and their 

1 Studies in Plant and Organic Chemistry, and Literary Papers. 

A %pTu;im rm '} Helen Abbott Michael. 181 

equipment, but called at the professors' homes as well. Since it is 
but seldom that we are favored with a description of the laboratories 
and studies of the great men in chemistry as seen through a femi- 
nine eye, the following two paragraphs, descriptive of Hofmann's 
laboratory and study, may be quoted as an illustration of the kind 
of notes which Miss Abbott took down : 

" The laboratory looked like a place, a home, which had not the 
personal supervision of a head. I see where my weak points are, 
and what is necessary for me to do to fortify myself by study. The 
beginners are made to work on some inorganic compound first for 
qualitative study '; then they are hurried to organic chemistry. It 
is the worship of the benzole ring. The assistant told me that it 
was all he cared for. Tiemann, the one who has synthetically made 
vanillin, was absent. 

" Hofmann's study in his house is quite a large room, containing 
family portraits. Over his desk is a marble female bust. The fur- 
niture is black and gold, sofas and chairs covered with green. The 
carpet looks like chinchilla, a velvet one. The chemical lecture- 
room of the university (Hofmann's) is where the Chemical Society 
usually meets. I was present on the opening night, October ioth." 

After her visit to the scientific centers of England, Norway, 
Sweden, Denmark, Germany, Switzerland and France, she returns 
via England to the United States and begins studying under the 
direction of Professor Arthur Michael, of Tufts College. She was 
married to him in June, 1 888, and in the summer of the same year 
Professor and Mrs. Michael started on a trip around the world, which 
lasted about a year and a half. 

On their return to America, Professor Michael accepted the 
position of Director of the Chemical Laboratory of the newly estab- 
lished Clark University at Worcester. He resigned shortly after- 
wards, and the following year (1891) he and Mrs. Michael took up 
their residence at Bonchurch, Isle of Wight, England, where they 
equipped a private laboratory and continued their research work. 
After a residence of four years, they returned to Boston, Professor 
Michael resuming his connection with Tufts College. 

During this period there appeared, in 1 892, " Ueber eine neue 
Bildungsweise von aromatischen Nitrilen" and " Zur Kenntniss der 
Mandelsaure und ihres Nitrils," joint reports with John Jeanpretre 
in the Berichte ; " Zur Kenntniss der Addition von Brom und Chlor 

182 Helen Abbott Michael. {^^t\\'X m ' 

zu fester Crotonsaure," which appeared in Volume 46, page 273, of 
the J.f. pr. Ck., and 1894, " Zur Constitution des Phloretins," again 
in the Berichte of the German Chemical Society, of which she was 
a member. The change in subjects from those of the years 1886-87 
speaks for itself. 

Having returned to America, as mentioned above, she delivered 
her last public address on a scientific subject in her home city before 
the Franklin Institute, March 8, 1895, namely: "A Review of Recent 
Synthetic Work in the Class of Carbohydrates." 

In 1896 she went abroad again. Although she had " resumed 
her chemical researches at the Tufts College Laboratory, . . . 
tier interests were becoming enlisted in wider fields." Instead of 
writing about chemical professors, their laboratories and their stud- 
ies, she now writes about the Austrian peasant and kindred 

Yet in the Fall of 1900 she enters the Medical School of Tufts 
College and wins her doctor's degree in June, 1903. 

Associated with another woman physician, she spent most of 
her spare time caring for poor patients, who flocked to her private 
house, transformed into a free hospital. Stricken by the grippe, and 
after a trying illness, she passed away in Boston on the 29 h of No- 
vember, 1904. 

As a fitting close to this rather objective review, the words spoken 
at her funeral by a friend of her family may herewith be quoted: 
" We cannot help recalling the universality of her personality and 
its many-formed expression, of her wide sympathies and apprecia- 
tions. We must realize that as, after all, humanity is the essence of 
religion, she was deeply religious. We must mention the many 
polished facets of her jewel-like mind, and how she won distinction 
in music, languages, expression, both prose and poetic, in scientific 
research, and finally, even in the few months of hera tive practice, 
in medicine. We are certain that medicine, being both subjective 
and objective, and bringing her into ever closer touch with humanity 
and its needs, spiritual and physical, was her final and most fitting 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Book Reviews. 



The British Pharmaceutical Codex. — An Imperial Dispensatory 
for the Use of Medical Practitioners and Pharmacists. By Authority 
of the Council of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great Britain. Pub- 
lished by the Pharmaceutical Society at 72 Great Russell Street, 
London, W. C, 1907. Price, 125. 6d. net (abroad, 15s. 6d,), delivered. 

This ponderous tome of more than 1400 pages comes as an op- 
portune and highly interesting contribution to the almost worldwide 
efforts that are being made to rehabilitate the profession of pharmacy 
in a field from which its votaries have been all but driven out by the 
manufacturers of nostrums and proprietary remedies. 

In England itself this book appears to have been received with 
marked evidences of approval on the one hand, and vigorous, and, 
one might almost add, venomous, criticism on the other. The 
marked differences of opinion that have characterized the reception 
of this book may be taken as evidence that it has aroused a healthy 
interest in things pharmaceutical at home, and for this reason, if for 
no other, it is well worth the attention and study of pharmacists in 
all parts of the world. 

In a preliminary review of this kind it will, of course, be practi- 
cally impossible to call attention to all of the various features of the 
Codex that merit recognition, and we must content ourselves with 
a more general inquiry into the object, the contents and the uses of 
the volume before us. 

From what has already been said, it will appear that the British 
Pharmaceutical Codex is in reality more than a mere recipe book, 
and that it actually essays to be, as its subtitle indicates, " An Im- 
perial Dispensatory for the Use of Medical Practitioners and Pharma^ 
cists." That this claim of the publishers is well founded is evidenced 
by the fact that the book contains upwards of 2,500 monographs 
and formulae in addition to a number of tables that add materially 
to its usefulness as a pharmaceutical handbook and guide. 

The practical value of the volume is further augmented by an 
exhaustive index, contained in 104 double-column pages, that repre- 
sents upwards of 12,000 references. 

In the preface the existence of the Codex is explained as being 
the result of an apparent need for a reliable work of reference, on 
the available or recognized materia medica, published by the 

1 84 

Book Reviews. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

authority of some statutory body, and the book is the direct out- 
come of a resolution adopted by the Council of the Pharmaceutical 
Society on November 4, 1903. 

The production of the Codex was entrusted to a committee con- 
sisting of Messrs. Michael Carteighe, C. B. Allen, S. R. Atkins, 
J. F. Harrington, G. T. W. Newsholme, R. A. Robinson, and 
J. Rymer Young, This committee subsequently deputed the labor of 
compiling the information to a sub-committee consisting of Dr. 
W. E. Dixon, Prof. H. G. Greenish, and Messrs. Edmund White, 
W. F. Gulliver, F. W. Gambei, and John Humphrey, the latter acting 
as secretary. 

That this committee has devoted much arduous labor to the solu- 
tion of the problems that presented themselves will be admitted by 
all who are sufficiently interested in pharmacy to become more fully 
acquainted with the book itself. To the credit of the Pharmaceu- 
tical Society it should be said that much of the work was done in 
the research laboratory of that Society, though much of it was vol- 
untarily undertaken by individual members of the Society and 
others interested in the development of the book. 

The direct object of the Codex is to give English pharmacists 
and physicians information regarding all medicines and medicinal 
preparations that are at all popular throughout the wide extent of 
the British Empire. In addition to embodying the whole of the 
British Pharmacopoeia the book also includes much information con- 
cerning articles that are official in France, Germany and the United 
States, and it also contains many formulas for preparations having 
a more or less local repute. 

The monographs and formulae are arranged alphabetically and 
the style of the descriptive material is similar to that followed in 
modern pharmacopoeias. 

The descriptions of crude drugs, for instance, include references to 
name, species, source, collection, production and preparation of the 
drug followed by a clear, though somewhat popular, description 
that not infrequently includes anatomical and chemical information. 
The microscopic structure of important drugs is usually described 
at some length, and in many cases attention is specifically directed 
to the kinds of cells and cell contents that are not found in the 
drug, and are, therefore, indicative of adulteration or sophistication. 
The monographs of chemical substances are also quite compre- 

Am, Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Book Reviews, 

i8 5 

hensive, and, for the physician particularly, quite practical, as they 
contain numerous and varied suggestions for prescribing and dis- 
pensing the several articles. 

One rather interesting feature, and one that has resulted in con- 
siderable controversy and criticism, is the attempt that has been 
made to give brief but descriptive titles to substances of definite 
composition which are exploited under a variety of trade names. 
In addition to giving the true chemical name, as a synonym, refer- 
ence is usually made to the trade-protected titles in foot-notes to 
the respective monographs. Thus, under Formamina or Formamine 
we have, as synonyms, Hexamethylenamina and Hexamethylenetetra- 
mine, and, in a foot-note, the statement : " Formamine is also known 
under the following trade names : Aminoform, Ammonio-formalde- 
hyde, Ammonaldehyde, Cystamine, Cystogen, Formin, Metramine, 
Urisol, Uritone, Urotropine and Vesalvine. 

While this is one of the more familiar examples of the unnecessary 
duplication of names for the same article, we must remember that, 
owing to the more conservative nature of the British patent laws, 
pharmacists in Great Britain are much more harrassed by the multi- 
plicity of trade names for well-known articles than we, in the United 

Whether or not the Codex Committee will be successful in estab- 
lishing and maintaining the position that they have taken in this 
connection remains to be seen. The innovation certainly offers a 
means for fighting quackery and allied practices by supplying accu- 
rate information respecting drugs and medicines in common use, and, 
by removing the veil of secrecy, demonstrating that fancy names 
are all too frequently the means of extorting exorbitant prices for 
comparatively simple substances. 

Formulae for galenical preparations are unusually numerous and 
comprise fully two-thirds of the total number of articles included 
in the book. With few exceptions, the preparations are directed to 
be made to parts by weight or volume, leaving the choice of the 
system of weights and measures used to the pharmacist, though the 
Committee distinctly recommends the use of metric weights and 
measures as being more in keeping with the object of the book and 
the scientific needs of the profession. 

The number and the nature of the formulae contained in the book 
also serve to illustrate the characteristic differences that exist 
between American and British pharmacy. 

1 86 Book Reviews. { A ^ J p°rif;ff rm 

The class titles of many of the preparations sound quite strange 
to an American pharmacist ; as they not infrequently indicate the 
therapeutic uses, or the method of administering the several prepar- 
ations. We find it rather unusual to see formulae for baths, enemas, 
lotions, spray solutions, injections and snuffs in a book that partakes 
of the nature of a pharmacopoeia, and comparatively few American 
pharmacists would be able to give an adequate description of the 
general composition, nature, or the uses of a " Linctus." Another 
characteristically British feature is to be seen in the comparatively 
large number of formulae for such preparations as confections, de- 
coctions, and infusions. Still another illustration of British conser- 
vatism is to be found in the monograph on capsules, which embodies 
detailed and really valuable directions for making the well-known 
elastic capsules and incidentally asserts that : "A capsule of American 
origin, sometimes used, is cylindrical or cup-shaped, and closed by a 
lid of the same material, which fits tightly over the end of the cap- 
sule ; it is not suitable for liquids." 

The very varied uses to which these empty capsules are adapted, 
in the hands of the American pharmacist, evidence the fact that our 
English cousins are not as yet familiar with the possibilities of this 
particular form of dose administration. 

Apart, however, from a comparatively few distinctive features that 
serve to reflect some of the more characteristic features of British 
pharmacy, the British Pharmaceutical Codex contains much valuable 
information and an innumerable number of practical suggestions 
that should be of great use to the pharmacist in this country, 
particularly at this time. 

One of the more evidently commendable features, in this connec- 
tion, is to be found in the pharmacological notes that include just 
the sort of information tint is useful to the pharmacist. This 
information is doubly useful in that it acts as a deterrent feature 
to the all-too-widespread habit of counter prescribing, and at 
the same time enables the pharmacist to make intelligent sugges- 
tions to the physician who is in search of a substance that will take 
the place of one not fully suited to the particular case that he 
happens to have in mind. 

The pharmacology of the book has been contributed by Dr. 
W. E. Dixon, Professor of Pharmacology, Kings College, London, a 
widely recognized authority on the subject, whose name alone will 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
April, 1908. J 

Book Reviews. 


serve as a guarantee of the up-to-date character and the general 
reliability of the information that is presented under this heading. 

An innovation that should contribute materially to the populari- 
zation of the Metric System with English-speaking people is the 
introduction of the term " mil " to represent the one-thousandth part 
of a liter, in place of the more cumbersome and less practical cubic 

In this connection it may be pointed out that despite the fact that 
the word " mil," a contraction for milliliter, has been officially recog- 
nized as being permissible, no serious attempt has ever been made 
to introduce it in this country, and the renewed prominence that is 
given it in the Codex may serve to popularize it in American 
medical and pharmaceutical literature. 

One might go on at great length, pointing out the interesting 
features that are to be found in this particular book, but enough has 
been said to indicate that the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain has once more demonstrated its right to continue as an 
educator not alone of students of pharmacy and of members of the 
Society, but also of pharmacists and physicians generally. 

That a book that portends to be so exhaustive, so original and so 
far-reaching as this, would of necessity contain many errors of a 
minor nature that were overlooked in the final reading of proof, is to 
be expected, and the Committee in charge of the publication are to 
be congratulated that these mistakes are not more serious and more 
numerous than the carping critics in England have been able to 
find. As it is, they are practically all enumerated in a table of 
errata in the front part of the book. 

The British Pharmaceutical Codex will certainly serve to 
strengthen the position of the Pharmaceutical Society of Great 
Britain, and will further serve to define the relations that should 
exist between the pharmacist and the physician on the one hand, 
and the pharmacist and the public on the other. 

The book should be of peculiar interest to the physician, in that 
it contains more than the usual amount of information directly of 
interest to medical practitioners, and for the pharmacist it will serve 
to answer many thousands of questions that arise constantly in the 
laboratory and at the prescription counter. 

M. I. Wilbert. 

1 88 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^ m A J p™ r ;iw3 arm ' 



The stated meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, held on February 4, 1908, was devoted 
to a discussion of " The Responsibilities of the Retail Druggist in 
the Spread of the Great Black Plague." 

The subject proper was introduced by Dr. Henry Beates, Jr., who 
discussed " The Relation of Medical Practice Acts to Contagious and 
Infectious Diseases." He called particular attention to the fact that 
in populous communities the so-called fundamental privileges or 
rights of the individual must of necessity be subordinated to the 
welfare of the community as a whole. 

He further called attention to the generally accepted definitions 
for what is understood by " practice of medicine," and pointed out 
that the usually accepted right of " self-medication " is not permis- 
sible for persons suffering from a contagious or infectious disease, 
particularly when the health and even the lives of others may be in 

Dr. A. A. Uhle, Assistant Instructor in Genito-Urinary Diseases 
at the University of Pennsylvania, presented a rather exhaustive 
paper on " Gonorrhea, its Nature, Prevalency, Recognition and 
Treatment," in the course of which he quoted a number of rather 
interesting statistics as to the prevalency of this disease, and the 
time and money loss that it involves. He also called attention to the 
ease with which this disease may be spread and the difficulties that 
beset the proper diagnosis and the successful treatment of it, even 
•in the hands of physicians who devote all of their time to its study. 

Dr. E. E. Montgomery, in opening the general discussion, con- 
fined his remarks to the consideration of " the infection of the inno- 
cent and the suffering and misery that is entailed." In his intro- 
ductory remarks he expressed the opinion that, if gonorrhea could 
be limited to the vile and the vicious, it might be considered as 
being a beneficent agent, but, unfortunately this disease is most 
prone to attack the innocent, and here, being ofttimes unrecognized, 
because unsuspected, it usually causes great damage before it is 
brought under control. 

Dr. Montgomery briefly outlined a number of ways in which inno- 
cent and unsuspecting persons might be inoculated with this really 

Am Aprii r ;i9os arm '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 189 

dread disease, and graphically portrayed the sufferings, more hor- 
rible than death, that are in store for a trusting woman who is 
unfortunate enough to be wedded to a man with a latent or chronic 
gonorrhea, the result, all too frequently, of the improper treatment 
accorded him at the hands of the retail druggist. 

In concluding his remarks he asked whether, with such an array 
of conditions that are possible as the sequelae of an improperly 
treated case of gonorrhea, any number of men would be willing to 
stultify themselves by risking the happiness, health and even the 
lives of innocent persons for the meager profit that might accrue 
from the illegal prescribing for diseases of this type. 

Dr. George E. de Schweinitz, in speaking of " Gonorrheal Oph- 
thalmia and its Relation to Total and Partial Blindness/'' said that 
the pharmacist no less than the physician must on occasion assume 
the role of instructor, to prevent the unnecessary spread of disease, 
and to do this he must himself possess or seek the necessary 

The doctor then briefly reviewed the various types of purulent 
infections of the eye and called particular attention to the really 
serious nature of this condition. 

He particularly warned retail druggists to refrain from selling eye 
lotions for sore eyes in the newborn, as this condition is almost 
invariably due to a gonorrheal infection of the mother, and, unless 
properly treated, is sure to result in total blindness. 

In conclusion, he begged his hearers to bear the ever-present 
possibility of gonorrheal infection of the eye and the resulting 
blindness in mind, and not to contribute, either directly or indi- 
rectly, to the increase of this really horrible affliction. 

Dr. Thomas Neilson spoke of " The More Remote Complications 
of Gonorrhea in the Male," and referred particularly to the diffi- 
culty of effecting a cure in a patient who had been improperly 
treated and was suffering from latent or chronic gonorrhea. 

He emphasized the fact that a patient thus afflicted was particu- 
larly dangerous in that he was a prolific source of infection to 
others, without himself being aware of the damage he was doing. 

Dr. Neilson also referred at some length to the possible compli- 
cations that may result from autoreinfection, and in conclusion 
assured those present that gonorrhea is indeed one of the most 
serious infections to which mankind is liable, and, while it is true 
that the gonococcus itself is not so deadly, the frequency of mixed 

190 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am Aprn r ,'i9o^ rm " 

infection, the possible complications, and the lowered vitality are 
all factors that make for continued suffering, and not infrequently 
an untimely death. 

The subject was further discussed by a number of the members 
and visitors who were present, and it was unanimously agreed that 
it would be well to endeavor to have the information presented at 
this meeting reach even a larger audience. On motion, Mr. A. J. 
Staudt, Dr. Henry Beates, Jr., and Prof. Henry Kraemer were 
appointed a committee to secure copies of the several communica- 
tions, and, if practicable, have them reprinted in pamphlet form for 
general distribution among retail druggists. 

At the business session a communication from Dr. John V. Shoe- 
maker, the president of the American Therapeutic Society, was 
presented, and it was agreed to hold a joint meeting with that 
society on the evening of Thursday, May 7th, and also to exhibit a 
line of U.S.P. and N.F. preparations at the meetings of the Ameri- 
can Therapeutic Society. 

A motion to endorse Mr. William L. Cliffe as a candidate to suc- 
ceed himself as member of the State Pharmaceutical Examining 
Board was accepted by a rising vote. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer, Dr. H. C. Wood, Jr., and Mr. R. H. 
Lackey were appointed a committee to submit nominations for 
officers for the coming year. 


The meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, on the evening of Tuesday, March 3, 1908, 
was devoted to a discussion of the several problems that are in- 
volved in the manufacture and sale of flavoring extracts. 

An invitation had been extended to members of the American 
Extract Manufacturers' Association to be present and take part in 
the discussion, and this association was represented by members 
from Philadelphia, New York, Brooklyn, Jersey City, Baltimore and 
other places. There were present also a number of manufacturers 
of flavoring extracts not members of the American Extract Manu- 
facturers' Association, and also a number of chemists more or less 
directly affiliated with the extract trade. 

The first communication on the programme was a paper by Mr. 
A. E. Claus on " Formulae for Flavoring Extracts," being the 

Am Aprii r ,'wo8 arm '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 191 

views, from a practical standpoint, of the American Extract Manu- 
facturers' Association. 

Mr. Claus called attention to the conflicting rulings that have 
been made by the Department of Internal Revenue and the Bureau 
of Chemistry, and pointed out that a manufacturer was held liable 
for tax or fine by the Internal Revenue Department for using an 
excessive amount of alcohol in his preparations, or for adulteration by 
the Bureau of Chemistry if the amount of alcohol used did not 
come up to the established ideas or standards. 

Referring more specifically to extract of vanilla, he asserted that 
the Mexican varieties were not uniformly superior to other beans, 
and that manufacturers of the better grades of flavoring extracts 
usually preferred the Bourbon varieties of vanilla as being more 
uniformly satisfactory. 

He further called attention to the fact that manufacturers of 
flavoring extracts had found it to be impracticable to handle all 
varieties or lots of vanilla in the same manner or to extract them 
with the same menstruum. He believed that, other things being 
equal, the less alcohol a flavoring extract contained, the more satis- 
factory it would be for the purpose for which it was intended ; and 
for this one reason alone, if for no other, the U.S.P. formula for extract 
of vanilla was to be condemned. 

For extract of lemon he believed that the U.S.P. requirements 
were entirely too high, both as to alcohol as well as oil content. 
He asserted that a weaker preparation would prove to be much 
more satisfactory as a flavor. 

In speaking of the use of terpeneless oils, he expressed the belief 
that the use of terpeneless extracts was sure to grow in favor, 
though the so-called terpeneless oils of lemon and orange now on 
the market do not appeal to the well-informed extract manufacturer, 
who generally prefers to make his own terpeneless oils. 

Mr. Claus pointed out that the so-called minor extracts are of 
little or no importance, as the bulk of the extract business is with 
vanilla, lemon and orange. In discussing standards, he suggested 
that the official standards should be minimum standards based on 
the flavoring units contained in the finished preparation. As a 
satisfactory formula for vanilla he suggested 10 ounces of vanilla to 
a gallon of extract, representing from 30 to 40 per cent, of alcohol. 

The next speaker, Prof. I. V. S. Stanislaus, presented a communi- 

192 American Pharmaceutical Association. {^1™^™%™° 

cation entitled, " The U.S.P. as a Standard for Flavoring Extracts." 
As an introductory to his remarks, he said that in discussing this 
subject from the point of view of the pharmacist, much of what he 
had to say would, of necessity, be diametrically opposed to what the 
previous speaker had said, as he fully believed that the standards of 
the U.S.P. were not impracticable or unattainable. 

Professor Stanislaus believes that the retail pharmacist is fully 
competent to supply all possible demands for flavoring extracts and 
that he should be in position to look for and to command the trade 
in at least the better quality of flavoring extracts. 

That the retail druggist is even now supplying the superior 
article was evidenced by a number of quotations from the reports of 
analysts and other authorities quoted by Professor Stanislaus in 
support of his contention. 

Prof. Charles H. La Wall presented a communication on " Some 
Flavoring Extracts I Have Seen," and exhibited a number of speci- 
mens that had come under his observation. 

He said that while it is true that vanilla, lemon and orange do 
constitute the more important class of flavoring extracts, the mix- 
tures of fruit ethers, so common years ago, are still used and have 
quite a ready sale in connection with the cheaper grades of soda 

He also called attention to the fact that the proper labeling of 
a substance did not always detract from its ready sale, and related 
how at least one curbstone soda-water vender developed a thriving 
business by the prominent display of a sign asserting that " Our 
syrups are guaranteed to be artificial." 

Mr. C. S. Brinton called attention to " Food Inspection Decisions, 
No. 47," and also referred at some length to a number of points 
bearing on the subject of flavoring extracts, particularly the defi- 
nitions for vanilla extract, lemon extract and orange extract con- 
tained in Circular No. 19. 

Dr. T. C. Stearns, in opening the general discussion, expressed 
the appreciation of the members of the American Extract Manu- 
facturers' Association for this opportunity to discuss what is to them 
a vitally interesting subject. He asserted that the American Extract 
Manufacturers' Association is on record as being in favor of stand- 
ards for flavoring extracts, but he also pointed out that it would be 
difficult indeed to establish reliable and generally equitable standards 
for such products as vanilla, for instance. 

Am Ap O rii r f *]908 arua '} American Pharmaceutical Association. 193 

He emphasized the fact that each particular lot of vanilla must 
be treated with a specially selected menstruum designed to extract 
the virtues of that particular variety of bean. 

Dr. Stearns also called attention to the fact that extract manufac- 
turers were being unnecessarily harassed by the Bureau of Chemistry 
on the one hand, and the Internal Revenue Department on the other, 
and that the decisions of these two departments of the Federal 
Government did not always coincide. 

Mr. Collins, taking up some of the thoughts suggested by Dr. 
Stearns, expressed the belief that a lower percentage of alcohol in 
flavoring extracts would generally be preferable, particularly in 
extract of vanilla. His experiments with this preparation led him 
to believe that an extract containing not more than 25 per cent, of 
alcohol would be preferable, in every respect, to a preparation con- 
taining a higher percentage of alcohol. 

He also called attention to the fact that the term extractive is but 
a relative one, and that it is quite impossible to determine what is 
meant by " extractive from 10 grammes of vanilla." 

Professor Remington expressed his appreciation of the information 
that had been offered, and said that he was in favor of having two 
standards for products of this kind, one for drugs and druggists and 
another for substances to be used as food products. 

Professor Kimberly related some personal experiences that he had 
had as chemist to the food commissioner of North Dakota. 

Referring to the one-time widespread use of wood alcohol, he 
said that, in 1902, out of ten samples of lemon extract that were 
examined, no less than five contained methyl alcohol. 

Lemon was perhaps the most frequently sophisticated of all of 
the flavoring extracts, and in North Dakota, in 1902, only two of 
the specimens that were examined were found to be true to label. 

Professor Kimberly believes that the establishing of standards for 
flavoring extracts is possible, and that the acceptance of compara- 
tively high standards by the manufacturers of such products would 
be of great advantage in bringing about a desirable reform in this 

Dr. Horn asserted that it was his belief that the manufacturers of 
extracts are ready and willing to supply the demands of the people, 
and that the government authorities should content themselves 
with insisting that the people get what they really want. He 

194 American Pharmaceutical Association, { Am Apr U ii."iX rm ' 

believes that the drug store is not the place to make and sell flavor- 
ing extracts, particularly as the men who conduct drug stores are 
very much like other men. So far as standards are concerned, Dr. 
Horn believes that, for vanilla, people desire the flavor of vanillin, 
but, not knowing the facts in the case, many people would no doubt 
object to buying it in any form but that usually known as extract 
of vanilla. 

Dr. McCormick related an experience that led him to believe that 
a vanillin mixture would be uniformly more satisfactory than a 
corresponding extract made from vanilla beans. He also expressed 
the belief that all of the more reputable manufacturers of extracts 
would gladly welcome the establishment of standards, if equitable 
standards were practicable. 

Mr. Brinton suggested that extract manufacturers should them- 
selves be in position to suggest reliable standards in that they should 
have at hand considerable reliable data bearing on the several prop- 
erties of the various varieties of vanilla beans and the extractive 
that is contained in them. If this data is not available, it would 
offer an excellent opportunity for research work on the part of some 
one manufacturer. 

Mr. Brooks related his experience as State chemist in New Jersey. 
He pointed out that agents invariably look for articles that are 
likely to be wrong, so that the number of spurious or adulterated 
articles reported should not be taken as a criterion of the average 
condition of affairs. He has met with vanilla, lemon, ginger and 
even paregoric made with wood alcohol. He pointed out that flavor- 
ing extracts, as sold at the present time in the city of New York, 
were far from being above reproof. 

In a recent examination that he made for Good Housekeeping, he 
found that but seven out of twenty-nine samples of extract of lemon 
were true to label ; sixteen of the twenty-two below standard were 
absolutely false, and two of them contained wood alcohol ; four of 
the seven pure brands contained 8 per cent, or more of oil of lemon, 
showing that a standard higher than that of the U.S.P. could be 

Eight of sixteen samples of vanilla extract were found to be 
pure. Of the remaining eight, two contained coumarin, six con- 
tained excessive amounts of vanillin, and two contained wood 

Am A J p r U u;l9?8 arm •} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 195 

Mr. Clawson admitted that there was much to be said on both 
sides, but he also believes that the manufacturers of flavoring 
extracts have made wonderful strides in improving their goods. 

The subject was further discussed by a number of the members 
and visitors present, and at the conclusion of the discussion a vote 
of thanks was extended to the members of the American Extract 
Manufacturers' Association for their interest in taking part in the 

At the business session, which preceded the regular meeting, 
announcement was made of a joint meeting to be held under the 
auspices of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, at which com- 
munications were to be presented by members of the local branch. 

A committee was appointed to arrange for the details of the joint 
meeting to be held with the American Therapeutic Society, in May. 
The program, as proposed for this meeting, is quite an elaborate one, 
and will include a joint scientific meeting and an exhibition of offi- 
cial preparations. 

The report of the Committee on Nominations- was unanimously 
adopted, and on motion the following were declared duly elected as 
officers for the coming year: President, William Mclntyre, of Phila- 
delphia; first vice-president, William L. ClifTe ; second vice-presi- 
dent, Charles H. La Wall ; and secretary-treasurer, M. I. Wilbert. 

M. I. Wilbert, 



The stated pharmaceutical meeting of the Philadelphia College of 
Pharmacy was held Tuesday, March 17, 1908, at 3 o'clock, Henry 
C. Blair presiding. 

The meeting was principally devoted to a discussion of the 
formulae given in the National Formulary and kindred topics. The 
discussion was opened by Prof. E. Fullerton Cook, Assistant Director 
of the Operative Pharmacy Laboratory, who exhibited one hundred 
or more N. F. preparations, comprising the fluidextracts and a 
majority of the elixirs, stating that he had been assisted in the work 
by the following students : T. C. Ladakis, Ralph R. Johnston, Lee 
F. Mauger, Edgar R. Buzzell, D. H. Reighter and Frank S. T. 


Pharmaceutical Meeting, 

/ A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
X April. 1908. 

Bonnell. No adverse criticisms were offered on the formulae of the 
fluidextracts, but attention was called to the fact that in purchasing 
the drugs for the preparation of the fluidextracts, it was found that 
crude drug dealers for the most part use synonyms as chief titles 
on their labels, the botanical names being given in parentheses; and 
as these synonyms frequently apply to more than one drug or plant, 
and hence are not distinctive, the revision of the labels used by 
crude drug dealers was suggested. The observations on elixirs were 
presented in the form of a paper, which will be published in a later 
issue of this Journal. Professor Cook also called attention to sam- 
ples of the N. F. milk of magnesia, and stated that in order to avoid 
coloration of the preparation, it should be made with distilled water, 
at the same time recommending an increase of the amount of water 
directed by the formula, as the preparation is not sufficiently liquid. 

Among those taking part in the general discussion were : Prof. 
C. B. Lowe, M. I. Wilbert, Prof. Joseph P. Remington, William L. 
Cliffe, George M. Beringer, Franklin M. Apple, and the chairman. 

The question having arisen as to the existence of curacao oil of 
orange, Professor Remington said that as the National Formulary 
is an expansion of the New York and Brooklyn Formulary, and the 
latter being largely the work of Dr. Rice, it therefore appeared that 
the oil was a genuine article at that time. 

Mr. Blair criticised the elixir of curacao on the ground of its 
being acid in character, claiming that elixirs should be neutral prep- 
arations. He also suggested an improvement for the elixir of terpin 
hydrate, whereby the terpin hydrate is dissolved in a solution con- 
sisting of equal parts of alcohol and glycerin. 

Mr. Apple said that by reason of the high percentage of glycerin 
in glycerinated elixir of gentian, it rightly belongs to the class ot 
glycerites, and that owing to the presence of several ingredients, the 
word " compound " should be added to the title. 

Mr. Wilbert commented unfavorably on fluidextracts as a class 
of pharmaceutical preparations, and said that of those, formulae for 
which are given in the National Formulary, only about twelve or 
fifteen are efficient or should be used. He likewise condemned the 
N. F. elixirs, saying that the majority of them are now obsolete, and 
that they were obsolete when the formulae were first published, but 
were introduced into the New Yorkand Brooklyn Formulary to satisfy 
the craze for elixirs at that time. He said that the original formu- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
April, 1908. 

Pharmaceutical Meeting. 


lary included fifty-two elixirs, and that of the eighty-eight formulae 
now incorporated in the National Formulary, possibly a dozen have 
some slight merit. 

Professor Remington said that the main object had in mind in 
making this display of N. F. elixirs was to elicit detailed criticism 
of the formulae. He claimed that the formulae had the advantage of 
not being secret, and said that the preparations were in his opinion 
much better as a class than the nostrums which are being or have 
been prescribed. 

Mr. Cliffe said that the elixir of the glycerophosphates furnished 
an exception to this rule, the preparation on the market being the 

Mr. Beringer said that by looking over recent legislative acts it 
will be found that in various States the formulae of the U. S. Phar- 
macopoeia and National Formulary are made absolute. He cited 
the New Jersey law as an example, and said that when either an 
U.S. P. or N. F. preparation is ordered, the pharmacist must not vary 
the formula in any particular, even when he knows it to be faulty. 
He, therefore, claimed that the law is radically wrong ; and said 
that formerly when an improvement was found, the pharmacist was 
free to state it. He said that he desired it to be understood that he 
was not opposed to the National Formulary, particularly as it 
was originally planned by the American Pharmaceutical Association. 
One of the criticisms which he offered related to the formulae 
adapted from other authorities. He said that if the physician desires 
a preparation of the British Pharmacopoeia, the German Pharmaco- 
poeia or the French Codex, he does not get this if he orders the 
corresponding N. F. preparation, as the formula has been modified 
so as to give an entirely different preparation. He also questioned 
the practice of publishing formulae to simulate those of proprietary 
preparations, claiming that the originators of these formulae have in 
many instances a rightful claim to them, and of these preparations 
he mentioned Dieterich's solution of iron. He strongly favored 
an early revision of the National Formulary. 

Mr. Wilbert maintained that the reason the National Formulary 
is faulty is not that the American Pharmaceutical Association is 
unwilling to make improvements, or that the Committee are not 
willing to make improvements, but that the fault lies with Ameri- 
can pharmacists. He alluded to the Apotheker Verein, which main- 

198 Pharmaceutical Meeting. { Am f4 a ; m 

tains the Pharmaceutical Institute at Berlin, where laboratory facili- 
ties are furnished for carrying on work of this kind, and said that 
some such plan should be adopted in this country. He said it was 
unreasonable to expect three or four men to work out formulae for 
the 40,000 pharmacists of the country. 

Professor Remington remarked that the question here was the 
same as with the Pharmacopoeia ; that for seventy years things went 
along very quietly; but when the Food and Drugs Act was passed, 
a different attitude was assumed, and comments began to be freely 
made and information volunteered. 

At the conclusion of the discussion, Mr. Beringer offered the fol- 
lowing resolution, which was adopted : 

Resolved, That we request that the Committee on National Formulary, of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association, proceed immediately to revise that 
work, so as to make it a proper legal standard ; and, further, that the members 
of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy and the pharmacists attending this 
meeting, pledge their assistance to the committee toward improving the work 
and making the formulas satisfactory. 

A paper entitled, " Suggestions from the British Pharmaceutical 
Codex" was read by M. I. Wilbert (see page 172). While reading 
the paper, he incidentally remarked that if the quantities of sodium 
borate and sodium benzoate, directed by the formula of the N. F. for 
alkaline antiseptic solution be reversed, the preparation is much 

Prof. Charles H. La Wall read a paper on " The Quantitative 
Estimation of Benzoic Acid in Catsup " (see page 171). 

Prof. Henry Kraemer announced that fifty-four volumes of the 
American Journal of Pharmacy and forty-seven volumes of the 
* Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association," had 
been donated to the college by one of its members, Dr. Joseph 
Heintzelman, and moved that a vote of thanks be tendered Dr. 
Heintzelman for his liberal gift, which motion was unanimously 
adopted. Florence Yaple, 

Secretary pro tern. 

Am Ap°rH;im rm '} Esperanto, Universal or French? 199 


Now that turbines, electric power and flying machines are destroy- 
ing distance, the nations of the world are concerning themselves as 
to the best means of drawing mind together as well as matter. A 
universal language is being universally talked about, but the real 
question is, What shall we talk ? The vast extent of the British 
Empire, and the enormous population of the United States, have 
created a feeling that English must be the dominant language of 
the future; but a Russian, M. J. Novicow, in the Revue des Deux 
Mondes y puts in a plea for French as a universal language, and makes 
a very good argument for it. Curiously enough, the French seem 
to be rather indifferent, and lean more towards an artificial language, 
preferably "Esperanto," the one that contains fewest of the elements 
of Latin, whilst " Universal," founded by a German, Dr. Molenaar, 
entirely on French, has met with no success. After disposing, in a 
lively and convincing manner, of the myth of Teutonic and Anglo. 
Saxon superiority, M. Novicow shows the absurdity of allowing 
national amour-propre to prevent the adoption of a living language 
as a universal means of communication. The Germans and English 
are the only objectors to the use of French as such a language ; yet 
amour-propre does not prevent their considering jt very advantageous 
to speak French, and making great efforts to succeed in doing so. 

Also, there is individual as well as national feeling to be reckoned 
with ; and M. Novicow sees no reason for adopting the language of 
a Warsaw doctor, when there are other made-to-order tongues that 
he considers superior ; moreover, Dr. Zamenhof and the Esperanto 
ists profess quite as much scorn for Universal as he and others do 
for Esperanto. So much for amour-propre. 

The plea ot facility is disposed of with equal readiness. A Russian, 
knowing no language but his own, will find it no easier to call vada 
(water) sidi, in artificial tongue, than water in English or acqua in 
Italian. The mixed systems are even more difficult than living 
languages, except to those who already know all that they are de- 
rived from. Thus, to find Esperanto easy, one must know French, 
English, German, Russian, Latin and Greek ! To know an auxiliary 

1 In view of the present advocacy of " Esperanto " for international corres- 
pondence, it was thought that the above would be of interest to our readers. — 

200 Esperanto, Universal or French ? { Am Apriia9(» arm ' 

language, a man must first learn six others ! This is hardly follow- 
ing the line of least resistance. For queue, Esperanto uses the word 
vost. This is as easy for those who know its Russian analogue, 
koost y as it is for a German to understand trink, and for a Greek, 
whose and is kai, to find kaj simple. But what would these words 
signify to a Frenchman, who would have to learn them just as he 
would the Arabic words bent (woman) and efta (key)? 

As for the languages that derive from one source, a Frenchman 
would readily comprehend the sentence in Universal, " Lingi pure 
artifizial es totale inkomprensibil a prim vist," which in French is, 
" La langue purement artificielle est completement incomprehensible 
a premiere vue ; " but what would it convey to a German accus- 
tomed to " Eine ganz kiinstliche sprache ist vollkommen unver- 
staendlich zum ersten Blicke," or to a Russian used to, " Vpolnie 
iskonstvennyi yasyk soverchenno ne poniaten na pervye vxgliad ? " 
" As for me," says M. Novicow, " although I know the six sources from 
which Esperanto is drawn, I have difficulty sometimes in understand- 
ing some of its sentences. Judge what it must be for one who under- 
stands only Italian or Swedish." There seems very little reason for 
learning a new and difficult language, without tradition or literature — 
for, as M. Novicow says, " Esperanto will never have its Cicero or 
Bossuet " — when there is ready to hand (or to tongue) a language 
like French, that has been used all over the continent as a court 
language, and to-day, as every traveler in Europe knows, will carry 
one almost anywhere. 

He cites Italy as a land where a universal language coexists with 
many dialects. French might be the universal language, and all the 
other nations could keep their dialects for home use. Certainly the 
prospect is more attractive than that of having the burden of 
another language added to our over-burdened minds, especially 
when our minds would really receive no reward for the labor of 
learning, as only our tongues could wag in Esperanto. We should 
still want to know French for the sake of its literature, and it seems 
hardly worth while, in these labor-saving days, to try to build the 
Tower of Babel any higher. — Putnam's Monthly and the Reader, 
April, 1908. 



MAY, i 9 o8 

By Edwin Dowzard. 

The nature of the alkaloid occurring in Hyoscyamus muticus was 
notknown until Dunstan and Brown (Journ. Ckem. Soc. Trans. , 1899) 
proved that hyoscyamine was the sole alkaloidal constituent. This 
work was done on material obtained from India, the drug contained 
about O-i per cent, of alkaloid. In a subsequent note Dunstan and 
Brown (Proc. Chem. Soc, 1900) reported that Hyoscyamus muticus 
grown in Egypt is much richer in hyoscyamine than the Indian 
variety. Gadamer (Arck. Pkarm., 1898, 236, 704) also states that the 
Egyptian variety contains a much larger proportion of alkaloid. 
Ransom and Henderson (Year Book of Pharm., 1903) have exam- 
ined the latter variety with the following results : 

Percentage of alkaloid 
in the dried drug. 

1. Stalk, etc 0*498 

2. Leaf, etc. 0*900 

3. Seed capsule C585 

According to Floyer (Year Book Pharm., 1933) :. " The plant gro ws 
wild all over Egypt, where it is known by the name of 'Sakran/ 
the drunken. In the rich soil of the Valley of the Nile the plant 
luxuriates, and one shrub weighs when fresh as much as sixty pounds. 
There it makes large succulent leaves, but does not give a very large 
amount of seeds. In light sandy soil the plant has less leaf and 
more flowers, and in coarse sandy soil the root is very largely devel- 



Hyoscyamus Muticus. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

oped, the leaves become less and less and the seed vessels more and 
more numerous. A plant growing in coarse sandy soil will some- 
times ripen 5,ODO seed pods. Though each pod may well contain 
ioo seed grains, the plant does not, in coarse sandy situations, cover 
any large area of ground. Under similar circumstances any kind of 
erodium will fill whole valleys. But the muticus always remains 
sporadic. It will, therefore, not be surprising to find that the plant 
is difficult to grow. The seeds germinate, but an enormous per- 
centage do not reach a height of three inches. The plant does not 
bear submersion, and such plants as spring up in ground flooded by 
the high Nile are strictly annual. But those above reach of water 
attain an age of from three to five or perhaps six years, giving each 
year more seeds and fewer leaves. It has yet to be ascertained 
whether a five years' plant contains more alkaloid than a first 
year's plant." 

Recently a large quantity of henbane appeared on the American 
market, which contained an extremely high percentage of alkaloid. 
An examination of different parts of the plant gave the following 
results : 

As the Egyptian variety of Hyoscyamus muticus is the only 
species of henbane known to contain alkaloid in such proportions, it 
was surmised that the drug consisted of the above species. This 
proved to be the case, the plant being identified as Hyoscyamus 

In order to ascertain if the active principle consisted of one or 
more of the mydriatics, a quantity of alkaloid was separated by the 
following process : 

Four thousand grammes of the powdered drug was percolated 
with 94 per cent, alcohol until nearly exhausted. The percolate was 
concentrated to a thick syrupy liquid in vacuo and the alkaloid 
shaken out with 2 per cent, hydrochloric acid. The acid solution was 
filtered, made alkaline with ammonia and shaken out repeatedly with 
chloroform. The chloroformic solution was then extracted with 2 

of Alkaloid. 

Whole drug 


0- 83 
o 48 

1- 34 


Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1908. 

Hyoscyamus Muticus, 


per cent, hydrochloric acid. To the latter solution a slight excess 
of ammonia was added and the alkaloid shaken out with chloroform. 
After evaporating the solvent in vacuo, about 26 grammes (065 
per cent.) of slightly colored crystalline alkaloid was obtained. 

A portion of the alkaloid was dissolved in acidulated water and 
the alkaloid fractionally precipitated with auric chloride. Six frac- 
tions were obtained, each fraction was then dissolved in hot acidu- 
lated water and fractionally crystallized; three fractions were obtained 
from each fractional precipitate, or eighteen fractions in all. The 
aurichlorides thus obtained were dried at about 100° C. and their 
melting points determined, with the following results : 


No. 1 No. 2 No. 3 

Fractional precipitates 157-5° C. 161 C. 161 C. 

Fractions obtained by 
crystallization 160. 157.5 158*5 161* i6[.5 i6r 161. 161*5 160*5 

No. 4 No. 5 No, 6 

Fractional precipitates 161*5° C. 161*5 C. 160*5° C. 

Fractions obtained by 

crystallization 160. 161*5 160*5 162* 162' i6t* 161*5 161* 160*5 

Maximum M. P , 162° C. 

Minimum " " 157*5° C. 

The following are the melting points of the three principal my- 
driatic aurichlorides: 

Melting Point. 

Atropine aurichloride 136° to 138° C. 

Hyoscyamine " 159° to 162° C. 

Hyoscine 197 to 199° C. 

A portion of the alkaloid was dissolved in 2 per cent, hydrochloric 
acid and treated with purified animal charcoal. The mixture was 
then filtered, the filtrate made slightly alkaline with ammonia and 
shaken out with chloroform. The chloroformic solution was eva- 
porated in vacuo, and the residual alkaloid, which was almost white, 
dried at about 95 C. The alkaloid thus obtained had the following 


Oil of Bergamot. 

I Am. Jour. Pharni, 
\ May, 1908. 

Specific Rotatory 
Melting Point. Power. 
Purified alkaloid from Hyoscyamus muticus 107 C. — 20*4° C. 

Pnre hyoscyamine 108 C. — 21 C. 

" atropine in C. Inactive. 

" hyoscine liquid at ordinary laevorotatory. 


The above figures show that the alkaloid consists of practically 
pure hyoscyamine. 

Ransom and Henderson (Year Book Pharm., 1903) prepared 
standardized tinctures from Hyoscyamus muticus, Egyptian, for the 
purpose of therapeutic examination. Mr. W. A. Shann, M.B., re- 
ported as follows : 

" I have a very strong impression that the tincture of Hyoscyamus 
muticus is markedly superior to the ordinary tincture. In the first case 
in which I tried it — a case of inflammation of the bladder— the 
relief was immediate, and my subsequent experience has confirmed 
me in the opinion that it is a reliable preparation of considerable 
therapeutic value. I have found, too, that smaller doses were re- 
quired than of the ordinary B. P. official tincture (not standardized), 
and I now always prescribe it in preference to the ordinary tincture." 

The Egyptian variety of Hyoscyamus muticus is evidently equal if 
not superior in therapeutic value to the official drug, and would yield 
more elegant preparations than the latter. As the drug can be ob- 
tained in large quantities, I think the question of its use in Western 
medicine should be taken up. 
Analytical Department Parke, Davis & Co., 
Detroit, Michigan. 


By Edwin Dowzard. 

The constituents of bergamot oil which have so far been identi- 
fied are : linalyl acetate, linalol, limonene and bergaptene. H. v. 
Soden and W, Rojahn {Pharm. Zeit., 46, 1901, 778) have, in addi- 
tion to bergaptene, isolated another crystalline compound. This 
new body has been named " bergaptin." Burgess and Page {Jour. 
Chem. Soc, 85, 1904, 1327) have also detected free acetic acid, 
an octylene, pinene and camphene. Schimmel & Co. criticise the 

Am 'iay?i908 arm *} Oil °f Bergamot. 205 

work of Burgess and Page (Report, April-May, 1905) as follows: 
" In spite of the statement made by the authors that they had to 
deal with an unsophisticated bergamot oil (the purity of the oil is 
by no means proved by the constants mentioned by the authors), 
we beg to doubt as yet the presence of octylene, pinene and cam. 
phene in pure bergamot oil, as in the course of this winter we were 
more than once able to convince ourselves of the large dimensions 
which the adulteration of bergamot has acquired." 

The constituent which has received most attention is linalyl 
acetate, which, although modified by other bodies, gives the char- 
acteristic odor to bergamot oil. Linalyl acetate is present in the pure 
oil to the extent of about 32 to 40 per cent. ; this refers only to the 
pressed oil, as that obtained by steam distillation from the pressed 
residue contains a low percentage of ester, due to decomposition. 
The following table shows the low ester content of distilled oils 
(Schimmel, Report, April, 1893): 


Specific Rotation in 1*5 to 2 Ester 

Gravity 100 m.m. Vols. 8 Per Cent Per Cent, 

15° C Alcohol. 

1. From residue after pressing, '873 — {— r 1 2c/ Soluble 12*4 

2. From residue after pressing, "873 4~4° Soluble i2 - o 

3. Oil of 40 per cent, ester, 

rectified, "871 +20° 40' Soluble 22*0 

The color of bergamot oil is due to the presence of chlorophyll, 
although copper may be present in some cases. We have examined 
twenty-three samples of oil and have not been able to find copper. 

The following test was used : 10 c. c. of oil are shaken with 3 drops 
of concentrated hydrochloric acid for 30 seconds, 5 c. c. of water are 
added and the mixture again shaken. After the mixture has separated, 
I drop of 5 per cent, potassium ferrocyanide solution is added to the 
aqueous layer. If copper be present, a reddish-brown coloration or 
precipitate is produced. Three samples of oil which gave no reac- 
tion with the above test were allowed to stand over copper foil for 
two days at the ordinary temperature. After this treatment, they 
all gave strong reactions, one of the samples yielding a considerable 
precipitate of copper ferrocyanide. 

The following results were obtained in the examination of twenty- 
three samples of bergamot oil : 


Oil of. Bergamot. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 





Per Cent. 







Remarks . 

15° C. 








-f-18 . 20' 





Adulterated, probably turpen- 



+n° 36' 








— 22° 40' 








+ 7° 52' 








4- 9° 30' 











i '4 

20" I 

Adulterated, probably lemon, 
citrene or orange. 



+16 32' 





Adulterated, probably dis- 
tilled bergamot. 



-13 28' 








~I3° 36' 


5 5 












•83 5 

+ 9° 2D' 



1 '4 

3 S-6 




+20° 1 










1 '4 

2 3'9 

Adulterated, probably lemon, 
citrene or orange. 



+15° 20' 



3 - o 





+ 21° 




3 2 '9 








2 3'5 

Adulterated, probably lemon, 
citrene, or orange. 



+ 20° 36' 


4" 2 



Adulterated, probably dis- 
tilled bergamot. 



+17 20' 



If 2 


Adulterated, alcohol and free 



+io° 24' 




35*2 : 




+20 5' 

' 230 







+ io° 30' 













Adulterated, probably lemon, 
citrene or orange. 



+ 22° 20' 





Adulterated, probably dis- 

tilled bergamot. 

Specific Gravity. — The specific gravity limits, as given by the 
various authorities, are as follows: 

Schimmel & Co *88i to -886 

Parry -882 to '886 

Gildemeister & Hoffmann '882 to "886 

These limits are confirmed by the results which we have obtained. 
All the oils in the above table, which may be classed as pure have 
a specific gravity varying from -88 1 to -886, except in one case 
(No. 4), where the specific gravity was -889. 

Rotation. — The rotation varies from -f- 8° to 4- 24 (Schimmel, 
Report, April-May, 1905). Gildemeister & Hoffman, also Parry, 
give -J- 8° to -f 20° as the limits for pure oils. In most cases, 
owing to the dark color of the oil, this determination must be made 
in a 50 or 20 m.m. tube. The pure oils which we have examined 
have rotations varying between -f- J° 52' and -f 21°. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

Oil of Bergamot. 


Solubility. — Bergamot oil is soluble in one-fourth to one-half vol- 
ume of 90 per- cent, alcohol, and the solution does not become turbid 
on the addition of more alcohol. An accurate determination of the 
solubility in alcohol by the above method is out of the question ; 
the solubility can, however, be determined by a method suggested 
by the writer {Chem. and Drug., 53, g58). The method is applica- 
ble to all volatile oils and has the following advantages : (1) Only 
one strength of alcohol is necessary ; (2) the results represent the 
actual solubility, and (3) they are directly comparable. 5 c.c. (ac- 
curately measured) of oil are mixed with 10 c.c. of alcohol (S. G. 
799 at 1 5 5° C), and water is run in from a burette, drop by drop, 
until the solution becomes turbid. The number of c.c. of water 
required to produce turbidity is multiplied by 100, the result being 
termed the " solubility value." 

The oils which we have examined had solubility values varying 
from 220 to 290. Turpentine, lemon oil, orange oil, citrene and 
fatty oils lower the solubility value. 

Residue. — Bergamot oil leaves a residue on evaporation, which 
consists of bergaptene (Gildemeister & Hoffmann). The non-volatile 
residue is present to the extent of 475 to 6 per cent. (Schimmel, 
Report, April-May, 1905). Fatty oils increase the residue, while 
distilled bergamot oil, lemon oil, orange oil, citrene and turpentine 
decrease the residue. We have found 4-3 per cent, to 6 4 per cent, 
of residue in pure oils. 

The residue may be determined as follows: Take a small porce- 
lain basin about 2^ inches in diameter, introduce a few grammes of 
sand, and in the sand place a small porcelain crucible. The appli- 
ance is dried at ioo° C. and weighed. Five grammes of oil are 
weighed into the crucible and the oil driven off by heating to about 
iod° C. The residue is weighed as soon as all odor of bergamot 
'oil has disappeared. The above apparatus is used to prevent the 
oil creeping over the edge of the basin. 

Linalyl Acetate. — Linalyl acetate is the most important constituent 
of bergamot oil, and the value of the oil depends on the amount 
present. It is determined by saponification. According to Schim- 
mel (Report, April-May, 1905), the linalyl acetate content varies from 
34 to 40 per cent. The oil obtained from unripe fruit yields less ester 
(down to 30 per cent.) than that obtained from ripe fruit. An oil 
containing 30 per cent, of ester must, however, be looked upon with 


Bismuth Subgallate. 

Am. .lour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

suspicion. The results we have obtained show that the minimum 
amount of linalyl acetate in a pure oil may be fixed at about 32 per 
cent. The acid value should always be determined and allowed for, 
as in most cases the amount of free acid will affect the ester 

Distilled bergamot oil, lemon oil, orange oil, citrene and turpen- 
tine, all lower the ester content. 

Adulterations. — The principal adulterants are distilled bergamot 
oil, lemon oil, orange oil, citrene, turpentine and alcohol. These all 
cause a decrease in density, and in the case of lemon oil, orange oil 
and citrene an increase in rotation, while all cause a decrease in 
ester. Fatty oils are sometimes used as adulterants, and can be 
detected by the increased amount of residue. Occasionally esters 
other than linalyl acetate may be used, and sometimes free acid, 
which will be detected by the increased acid value. 

The constants for bergamot oil are as follows : 

Specific gravity at 15 C '88 1 to -886 

Rotation, 100 m.m +8° to +24 

Solubility value 220 to 290 

Residue . 4^3 to 6*4 per cent. 

Acid value 1*4 to 4*2 

Linalyl acetate 32 percent, and upwards. 

From the Laboratories of 

Parke, Davis & Co. 


By Otto B. May, Ph.D. 

At the time of the Pharmacopceial revision, there was consider- 
able variation in the quality of these two commercial salts, more 
especially in their bismuth (Bi 2 O s ) content and percentage of un- 
combined organic acids. In the rubric and tests, as much latitude 
was permitted as possible, consistent with desirable purity. Since 
our manufacturers have had abundant opportunity and time to re- 
place old stock with new, an examination of our supplies was deemed 
advisable. In the tables appended, only the more important phar- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1908. 

Bismuth Subgallate. 


macopceial tests are included, all of which demonstrate that our 
manufacturers are doing their utmost in complying with our rigid 

It will be noted that not one of the samples strictly fulfils the 
requirements of test for the "absence of free gallic acid" as given 
in paragraph 5, page 75 (U.S.P.). In order to ascertain the cause 
and also to determine the quantity of free gallic acid present, 5 
grammes of each of the samples was thoroughly agitated with 30 
c.c. of ether, filtered, washed with two further portions of 10 c.c. each, 
and the filtrates, after distilling off the ether, were dried over sul- 
phuric acid and weighed. The residues, which varied from 002 to 
O 08 per cent., consisted of fatty matter with but traces only of free 
gallic acid, the former originating evidently from the gallic acid used. 
Since this residue is present in very small quantities, with but traces 
of gallic acid, the test would be more reasonable and just, if applied 
in this manner, than by employing the supersensitive litmus. The 
following test is suggested in lieu of our present one, being less 
strenuous and conformed to by all of our manufacturers : "If I gramme 
of the salt be well shaken with 10 c.c. of ether and filtered through 
a double filter, wetted with ether, the filtrate evaporated to dryness 
should not leave a weighable residue, nor should an immediate blue- 
black coloration appear after the addition of 2 drops of ferric chloride 

Weight Volume. — There being some difference in the comparative 
lightness (bulk) of the various samples, a simple expedient was 
adopted, whereby the weight volume could be approximately meas- 
ured, i-o gramme of the sample was introduced into a narrow 
graduated cylinder, and then shaken down by tapping until its vol- 
ume ceased to decrease ; the volume was then noted. 

The samples examined were taken from original sealed containers, 


T. S: 

U. S. P. 
Free G. A. 
Sample. Bi. 2 O y Nitrates. Test. 

G. A. Residue 

Ether Ex- 
Per Cent. 


Wt. Vol. 

1. 52*6 o Positive. 

2. 53-6 


Bright yellow. 
Light brown. 


3- 53'5 

4- 55'5 

5- 53'° 




Bright yellow. 

6. 53" 3 o 



Notes on Some Chemicals. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 


The deportment of our samples to the test for limit of free sali- 
cylic acid, paragraph 6, page 77, U.S.P., was not anticipated, in 
view of the results obtained a few years ago. The free acid was 
estimated in 5 grammes of the sample, as described under subgal- 
late, with results varying from 0-36 to 48 per cent. Owing to the 
feeble basic properties of bismuth salicylate and the readiness with 
which salicylic acid is liberated during the drying, a more liberal 
allowance must be made in the future for free (uncombined) acid. 
Basing such a test upon our present market supply, we would sug- 
gest the following : 

" If 1 gramme of the salt be agitated with 10 c.c. of ether, and the 
liquid filtered through a double filter of fine texture, wetted with 
ether, the filtrate, when evaporated to dryness, should not leave more 
than 004 gramme of residue consisting of salicylic acid." 

Among the other tests there is considerable more variation than 
in the previously mentioned samples. 

Bi 2 3 


U. S. P. 



Free S. A. 

Free S. A. 





Per Cent. 

Color. Nitrates. 

Wt. V< 





Gray white. 






Yellowish white. 




o - 3 













Bright white. 








March 16, 1908. 

By Otto B. May, Ph.D. 

It is recommended that the third line following 200 c.c, replace 
present text (p. 538, U.S.P.) by following : " Then boil a few minutes 
until a thin transparent fluid is obtained." 


In response to the complaint that the tests for mercurous and 
mercuric oxides (p. 242, U.S.P.) are too exacting, I examined ori- 
ginal samples of our various manufacturers. Of the six samples ex- 

Am. Jour. Pnarm. \ 
May, 1908. ) 

Notes on Some Chemicals. 

21 I 

amined, four not only complied with the specifications (employing o-i 
gramme), but three of them gave no reaction when as much as I 
gramme of the sample was taken — a very good showing indeed. 
The remaining two samples gave such marked reactions that the 
"ous" and "ric " oxides were determined quantitatively. 

Hg 2 HgO 

No. i 1*26 per cent o*22 per cent. 

No. 2 None 0*093 P er cent. 

No sulphites or nitrates were found in either of the above. Further 
experiments are being conducted with the good samples in order to 
determine, if possible, the cause of this oxidation. On page 242 I 
would suggest that the words " If a portion " be replaced by " If 
01 gramme. 


The American Steel and Wire Company, who are the largest pro- 
ducers of ferrous sulphate, desiring to comply with the requirements of 
the Pure Food and Drug Law, submitted average samples of their 
products for examination. These samples were taken from large lots 
representing what is known to the general trade as "Bottom Crystals," 
consisting of brown- colored, oxidized, irregular-sized crystals, such 
as are sold for technical uses only. " Prime Green," bright, clean 
and large crystals. " Sugar Sulphate," a slightly effloresced granu- 
lar powder, corresponding to Ferri Sulphas Granulatus, U.S. P. 

FeS0 4 '7 H 2 of 99'5 per cent. (U.S. P.) should contain 20 per cent, of ferrous iron. 

Per Cent. Per Cent. 

" Bottom Crystals " ferrous Sulphate 9610 (=19-32 Fe ) 

ferric Salt 2-26 (=0-633 Fe.) 

" Prime Green " ferrous Sulphate 98 00 (=19-70 Fe ) 

ferric Salt 1-51 (= 0-42 Fe.) 

"Sugar Salt" ferrous Sulphate ior6 (slightly 

effloresced ) 

" Drug Store Sample " . ... ferrous Sulphate 9965 (=20 3 Fe.) 

ferric Salt traces. 

None of the samples responded to the time limit test for foreign 
metals. If we consider the 44 Prime Green " sample pharmacopoeial 
(201 per cent. Fe), classifying it among those chemicals subject to 
deterioration, the results demonstrate that our rubric can do injus- 
tice to no one purchasing their average " Green," crystalline or 
granular salts. 

Laboratory of New York College of Pharmacy, 
April, 1908. 

212 Liquor Cresolis Compositus, U.S. P. { A %iay?S arm " 

By Ferdinand Nitardy. 1 

This preparation has been subject to considerable criticism, and 
various suggestions toward improvement have been made. The 
chief cause of criticism is the fact that the U.S.P. formula will not 
give a clearly water-soluble product. The turbidity is due to un- 
saponified linseed oil. If the preparation, made according to the 
U.S.P. process, is allowed to> stand long enough, it will become 
clearly water-soluble, the time required varying from ten days to 
six months, according to the temperature at which it is kept, and 
the excess of alkali present. The same result can also be obtained 
by heating the finished product for three hours on a water bath, 
but this process is inferior to the one of completely saponifying the 
linseed oil before adding the cresol, as it involves the loss of some 
cresol by evaporation, as well as danger of fire, since the cresol 
vapors are inflammable. 

The soap formed in the U.S.P. formula for Liquor cresolis com- 
positus contains but 14 per cent, of water, which is much less than 
the amount present in ordinary soft soap. The U.S.P. soft soap, 
containing from 40 to 50 per cent, of water, for this reason can not 
be substituted for this soap. On account of the small quantity of 
water present, saponification does not readily take place in the cold. 
The use of water-bath heat, and the addition of a small quantity of 
alcohol, to aid rapid saponification, are advisable. Under these con- 
ditions saponification is complete in from five to ten minutes. 

If the potassium hydroxide, used in making the soap, is of 85 
per cent, strength, the resulting soap is exactly neutral or but very 
slightly alkaline (the saponification number of linseed oil varies from 
I92 to 195, equivalent to 79 06 to 80-30 grammes of potassium hy- 
droxide required for complete saponification of 350 grammes of 
linseed oil), but if the potassium hydroxide is of 90 percent, strength, 
which may happen, since the potash on the market runs in strength 
from 85 to 88 and occasionally up to 90 per cent, of KOH, the 
resulting soap will contain about 5 per cent, of free KOH. 

A neutral soap is preferable for this preparation, but the small 
amount of free alkali that would be introduced into the preparation 

1 Read before the Chicago Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 

Am M ay'iS8 arm '} Liquor Cresolis Compositus, U.S. P. 213. 

by a soap of this kind does not materially affect its value, especially 
as it does not remain as free KOH in the finished product, but com- 
bines with some of the cresol, forming potassium cresolate. Any 
amount of free alkali will cause the preparation to become thick, 1 
per cent, of KOH in excess producing a syrupy consistence, 3 per 
cent, a soft jelly, and 5 per cent, a very firm jelly, the germicidal 
value being slightly reduced. 

The substitution of oleic acid, cotton seed, castor and other oils, 
for the linseed oil called for by the Pharmacopoeia, has been sug- 
gested, but no advantage is to be gained thereby. Linseed oil soap 
gives a product somewhat darker than that obtained with a soap 
made from other oils. But the color is not uniform, as the prepara- 
tion darkens with age. Cresol varies in color, and old linseed oil 
gives a darker product than fresh oil; otherwise, old linseed oil 
will not alter the preparation, as the unsaponifiable matter in it is 
not increased by aging, oxidation or boiling (Dr. Fendler, Proc. 
A. P. A., vol. 52, p. 911-912), nor is its saponification number 
changed by age (Lewkowitsch, "Anal, of Fats and Oils," vol. II, 
P- 457> 

Much has been said in regard to the amount of soap called for in 
the Pharmacopceial formula. Charles H. La Wall and E. Fullerton 
Cook, in a paper on Liquor Cresolis Compositus (Am. Journal of 
Ph., April, 1 906), state that there is more soap than necessary in 
the preparation, this is also claimed by quite a number of pharma- 
cists. This is true from a purely pharmaceutical standpoint. 

It is possible to make a perfectly water soluble product contain- 

ing : 

Per Cent. 

Soap (free from water) 16 -o 

Glycerin (formed in the process) 1-4 

Water 32-6 

Cresol TJ. S. P. . 50 o 


Soap (free from water) 22 - o 

Glycerin (formed in the process) 1-9 

Water (necessary for the process) - 6"i 

Cresol U. S. P. . 70-0 

For comparison I will state that the U. S.P. product contains : 

Per Cent. 

Soap (free from water) 39-5 

Glycerin (formed in the process) 3-5 

Water 7-0 

Cresol 50*0 

214 Liquor Cresolis Compo situs, U.S. P. { Am May?i908 arm ' 

Perfect solubility, although very desirable, is by no means the 
most important point in this preparation. Our first aim must be to 
produce a preparation of maximum efficiency as an antise ptic and 
germicide with the minimum amount of caustic or irritating prop- 
erties. As will be seen from the following tests, the reduction of 
the quantity of soap in the preparation renders it excessively irri- 
tating. The tests with substances and preparations mentioned 
below were carried out in the following manner : 

One drop of each was spread over approximately one square inch 
of skin on the human arm, and the action noticed and recorded at 
intervals. All of them were tried on several persons, so as to 
obtain fairly reliable results. Numbers I to 6 inclusive produced 
escharotic action in from one (phenol) to twenty (Liquor cresolis 
comp. containing 16 per cent, of soap and 50 per cent, of cresol) 
minutes. Numbers 7 to 16 inclusive only reddened the skin, while 
the remainder produced no noticeable irritation ; these were com- 
pared as to their relative irritating properties, by noticing the effect 
of diluted solutions on mucous membranes. They are given in the 
order of their action, beginning with the most escharotic. 

(1) Phenol. 

(2) Liquor cresolis compositus,- 8 per cent, soap, 50 per cent, 

(3) Paracresol. 

(4) Cresol U. S. P. 

(5) Metacresol. 

(6) Liquor cresolis compositus, 16 per cent, soap, 50 per cent, 

(7) Orthocresol. 

(8) Cresol U. S. P., alcohol, equal volumes. 

(9) Liquor cresolis compositus, 24 per cent, soap, 50 per cent, 

(10) Seven per cent, solution of phenol. 

(11) Liquor cresolis compositus, 32 percent, soap, 50 per cent, 

(12) Five per cent, solution of phenol. 

(13) Cresol U. S. P. 2 parts, alcohol 1 part, glycerin I part. 

(14) Liquor cresolis compositus from paracresol. 

(15) Potassium cresolate sol. (rep. 50 per cent, cresol). 

(16) Liquor cresolis compositus (incompletely saponified). 

Am Ma?, r iM8. anu *} Liquor Cresolis Compositus, U.S.P. 215 

(17) Liquor cresolis compositus (by modified process). 

(18) Liquor cresolis compositus, with excess of 1 per cent, of 

(19) Liquor cresolis compositus, with excess of 3 per cent, of 

(20) Cresol U. S. P. and glycerin, equal parts. 

(21) Liquor cresolis compositus from metacresol. 

(22) Liquor cresolis compositus, with excess of 5 per cent, of 

(23) Liquor cresolis compositus from orthocresol. 

(24) Three per cent, solution of phenol. 

It will be noticed that a preparation containing 8 per cent, of 
soap and 50 per cent, of cresol is more caustic and escharotic than 
pure cresol ; probably due to the fact that the cresol is rendered 
soluble, and the skin softer and therefore more easily attacked by 
the cresol. 

A preparation containing four-fifths of the required amount of 
soap produced a decided redness of the skin, later causing it to peel 
off ; while the U.S.P. product made by the modified process pro- 
duced no irritation. It is important that saponification be complete, 
as the preparation will otherwise be irritating. 

According to Dr. Otto Heiler, soap increases the germicidal 
power of phenol and cresol by about 25 per cent, if present volume 
for volume. (Proc. A.P.A., vol. 52, p. 563.) 

The above facts tend to show that the proportion of soap present 
in the U.S.P. product should not be reduced. 

This brings us back to the original formula, which, with the fol- 
lowing modification in the working directions, is the best that can 
be produced at present. 


Cresol 500 gms. 

Linseed oil 350 " 

Potassium hydroxide 80 " 

Alcohol 35 c.c. 

Water, a sufficient quantity to make 1000 gms. 

Dissolve the potassium hydroxide in 50 grammes of water in a 
tared dish, add the linseed oil and mix thorougly. Heat on a water 
bath or on a steam bath to about yo° C, incorporate the alcohol, 


Adulteration of Volatile Oils. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

and continue heating until saponification is complete. Then add 
the cresol, stir well, cover the vessel and allow to stand, stirring 
occasionally until a clear solution is produced, finally add sufficient 
water to make the finished product weigh 1,000 grammes. 

When it is desired to add volatile oils to the preparation, for the 
purpose of masking its odor or rendering it more pleasant, I find 
that up to 2 per cent, of any volatile oil can be added to the finished 
product without rendering it turbid or impairing its solubility. Of 
oils whose constituents consist mainly of substances of the phenolic 
type, like oil of cloves, as much as 5 per cent, may be added. 

The preparation can also be mixed to advantage with such prep- 
arations as Liq. Antisepticus U.S. P. 
School of Pharmacy of 

Northwestern University. 

By Drs. Gkorge R. Pancoast and W. A. Pearson. 
The American who ordinarily demands honest dealing and de- 
spises deception, accepts with amazing meekness the present vola- 
tile oils. 

It is an open secret that sophistication is practised, due largely 
to the extreme pressure of competition and the demand for cheaper 
products. We do not say that only the highest grade should be 
sold, for that would greatly limit the scope of usefulness, but we do 
think that each grade should be sold under its proper label. It has 
been demonstrated that cheaper grades do not endanger the market 
for the best quality, but that indirectly the sale of the better grade 
is augmented, the cheaper grade finding new uses where the best 
grade is limited because of its price. 

This is the true condition at Grasse, the very centre of volatile oil 
production, and is equally true of many of our commodities. De- 
ception steps in when a cheap article is given for an expensive one. 

The main use of volatile oils is in imparting agreeable flavors and 
odors to various products, thus occupying an exalted position in 

1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, April 7, 1908. 

Am May?im rm '} Adulteration of Volatile Oils. 217 

our aesthetic development. Unfortunately, a certain sample may be 
pleasing to one and obnoxious to another, and this introduces a 
serious problem in the valuation, namely the personal equation. 

A vast amount of accurate work has been done with volatile oils 
in determining certain physical and chemical properties and setting 
limits for natural variation, but often the desirable or most valuable 
portion which produces the delicate aroma is not considered. The 
odorous constituents are often so delicate that chemical estimation 
is impossible. Their source is not definitely known, but it is thought 
that they are decomposition products from glycosides brought about 
by the catalytic action of certain enzymes. 

The best practical method of valuation is the comparison of odors 
by experts. The nobility have their perfumers, whose duty it is to 
blend and select the odors to be used at various functions. So 
delicate has their sense of smell become, that only a few samples 
are compared each day. This, then, is the perfumer's art, he 
has both the natural and artificial products at his disposal, and 
his duty it is to combine them into a perfect harmony of pleasing 
odors. At present it is an art — it may become a science. 

It remains to be seen whether or not there is a relation between 
the various odors as there is between musical tones, or of colors. 
Probably there is, for some will harmonize, some detract, some in- 
crease, while others will make a decided discord. 

Our scientific knowledge of odors is very meagre when compared 
to our knowledge of light and sound. Is the sense of smell due to 
small particles ? If so, what is their size, shape and rate of motion? 
Extreme smallness is not a great barrier at the present time, for 
particles one thousand times as small as the size we have attributed 
to molecules have been demonstrated in radium emanations, and 
these quite accurately studied. Or, is odor due to some vibration 
in the ether, as is light and sound? Until the day dawns when 
these things shall be accurately known, comparatively little progress 
can be made in the exact valuation of odors from volatile oils. Pro- 
fessor Michelson, the great American physicist, has devised an instru- 
ment called the interferometer, which will measure the length of 
light waves so accurately that the error is infinitesimal. Who will 
devise a way to measure the odors of volatile oils and thus give us an 
exact scientific method of valuation for these products ? 

At present, undoubtedly, adulteration is being practised and we 

218 Adulteration of Volatile Oils, {^M^iIS arm ' 

must depend largely on the integrity of the distiller. A few specific 
cases may well be considered. 


Gildemeister and Hoffmann (page 437) state that only a very small 
amount of the bitter almond oil of commerce is prepared from 
bitter almonds, but is prepared mainly from the seeds of the apricot 
(Prunus armeniaca, L.), which is allowable for the U.S.P. product. 
Parry states (" Chemistry of Essential Oils," page 297) that the true 
oil may be grossly adulterated with artificial benzaldehyde, and if the 
purest variety be used, it is impossible to detect it within certain 
limits except by the odor. Formerly synthetic benzaldehyde always 
contai ned chlorinated products which made possible its detection as 
an adulterant. 

Another adulterant is oil of mirbane, which may readily be de- 
tected by odor, the specific gravity and by its reduction to aniline 
with iron filings and acetic acid, which may be distilled and col- 
lected. To the distillate a few drops of calcium chloride solution 
is added and if aniline be present the characteristic violet color 
is produced. Samples adulterated with nitro-benzene when shaken 
with an excess of sodium bisulphite solution have the characteristic 
coarse nitro-benzene odor. 

The official assay for Denzaldehyde content is exceedingly difficult 
and a decided improvement was made by Roberts and Carwithen by 
exactly neutralizing the kerosene before beginning the assay and 
keeping the flask tightly corked as much as possible. 


One offender says, " Methyl salicylate is just as official as oil of 
birch ; what harm can there be in mixing them ? " It is only reason- 
able to believe that Nature's laboratory is more efficient than our 
own, and this has often been demonstrated, but aside from this 
there is a moral obligation which should not be overlooked, even if 
the Pure Food and Drugs Law were not in existence. 

At present there is only about one-tenth enough wintergreen 
leaves harvested to make the amount of oil that is actually sold. 
Where does the rest come from ? Often, undoubtedly, the product 
is oil of birch or mixtures of it and synthetic methyl salicylate. 

Am, M°ay% h 8 arm *} Adulteration of Volatile Oils. 219 

We are now investigating thoroughly the adulteration of oil of 
birch and wintergreen with synthetic methyl salicylate, and are very 
sorry our experimental work is not complete, so that it might be 
presented at this time, as we expected. In the very near future we 
hope to present the whole subject and give our distinguishing tests 
and methods for detection of added synthetic methyl salicylate. We 
solicit your co-operation on this very important subject and will 
greatly appreciate any data or authentic samples you may supply. 


Sandal-wood is one of the most ancient perfume-bearing sub- 
stances known to mankind, being, no doubt, brought by the Greeks 
from India as early as the conquest of Alexander. Not until the 
fifteenth century is any mention made of the oil distilled from the 
wood, when Saladinus of JEsculo described his method. It was not 
until 1882 that the first comprehensive examination was made by 
Chapoteaut. Many varieties of sandal oil are procurable and each 
seems to vary widely in certain particulars. Oil distilled from 
freshly'rasped logs may have a specific gravity below 0'975, while 
that made from old chips, often 0-980. 

Drs. Pancoast and Kebler (A. J. P., 1901) state that this oil should 
be from one to two years old, as the aroma is improved by age. 

Undoubtedly there is naturally much difference in the physical 
and chemical properties of true sandal-wood oil, derived from 
various sources and distilled under different conditions, and we think 
that much of the suspicious oil on the market may be genuine. So 
suspicious have the manufacturers become of this oil that many 
firms import the wood and distill the oil, but it has been said that 
the yield from these billets is sometimes increased by steeping the 
logs in certain adulterants before leaving India. 

No doubt this oil has always been subject to adulteration, at first 
with articles easily recognized, but of late years the adulteration 
has become more scientific and complex, requiring exhaustive analy- 
ses. We have grown suspicious of this oil unless its properties 
correspond rigidly to the requirements of our Pharmacopoeia, and 
besides it is well to apply other tests, such as fractional distillation, 
as used by Parry and Bennett [Chemist and Druggist, July 6, 1907) 
when oil mixed with turpineol was found. It is also wise to take the 
acid number. The per cent, of santalol is of vital importance, but, 

220 Adulteration of Volatile Oils. { Am, Maya908? rm ' 

unfortunately, the present official method gives too high results in 
the presence of chloroform. The main difficulty in using this 
adulterant is in adding an excessive quantity when the indicated 
per cent, of santalol will be above 100 per cent. In one case 166 per 
cent, of santalol was indicated by adding I part of chloroform to 
7 parts of oil, the optical rotation of this admixture was — 17 I2 ; , 
specific gravity rc>33, and it was soluble in two volumes of 70 percent, 
alcohol. Wielen (Chendker Zeitung) has offered an improvement in 
the manipulation of the assay by substituting a 10 per cent, solu- 
tion of sodium chloride for the water, by which time is saved and 
much less oil is lost by emulsification. 

It would be unwise for our Pharmacopoeia to give a wider range 
to the constants of this oil, even if some injustice is done by 
excluding some pure oils. The comparative narrow limits render 
adulteration more difficult. 


The main adulterant of this oil is a certain fraction of ca'mphor 
oil. The detection is exceedingly difficult, providing the manufac- 
turer does not take too large a fraction and increase the specific 
gravity above the limit. One chemist has reported the finding of 
camphor in the oil, no doubt due to a small amount present in the 
camphor oil used for adulteration. 

Many other specific cases might be considered, but in general 
a comparative odor test with a sample of known purity is a very 
satisfactory way of valuation. Place equal amounts of the oils on 
filter papers in the bottom of small jars or beakers, and carefully 
consider the delicacy of the odors until evaporation is complete* 
The odor of the natural oil is very persistent. One authority states 
that ^ T of a milligramme of mint can be detected in one quart 
of air. As a rule pure oils will retain their same fundamental odor 
until the end of the experiment, while an adulterated or synthetic 
oil will pass through a series of variations depending on the nature 
of the mixture. Another peculiarity of true oils is that they will 
impart their characteristic odor to a larger volume of liquid than 
their substitutes. A satisfactory odor dilution test can be made by 
dissolving 1 c.c. of the oil in 100 c.c. of alcohol, 1 c.c. of this is 
added to 99 c.c. of dilute alcohol, and 1 c.c. of this dilution added 

Am May?i908 arm '} Adulterations of Drugs and Chemicals. 221 

to various volumes of water, depending on the intensity of the odor 
and the peculiarities of the oil. 

Science is no respecter of persons and has benefited both the 
honest manufacturer and the rogue. This subject has been treated 
more comprehensively by Drs. Pancoast and Kebler in the Ameri- 
can Journal of Pharmacy, January, 1 901, and their anticipations of 
a firm's displaying the placard " Essential Oils Made to Order 
While You Wait," has actually been realized according to Professor 
Remington, who says there is a London firm which builds volatile 
oils to order and scientifically corrects any of the constants in an 
inferior product. 

In conclusion we wish to thank both the firm we represent and 
the many individuals who have contributed indirectly to this report, 
and we solicit your co-operation in sending us samples and data of 
adulterated oils, that we may do more to rid the market of spurious 

Research Laboratory, 
Smith, Kline & French Co. 


By L. Henry Bernegau, Ph.G., A.C. 

In bringing the following instances of " adulterated " drugs and 
chemicals before the meeting to-night, I do so with the understand- 
ing that the word " adulterated " is used in its broader sense to 
include drugs which may be of low strength or poor quality due 
to natural causes — and chemicals which may in some way, perhaps 
by carelessness, be " off" in strength or purity — as well as in its nar- 
rower sense of intentional sophistication. Moreover, the examples 
which are given are all taken from actual laboratory records of the 
past few weeks, as it does not take a very long time to accumulate 
a number of observations of possible interest in a laboratory where 
much work is going on. 

1 Read before the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association, April 7, 1908. 

222 Adulterations of Drugs and Chemicals. { Am 'May r "iS)8 arm 


Some time ago we received a sample of a shipment of stramonium 
leaves in our laboratory to be identified and assayed. The drug 
was very dry, broken to small fragments, and it was, therefore, diffi- 
cult to get hold of a good specimen. The drug contained many 
flowers, which were identified as stramonium flowers. At the same 
time we found some capsules containing small seeds ; these were 
identified as hyoscyamus seeds. We then made four assays of the 
drug and found an average of 0-262 per cent, mydriatic alkaloids. 
This showed that the larger part of the drug was stramonium, as 
hyoscyamus seldom assays higher than o-io per cent. We most cer- 
tainly rejected the whole shipment, because it was impossible to 
separate the stramonium from the hyoscyamus and the analytical 
department would not take the responsibility upon itself to accept 
the drug as stramonium. 


All the samples received by us during the past year or two have 
been either entirely inert or contained only small traces of coniine. 
The leaves were evidently not adulterated and showed the character- 
istics of conium leaves. I myself once supervised the harvesting of 
conium leaves in Germany many years ago. The laborers put the 
leaves, as soon as they were picked, into potato or grain sacks, and 
the men were told not to press the leaves too hard into the sacks. 
There is considerable heat produced in only a few minutes, if the 
leaves are pressed too hard, and by this heat the coniine is either 
evaporated or decomposed. Assays made from leaves taken from 
different sacks showed plainly that leaves collected on the same 
field assayed much higher if pressure, and therefore heat, had been 
avoided. I think the right way of collecting the leaves on the field 
has much to do with their respective activity or inertness, although 
climate and weather conditions have much to do with the alkaloidal 
strength of the drug. 


Six samples submitted at the same time from different sources 
showed under the microscope the characteristics of glycyrrhiza. 
All showed distinctly the yellow-wood fibres, the brown cork cells, 

Am *May?i9e h 8 arm *} Adulterations of Drugs and Chemicals. 223 

bastrings, calcium oxalate crystals, starch grains, etc., except one 
sample, the wood-fibres of which had a peculiar color and there 
were not many crystals of calcium oxalate visible. We made a 
fluid extract of each of the samples and found by our results that 
the suspicion we put on the one sample was well-founded. Instead 
of about 40 per cent, or more extractive it ran not quite 20 per 

Prof. Henry Kraemer outlined some months ago, in one of these 
meetings, that many more microscopic tests of powdered drugs 
should be made than is done at the present time. That Professor 
Kraemer was right in this is proven in this case here. The sample 
seen with the naked eye looked not suspicious at all and had a fairly 
good taste; but looks and taste often fool us. The root was evi- 
dently partly exhausted, dried again and then pulverized, adding 
some coloring matter and perhaps a small amount of saccharine. 
We could not prove this positively, the sample was very small and 
not enough of it was left to make additional tests. The fact is, that 
the microscope gave the first clue in finding out that there was 
something wrong with the powdered root. 


as we all know, is impossible to be adulterated itself. The bulk is 
sometimes loaded with small stones, grains, etc., but this, I think, 
is mostly not done on purpose. Old stock is often brightened with 
oil. All this is not so bad if the drug assays high enough in total 
alkaloid or so-called " cornutine of Keller " as outlined by that 
author in 1894. Recent researches of Barger and Dale, of London, 
on the chemistry of ergot, point to the fact that its activity lies 
largely in an alkaloid-like body which they call ergotoxin or hydro- 
ergotinin, thus substantiating Professor Lyons' belief that an assay 
based upon the determination of alkaloid unquestionably has value. 
The worst is that most samples in the market are worm-eaten, some 
are really alive with vermin. A good ergot should assay at least 
0-15 per cent. " cornutine." We had some samples lately tor assay 
which ran only 0-03 per cent., one assayed only 0016 per cent. Of 
the last sample 10 pounds at least would therefore be necessary to 
make 1 pint of a fair fluidextract containing 015 per cent. " cornu- 
tine." I think it would not pay very well to use such a drug for 

224 Adulterations of Drugs and Chemicals. \^S^§S? m ' 


Of the commercial variety, sold as sanguinarine nitrate without 
qualification, we found one sample to assay only 51-4 per cent., one 
6i-2 per cent., and another 75-3 per cent, pure sanguinarine nitrate. 
The highest assay ran 89' 5 per cent. This commercial salt is not 
supposed to run 100 per cent., but the great variation in the 
strength makes it necessary to assay each individual lot, thereby 
enabling one to use the right proportions of the salt in preparations. 
Manufacturers of this salt should put the percentage of the pure salt 
on their labels, or should state on their labels that so and so much 
pure crystalline sanguinarine nitrate is present in the respective 
preparations, because the mere labeling " sanguinarine nitrate" is 
misleading. The retail druggist is hardly in a position to test this 


Very few of the samples we tested lately came up to the U. S. P. 
requirements. "Most of them contained about 10 or more per cent, 
of alcohol insoluble matter. We manufactured some pounds in our 
own laboratories according to U. S. P. method and had no difficulty 
in getting a product which was strictly U. S. P. 


A large percentage of samples sold as " pure olive oil soap " were 
found to contain large amounts of animal fats. 


During the last few months we were unable to get a zinc perman- 
ganate which was entirely soluble in water. As this product is used 
not only for injection but also for eye washes, it would be evidently 
dangerous to use a product containing insoluble matter, the latter 
causing irritation of the membranes to which the solution is applied. 
The best sample we got hold of contained 8 per cent, insoluble 
matter ; one sample submitted to us by a prominent house con- 
tained even 32 per cent, insoluble matter. As we all know, the salt 
decomposes very rapidly if exposed to light and air, but the once 
decomposed salt is certainly unfit for medicinal purposes. 

jn May?iSS arm '} Standard for Flavoring Extracts. 225 


Of the many samples of gold and sodium chloride received during 
the last months we found none which assayed the required 30 per 
cent, metallic gold. Most of the samples ran between 28 and 28 8 per 
cent., one sample assayed far below this, namely, 24 6 per cent, metallic 
gold. Many samples were not mixed thoroughly, others had 
absorbed some moisture. Some samples were treated both by the 
H 2 2 method (U. S. P. 8th Rev.) and also by the oxalic acid method 
(U. S. P. 1890). Both methods gave identical results. One manu- 
facturer claimed that it was necessary, in making a correct assay, 
to replace the water during heating and precipitating the gold solu- 
tion on the steam bath. As could be expected this scheme did not 
work and we were unable to obtain better results by doing so. 
Another claim made was that in the U. S. P. method some gold 
remains unreduced and is lost in the filtrate. This is hardly pos- 
sible, since, if that were true, the filtrate from the precipitated gold 
would betray the presence of the metallic salt by a faint yellow 
color. This test is very delicate, as the tinctorial power of gold 
salts is very high and scarcely weighable quantities would impart a 
yellow color to the filtrate. Now the manufacturer has either to 
reduce the price of the double salt in proportion to metallic gold 
found (we are not willing to pay too much for common salt), or he 
has to add a little more gold chloride to his product to bring it up 
to U. S. P. standard — 30 per cent. 
Analytical Laborarory of the 
H. K. Mulford Company. 


By I. V. S. Stanislaus, B.Sc, Phar.D. 
In taking up the matter of this paper, the justness of the cause, 
and the position the Pharmacopoeia should occupy as a standard for 
Flavoring Extracts become self-apparent and will serve as an ex- 
cuse for this paper. For, what other standard could be selected 
but the Pharmacopoeia for preparations of drugs ? We have not 
one other official standard in this country. The Pharmacopoeia is 

226 Standard for Flavoring Extracts. { Am i™y?im Tm ' 

the pharmaceutic as well as the Government's standard for the 
identification, purification, valuation and preparation of drugs and 
their preparations. And what are the flavoring extracts but the 
spirits and the tinctures of bur Pharmacopoeia and, therefore, justly 
falling under its provisions for purity and strength. True enough, 
the Pharmacopoeia does not embrace every extract contributing to 
savor of our palates, but it gives standards for all the prominent 
extracts used, and certainly all those that can safely be used as food 

Now, what is an "extract" (for that is the popular title applied 
to flavoring essences). In Circular No. 19 of the U. S. Department 
of Agriculture — the "Standards of Purity for Food Products" — we 
read: "A flavoring extract is a solution in ethyl alcohol of proper 
strength of the sapid and odorous principles derived from an aro- 
matic plant or parts of the plant, with or without its coloring 
matter, and conforms in name to the plant used in its preparation." 

We find as a foot-note in the same circular, " that the flavoring 
extracts therein described should not be confounded With similar 
preparations described in the Pharmacopoeia for medical purposes." 
Yet a cursory examination of the matter of flavoring extracts there- 
in described shows that, with a very few and unimportaut excep- 
tions, the standards laid down therein are almost identical with those 
of the Pharmacopoeia. The same may be said of the savory drugs 
used as condiments or spices, where nearly every one of the defini- 
tions are those of the Pharmacopoeia with a few minor and unim- 
portant exceptions. Now, it is the pharmacist's occupation to pre- 
pare and dispense drugs and their preparations, under which heading 
these products naturally fall. Let us see whether the pharmacists 
have done their duty. 

An examination of the " Report of the Connecticut Agricultural 
Experiment Station on Food Products for 1907 " shows a very inter- 
esting fact to us pharmacists. On page 145 we read under the 
heading " Lemon Extracts not Found Adulterated "— " All but two of 
the samples not found adulterated were sold in druggists' vials and 
bore no brand name!' It is to be regretted that no statistics for 
Vanilla Extract were given in that report. 

Now let us look at what is being said of other purveyors of 
flavoring extracts and in other States: 

Inspection of flavoring extracts in North Dakota for 1902 has 

Am MaJ!'iS arm '} Standard for Flavoring Extracts. 227 

shown that 38*4 per cent, of lemon extracts contained wood alcohol, 
30-}- per cent, contained artificial coloring matter, 30 per cent, con- 
tained but analytic traces of lemon oil, 23-f- per cent, were below 
strength, and 23-f per cent, above strength — none complying with 
the official strength. 

Of the vanilla extracts examined during the same year 30 per 
cent were fair extracts (of which 67 per cent were pure and high 
strength), 40 per cent, were mixed extracts of vanilla and tonka, 
and 30 per cent, were artificial vanilla extracts. Of the total, 50 
per cent, were colored with caramel and 10 per cent, with coal-tar 

In the report for 1903 the North Dakota Agricultural Station, in 
Bulletin No. 57, records 57-5 per cent, of the vanilla extracts exposed 
for sale to be artificial products — synthetic preparations, some col- 
ored with caramel, others with guaranteed non-fading coal-tar dyes, 
and some packages containing one fluid-ounce were labeled " con- 
taining two ounces." 

Of the lemon extracts examined during the same year but 23-4 
per cent, responded to the official requirements, the balance (76-6 
per cent.) were either below strength, artificially colored, contained 
low percentages of alcohol, or defective in all three directions. 

Now as to 1904. The North Dakota Commissioners' report for 
that year shows that 50 per cent, of the lemon extracts were arti- 
ficially colored, 64 per cent, contained wood alcohol, and the lemon 
oil content varied from o per cent, to 4-5 per cent., while 25 per 
cent, of the samples contained no oil but traces, the average con- 
taining 2-17 per cent. 

Of the vanilla extracts examined the same year only 15-4 per 
cent, were weak extracts, while 84-6 per cent, were synthetic or 
artificial extracts, and all the 100 per cent, were artificially colored. 

The report from the same State for 1905 reveals the following 
figures: Lemon extracts, 34 per cent, below strength, of which 
about 12 per cent, contained no lemon oil at all, 15 per cent, con- 
tained artificial color, and r8 per cent, contained wood alcohol (1 
sample in 56). Vanilla extracts — of 42 samples examined 14 were 
illegal, being either synthetic, artificially colored, or artificial substi- 
tutes, showing thus that 333/3 per cent, were illegal. The other 
extracts examined that year were orange, which was bad, and pep- 
permint, which was questionable ; and of the extracts not embraced 

228 Standard for Flavoring Extracts. { Am -May%9os! irm " 

in the Pharmacopoeia, raspberry, strawberry and rose extracts, when 
examined, proved to be artificially dyed with good coal-tar dyes and 
guaranteed not to fade. 

Inspection of extracts in North Dakota in 1906, has shown that 
only 44 per cent, of lemon extracts responded to the official strength, 
while 56 per cent, were deficient in strength, artificially colored, and 
one sample, indeed, contained as little as 0-31 per cent, of oil. Of 
the vanilla extracts examined, 60 per cent, were either artificially 
colored, synthetic products or short in measure, and only 40 per 
cent, answered standard requirements. Of miscellaneous flavors, 
representing wintergreen, orange, compound banana and raspberry 
extracts, not one responded to either the official or legal standards. 

Here is the State of Massachusetts, considerably further east than 
North Dakota, and examining the reports of the Massachusetts 
State Board of Health for 1901 we find the following more interest- 
ing figures: Of 167 samples of lemon extracts examined, represent- 
ing about 100 brands (every brand sold in Massachusetts), 139 
samples were classed adulterated, or about 83-25 per cent, and only 
16*75 per cent, were up to the standard. Of the inferior or adul- 
terated extracts 42 samples contained no lemon oil at all, and one 
was made of oil other than lemon. In alcohol strength they ranged 
from 4 to 45 per cent., usually colored with either dinitro-cresol, 
tropaeolin, or coal-tar dyes, or turmeric. In the vanilla extracts 
examined, such appetizing substances as bay rum, burnt sugar, 
balsam peru, etc., were found. They were either very poor extracts 
or entirely artificial, and their alcohol content ranged from 5 per 
cent, to 20 per cent. 

This conspectus, covering the examination of flavoring extracts 
in but two States — North Dakota and Massachusetts — is very inter- 
esting to us pharmacists for two very important reasons : 

First, because it demonstrates that 66-f- per cent, of the flavoring 
extracts examined in North Dakota were illegally exhibited for 
sale by grocers, department stores and dealers in table luxuries. 

Second, because the examination of the tables exhibited shows 
uniformly that almost all, if not quite all, the samples were made by 
wholesale grocery-supply houses and other self-styled and so-called 
" extract manufacturers"; and in Massachusetts the conditions were 
equally bad, and in some cases worse. 

Let us next take a look in another direction, in a direction where 

Am M°a u y r ;i908 arm "} Standard for Flavoring Extracts. 229 

men daily engaged in the examination of food products intended 
for human consumption are carefully watching over the public's 
well-being. Let us examine the resolutions adopted at the Food 
Commissioners' Conference : 

Resolutions adopted at the Conference of Food Commissioners, 
September 17, 1907, held at St. Paul, Minn., for the States of Illinois, 
Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, North and South Dakota. 


(5) Resolved, That the terms extract, flavor, flavoring, spirits, 
essence or tincture as applied to solutions used for flavoring food 
products are held to be synonymous, but the use of any term in 
lieu of the word " extract " is deprecated as applied to flavoring 
solutions made from an aromatic plant or part of the plant. 

(6) Resolved, That any other flavoring extract recognized in 
U. S. Circular No. 19, and complying with the standard laid down 
in that circular and free from artificial color, may be sold if the face 
label on both bottle and carton contain the following information : 

First. Net weight or measure. 

Second. Brand or trade mark (optional). 

Third. Name of extract as recognized in Circular No. 19. 

Fourth. Percentage of alcohol by volume. 

Fifth. The true name and business address of the manufacturer. 

(7) Resolved, That the terms " double " and " triple," etc., as 
applied to flavoring extracts, be held to mean respectively two or 
three times the minimum strength required by the standards of 
U. S. Circular No. 19. 

(8) Resolved, That the term " concentrated " is false and mis- 

(16) Resolved, That such terms as " extra quality " and " first 
quality," as applied to food products, is deemed misbranding, unless 
the quality of the products is corresponding. 

The convention further adopted the Standards of Purity for Food 
Products stated in U. S. Circular No. 19, where Resolutions 1 and 2 
read as follows : 

That extract of vanilla must contain no artificial color, and must 
contain 40 per cent, of alcohol by volume (this shown upon the 
label). Extracts other than those of pure vanilla must be labelled 
as : " Vanillin Flavor," 4< Coumarin and Vanillin Flavor," or " Arti- 
ficial Vanillin," etc., stating also the alcohol strength. 

230 Standard for Flavoring Extracts. {^'S^'J^^' 

The artificial flavors, such as pineapple, strawberry, raspberry, etc., 
must be produced from " harmless " substances, must be free from 
artificial .color, must contain no statement or design to deceive the 
purchaser. Artificial extracts will not be permitted where true 
extracts can be produced. (The form of labelling must be the same 
as under vanilla.) 

One of the biggest "holes in heaven," punched by the " Pure 
Food and Drug Regulations," is the requirement of the Association 
of Food Commissioners, that all artificial extracts of such drugs as 
pineapple, banana, raspberry, strawberry, etc., be labelled as " imita- 
tion extracts." These " extracts " have for many years been sold 
to some of the more or less ignorant bottlers of beverages as " natu- 
ral extracts," beautifully colored, of course, and usually marked 
from two to ten " X," thus purporting to be of from two to tenfold 
the strength of the " druggists' extracts." 

Now these artificial fruit essences must, in the future, go uncol- 
ored ; they must be labelled "imitation extracts ;" they must show 
their " true alcohol content ;" they must give " the true name and 
address of their manufacturer," and, worst of all, they cannot be 
marked " double " or " quadruple X," or " extra quality " (all of 
which statements commanded an extra price) and they cannot be 
offered for sale where true extracts can be produced. " Und da liegt 
der Hund begraben." 

For years and years the extract manufacturers offered for sale 
these products as bona fide, highly concentrated extracts, extract- 
ing correspondingly higher prices for each " X " upon the label, and 
claimed the products to have been prepared from " fresh fruits." How 
can they now face the bottlers and admit their guilt? How can they 
(and they must, to meet competition) drop from their high-priced 
scale to the low prices which cheap products command ? 

Now, what are the " artificial fruit essences ?" The banana 
essence is a solution of butyric ether and amyl acetate in alcohol. 
The pineapple essence is made by dissolving butyric ether in alco- 
hol. The strawberry extract is a mixture of nitrous ether, acetic 
ether, butyric ether and methyl salicylate in alcohol. The rasp- 
berry extract is a mixture of the above strawberry extract with 
the addition of benzoic and cenanthic ether. And these simple 
mixtures may be repeated for all the flavors in creation. They are 
all simple, all inexpensive, and all surrounded with a mantle of 
secrecy — of mystery. 

Am May*'i9o h 8? rm '} Standard for Flavoring Extracts. 231 

Now, what are the natural flavors, let us ask ? These may be 
divided into (a) those prepared directly from the fruits or odorous 
and sapid principles of aromatic plants or plant-parts ; (b) those 
made by dissolving the essential oils of the plants in alcohol. 

To the first class belong the extracts of raspberry, strawberry, 
pineapple, banana, etc. These are all made about as follows (tak- 
ing strawberry extract as an example) : Four and a half pounds of 
wild strawberries are bruised and covered with three quarts of 90 
per cent, alcohol, macerated for about a month and filtered. The 
yield will be about one gallon of strawberry extract. But this 
strawberry essence is made from the fruit which is in season but 
two months of the year, and when the crops are small, the price 
will, and of necessity must be, higher, and the method of produc- 
tion slow and expensive. 

To the second class belong the official spirits and tinctures like 
cinnamon, wintergreen, anise, peppermint, ginger, vanilla, etc. 
These are made by simple solution of the oil in alcohol, as, for 
example, the 10 per cent, spirit of cinnamon, or by maceration and 
percolation, as the 10 per cent, tincture of vanilla, or the 50 per 
cent, tinctures of lemon and orange peel made by maceration, or 
yet the 10 per cent, spirit of peppermint made by solution and 

Now, it is self-apparent that all these preparations come within the 
province of the pharmacist. It is for us to protect our rights; it 
is for us to stand by the standard and to require all other corre- 
sponding preparations to respond to the tests and requirements 
laid down in our national standard, which is the United States 

And this is not the only phase of the question. There is another. 
Any of the so-called spices, like cinnamon, cayenne pepper, cara- 
way and allspice are drugs, the doses of which lie between one and 
fifteen grains. Spirits like those of bitter almond, cinnamon, win- 
tergreen and peppermint are all directed in the Pharmacopoeia in 
doses less than 60 minims. It should be remembered that in the 
State of Pennsylvania drugs whose doses are less than 60 grains are 
considered poisons. Now, gentlemen, properly speaking these 
come within the province of the qualified pharmacist (whose quali- 
fication was attested by registration before the State Pharmaceutical 
Board). It is, therefore, in my opinion, illegal to expose these arti- 


School Gardens. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

cles for sale in other places than pharmacies or drug stores. I hold, 
further, that the making of such dangerous preparations as the 
spirit of bitter almond (which may be taken as an example) is not 
a safe article in the hands of anybody but a qualified pharmacist, 
and the only safe place for its disposal is a pharmacy, and not a 
general store. This is of great importance to us pharmacists to know, 
and also to know the opinion as handed down by the Supreme 
Court of Illinois in the case of the Illinois State Board of Pharmacy 
against a Chinese laundryman prosecuted for selling opium. In 
handing down the decision the Court held: 

First : That opium is a drug and not an article of ordinary mer- 

Second : That any place where drugs and medicines are sold is 
a drug store within the law ; and I hold, genlemen, that this deci- 
sion is of the greatest importance to us. It defines the drug store 
and the position of the pharmacist. The substances mentioned are 
as much drugs as opium, and the preparations of oil of bitter 
almond more dangerous than opium; therefore the drug store is 
the proper place for their sale, the pharmacists their rightful manu- 
facturers, and the United States Pharmacopoeia the proper standard 
within the law. 


By William McIntyre, 
Chairman of Committee on Special Schools, Board of Public Education, 


For many years school gardens have been a feature of public 
school education in Europe, and, to quote Helen C. Bennett, 1 " An 
idea of the extent to which this branch of education is carried on in 
European countries may be obtained from the statement that in 
Austria there are no less than 8,000 school gardens ; in Sweden, 
2,0 1 6 ; while in France practical gardening is taught in 2,800 pri- 
mary and elementary schools." And now a widespread movement 
for their establishment exists in the United States, school farms 
having been conducted in some of the larger cities of the East, 
notably New York, Boston, Philadelphia and Washington for some 

1 The American Monthly Review of Reviews, April, 1904. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
May. 1908. 

School Gardens. 


years past. It is also of interest to note that in Porto Rico the 
United States Government maintains school gardens in connection 
with every public school, the teachers being regularly trained for 
the work in a course of theoretical and practical lessons on agri- 
culture. Here in Philadelphia, during the year past, there were 
maintained by the Board of Public Education, ten gardens, having 
a total area of 8^ acres. 

A Garden in a School Yard. 

Some of the arguments set forth by the Public Education Associa- 
tion of Philadelphia in favor of school gardens are as follows : 

The Objects of School Gardens. — To dispose children favorably 
toward manual labor, by giving a much needed industrial supple- 
ment to the confining book training and almost exclusively academic 
ideals of the schools. 

To take children off the streets in the vacation period, and still 
give only pleasurable occupation out of doors. 


School Gardens. 

Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
May, 1908. 

To teach the elements of the industry on which life principally 
depends — agriculture — and thus promote distribution of population 
in rural districts, instead of continued concentration in cities. 

How Gardens are Educational. — To be of educational value, it is 
not enough to provide gardens with tools and a gardener. The 
gardener or laborer is needed only as a janitor, and for work that is 
too heavy for children. 

Why Teachers are Needed. — For any educational results to be 
accomplished, the constant direction of trained teachers is neces- 
sary, because of their knowledge of children and of methods of 
teaching. Discipline and nature talks are the work of teachers. 

The Work of the Teachers. — To teach children to learn by observa- 
tion, and to give them practical training by the eye and the hand. 

To teach children to apply what they learn from books, as to 
nature study, mensuration, and other subjects, without the strain of 
additional indoor work. 

To influence character by appeal to their love of nature. 

To prepare children for citizenship by teaching, practically, the 
care of private and public property. 

To mold character by demanding independence, each child being 
dependent upon himself in a garden for the results of his labor. 

To impress practically and theoretically the law of sequence, one 
event proceeding from another as its direct consequence. 

To educate the emotions, by teaching care and protection of 
tender, growing things. 

A gardener, no matter how excellent, will not be as competent as 
an experienced teacher to carry out these educational purposes of 
school gardens. 

A school garden usually measures about one acre, and is subdi- 
vided into small individual plots, larger or class plots, a centre and 
border, for flowers. The yield from the small plots belongs to the 
children who cultivate them, that from the class plot belongs to the 
garden. The beautiful flowers are taken to the pupils' homes or 
made into bouquets and sent to the hospitals for the sick. 

One supervisor, nine principal and ten assistant teachers, with six 
gardeners, were employed. The total cost to the city, for the sea- 
son, in material and salaries, was $ I 1,035. 

Accurate records are kept, including the amount of produce per 
child, the attendance and effects of the work upon the pupils' phys- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

School Gardens, 


ical, mental and moral being. The total attendance here was 
90,919 boys and girls, with an average daily attendance of 627, the 
division by sex being about equal. 

The following table is not without interest, showing, as it does, 
the yield of produce on one plot 6 by 10 feet : 

Lettuce heads, 19; radishes (two crops), 42 bunches — 510; 
turnips, 25 ; beets, 25; spinach, 3 pecks; wax beans, 3 pecks; to. 
matoes, 3 pecks; lima beans, j£ peck. The question of financial 
gain is not held out to the children, nothing being allowed to be 
sold in the garden; but, nevertheless, since all the produce belongs 
to the little farmer, it may be found wise for the parents at home 
to purchase the produce by way of encouragement. 

The cold rain of spring and the heat of summer did not lessen 
the enthusiasm necessary to transform waste lands, covered with 
rubbish, into orderly, beautiful gardens. Here is a strong argument 
for gardens as a factor in municipal improvement, but stronger still 
is the argument in favor of gardens as a factor for the development 
of the boys and girls themselves. 

Realizing the neglected condition of many of the back yards at 
their homes, the children were urged to start little gardens of their 
own. All plants that are adapted to transplanting, government 
seeds and others were given them, with the result that 494 home 
gardens were made. 

The general interest maintained by the pupils and their deport- 
ment precludes all thought of discipline. While sections of classes 
are in waiting for lessons, a playground in an adjoining field will 
often be an acceptable place for passing time, but we find that the 
average child looks upon work or play according to the manner in 
which it is presented. School gardens furnish an industrial play- 
ground for six months' time, affording practical manual training 
object lessons in plant life, and a study of elementary agriculture as 
well as the proper use of tools and their care. They teach what 
soil is, the reasons for fertilizing it, the influence of moisture, and 
how to maintain proper soil conditions by plowing, harrowing and 
the rotation of crops, a little of chemistry and nature's laws. They 
supply nature-study and drawing materials to nearby schools. Ad- 
vantageous and disadvantageous worms, insects and birds, all receive 
a share of attention, and many specimens are mounted and correctly 

236 Correspondence, {^'May.'im™' 

The growing of vegetables and flowers is not the main object 
sought in school-garden work. Their real value depends upon 
their power to arouse and confirm in the child good traits of 

The methods pursued lead to an appreciation of the dignity of 
labor, which in turn may develop into an intelligent interest in the 
work of the field. 

It has been possible to secure young women teachers who have 
the qualifications to give instruction in the study of plant life and 
related biological sciences such as are required in a work of this 
kind. The course of study is too long to present here, but it is 
systematic and presented in such a way as to hold the interest of 
the children. 

A visitor to the gardens wrote : " The result both as to the fruits 
gathered and the adornment of unsightly lots was very creditable. 
The great value of this work, however, is unseen. The child who 
plants the seed, watches it germinate and grow under his care, who 
sees the flower and then the fruit, has little room for impure thoughts 
and feelings. The wonder and beauty of nature's laws are seen and 
felt day by day, stamp their impress on the mind and heart of the 
child and bring him very close to the One who gives life to all. 

" There is no life for a child that equals the country life. Its close 
companionship with nature, its silent, unconscious influences, give 
a moral and physical strength supplied in no other way. 

" The school garden gives the child of the city a glimpse into this 
life, and who can measure the value to him of this brief companion- 
ship with nature ? Under the wise direction of his instructor it 
becomes to him much more than a glimpse." 

In conclusion, it may be stated that the gardens have grown a few 
plants of interest to the pharmacist. 



Prof. Henry Kraemer, Editor American Journal of Pharmacy : 

Dear Sir. — I would be pleased if you would insert the following 
correction concerning my recent article on " Oil of Bitter Almonds " 
in the forthcoming number of the American Journal of Phar- 

Ajii. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 

Book Reviews. 


On page 1 56, line 1 1 , the word " benzo-nitrile " should be " phenyl 
oxyaceto-nitrile." Through an error in the manuscript sent you 
this incorrect word appeared. Very truly yours, 

Frank O. Taylor. 

Detroit, Mich., April 16, 1908. 


The Pharmacopceia and the Physician. By Robert A. Hatcher, 
Ph.G., M.D., and Martin I. Wilbert, Ph.M. Second revised edition. 
485 pages, with excellent index. American Medical Association 
Press. 1908. 

This is distinctly a book with a purpose, and a most worthy 
purpose — that of familiarizing the medical profession with the 
official drugs. It is a notorious fact, conceded by all medical 
teachers, that until quite recently materia medica has been the 
worst-taught subject in the whole medical curriculum. Most of the 
men now in practice were obliged to acquire the greater part of 
their knowledge of this subject after graduation, without teachers — 
or rather with worse than none ! The manufacturers of the various 
proprietary specialties stood quite ready to supply information, un- 
limited in amount and attractive in appearance, but distinctly one- 
sided in quality. This teaching naturally took the form of extolling 
the more or less imaginary advantages of these proprietary drugs 
over the official, neglecting entirely the often much more substantial 
disadvantages. Most physicians accepted these statements as facts, 
with quite childlike confidence, forgetting that the official drugs 
had successfully stood the test of time, and that the specialties had 
scarcely been tried. This confidence so emboldened many of these 
proprietary houses that conditions became not only intolerable, but 
absurd, furnishing a well-prepared soil for the seeds of reform. These 
were sown by the appointment of professional scientists to the chairs 
of pharmacology and materia medica in a few of the better medical 
schools. The experiment was so successful that it extended rapidly 
to more and more of such schools, and the graduates of the present 
day are not quite so easily imposed upon. At the same time, the 
enlightenment of the older graduates was undertaken by their 


Book Reviews. 

Am. Jour. Pharta. 
May, 1908.- 

national organization, the American Medical Association, through 
its Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry. These manifestations of 
interest on the part of the medical profession aroused the more pro- 
gressive pharmacists to renewed activity, until even the N.A.R.D. is 
taking a hand in the propaganda. 

This book of Hatcher's and Wilbert's is destined to be a most 
valuable instrument in this broad movement of reform. Its direct 
aim is to give physicians a glimpse — for some a revelation — of the 
rich therapeutic armamentorium of the U.S.P. and N.F. It does not 
pretend to be either a reference or a text-book, but rather a readable 
presentation of the practical phases of the subject — the manner in 
which therapeutical indications can be met by official drugs ; the 
preparations and combinations in which these may be prescribed, 
and such pharmaceutical properties as are important to the physi- 
cian. The authors do not look upon the Pharmacopoeia and 
Formulary as idols ; they do not hesitate to criticise the shortcom- 
ings of these works ; neither, on the other hand, do they hesitate to 
expose the extravagant and often absurd claims of the proprietary 
preparations. It is quite needless to dwell upon the accuracy and 
reliability of the contents. No physician could take up the book 
without getting from it something of direct value ; the early 
appearance of this second edition attests the general appreciation of 
this fact. The pharmacist also will find it not only interesting, but 
practically valuable, for an intelligent knowledge of therapeutical 
properties is indispensable to the scientific understanding of his pro- 
fession ; and if he is interested in the general propaganda, he cannot 
do better than to discuss the subjects of this book with his medical 
friends. Torald Sollmann. 

Window Displays for Druggists. By Harry B. Mason, editor 
of the Bulletin of Pharmacy. Detroit, Mich : E. G. Swift. Price, 
postpaid, $i. 

This book is invaluable to retail druggists who believe in show- 
window advertising, which is unquestionably a paying proposition, 
especially in those stores located on large thoroughfares. 

It has been said that " a man's face is a mirror to his soul," there- 
fore it can be truthfully said that a drug store show-window denotes 
the character of the man managing the store. Mr. Mason has pre- 
sented in his book over one hundred photographic illustrations of 

Am M»yf'i908r rm * } American Pharmaceutical Association. 239 

practical window-dressing, consisting of every species of merchandise 
generally handled by a retail druggist,together with practical sugges- 
tions as to how to vary the exhibit to suit any condition. One of 
the most difficult problems in the commercial career of a retailer is 
how to properly display his goods to advantage. This problem can 
be easily solved by consulting Mr. Mason's book, and all retail 
druggists who have any personal pride in the attractive appearance 
of their stores should feel under great obligation to him for placing 
within their reach such an easy solution of their difficulties. 

Thomas H. Potts. 


The meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, on the evening of Tuesday, April 7, 1908, 
was devoted to a discussion on " Adulterations and their 

Dr. George R. Pancoast and Mr. W. A. Pearson discussed " The 
Adulteration of Volatile Oils," and called attention to the difficulty 
of satisfactorily controlling these products by chemical means. 
They pointed out that for volatile oils that are used largely, if not 
entirely, for their odor, odor tests are perhaps the most satisfactory, 
particularly when combined with systematic dilution. 

Mr. L. Henry Bernegau, in a communication entitled " Some 
Remarks on the Adulterations of Drugs and Chemicals as found in 
practice," gave an interesting resume of some laboratory experi- 
ences with well-known drugs and chemicals. Of a number of sam- 
ples of gold and sodium chloride that were examined, not one 
represented fully the 30 per cent, of metallic gold required by the 
Pharmacopoeia. The greater number of samples varied from 28-8 
to 24-6 per cent, of metallic gold. 

Samples of commercial resin of podophyllin contained as high as 
10 per cent of foreign matter, and even chemical substances, like 
sanguinarine nitrate, were found to be quite variable in composition. 

Dr. Lyman F. Kebler, of the Division of Drugs, Bureau of Chem- 
istry, presented a communication on 44 The Drug Laboratory of the 
Bureau of Chemistry as a Factor in the Detection of Adulterations." 

240 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am Mly r ,'i908 arnj ' 

Dr. Kebler called attention to some of the varied activities of the 
drug laboratory, and the attempts that are now being made to 
compel a reasonably strict adherence to the provisions of the food 
and drugs act. In connection with the work that is being done 
under the food and drugs act, the most evident need is the devising 
of improved methods for detecting the composition of the several 
compounds that are being marketed. 

Another practical difficulty that has been encountered is the 
difficulty of procuring many of the necessary chemicals of the 
required standard for purity. To insure reasonably pure chemicals 
it has been found necessary to revert to the standards of the U.S.P. for 
1890, as these are invariably higher than the standards of the U.S.P. 
8th Decennial Revision. 

One of the many practical problems that the men in charge of 
the laboratory are now endeavoring to solve is the question of de- 
terioration of drugs and chemicals. For this purpose a number of 
drugs that are usually thought to be readily decomposed have been 
studied systematically to determine, if possible, the rate of deterio- 
ration under varying conditions. 

In connection with the study of vegetable drugs a rather interest- 
ing complication has been developed by the discovery that the 
greater number ot reference herbariums are far from being uniformly 

This fact will require a careful review of herbariums used for 
comparison, and this is now being done by the officials in charge of 
the herbarium in the Smithsonian Institution. 

In conclusion Dr. Kebler exhibited a number of samples of adult- 
erated and sophisticated drugs that had come to his attention and 
also showed a number of preparations that were being marketed 
contrary to the requirements of the food and drugs act. 

The several communications were discussed by Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington, Professor Stanislaus, Mr. Hunsberger, Professor Kraemer, 
Mr. Hilts and a number of others. A vote ot thanks was tendered 
to Dr. Kebler and the other contributors for the presentation^ 
interesting and valuable information. 

A preamble and resolution endorsing U H. R. 16,091" was unani- 
mously adopted. 



Am M°a7;iS)8 arm '} Pharmaceutical Meeting. 241 


The regular Pharmaceutical Meeting of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held Tuesday afternoon, April 21st, with Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington in the chair. 

Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg, of. the University of Illinois, addressed 
the meeting on the subject of improving the practice of pharmacy 
and medicine in the United States. The address was largely de- 
voted to a consideration of that class of proprietary medicines for 
which false claims are made, both to physicians and to the. public. 
The methods of advertising these preparations were described, and 
the statement was made that if the journals published to exploit 
them were not allowed second-class postal rates, these journals could 
not exist. Professor Hallberg said that the work of the Council 
on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the American Medical Association 
had entirely changed the attitude of the medical profession toward 
secret remedies. He said that the Council had been at work for 
about three years, and had found some 300 proprietary compounds 
and preparations that were true in name and composition, and in 
this connection said that the Council had not heretofore undertaken 
to investigate the therapeutic qualities of these preparations, and, 
therefore, it should be understood that they do not recommend 
them on the basis of their therapeutic properties. 

Professor Hallberg also spoke of the splendid results which are 
attending the joint meetings of physicians and pharmacists in vari- 
ous parts of the country, one of them being an increase in the use 
of U.S.P. and N.F. preparations. The trend of the movement is, 
however, as he sees it, not against manufacturing pharmacists, but 
against the manufacturers of secret preparations or those for which 
untruthful claims are made. 

The address was discussed by Dr. Albert M. Eaton, president of 
the Philadelphia County Medical Society; Dr. H. C. Wood, Jr.; Dr. 
C B. Lowe, H. K. Mulford, W. L. Cliffe, William Mclntyre, M. I. 
Wilbert, Prof. I.V. S. Stanislaus, and the chairman. Dr. Eaton stated 
that all of the scientific physicians in Philadelphia are in harmony 
with the movement to bring physicians and pharmacists together. 
He said that the matter had been taken up by several of the 
branches of the society, and that it would be considered by every 
branch not only next year, but every year until it is satisfactorily 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

A.m. Jour. Pharni. 
May, 1908. 

settled. Dr. Eaton said that the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry of the A.M.A. has done work which every one appreciates, 
and for which physicians are truly grateful, and that when the work 
done by the American Medical Association in 1875 is compared with 
that now being carried on by the Association, the change brought 
about amounts almost to a revolution. He then mentioned some 
of the facts which go to show that physicians as a class are improv- 
ing not only in their attitude toward minor ethical practices, but 
also in regard to the kind of medical journals which they read. 
Another interesting fact mentioned by Dr. Eaton was that in his 
work as a member of the Committee on Advertising in Religious 
Journals of the Pennsylvania State Medical Society, he had found 
six journals of this class that were clean. 

Dr. Wood said that he was interested in the remark that form- 
erly when questions of mutual interest were discussed, physicians 
would meet in one place and pharmacists in another, and he 
claimed that this manner of procedure was largely responsible for 
conditions as they had existed in the past. He therefore urged 
that the members of the two callings meet in friendly concourse to 
consider the evils that have sprung up. 

Mr. Mulford said that he had been impressed by the position 
taken by Professor Hallberg in advocating the use of Latin names 
for all preparations. He said that his firm had tried the experiment 
of using the official titles on their labels, and that they had received 
objections to this manner of labeling from jobbers all over the 
country, thus being obliged to print another set of labels giving 
the common names of the preparations. Mr. Mulford advanced 
the opinion that more information regarding the properties of medi- 
cines should be given by physicians to the laity, claiming that if 
the layman has some knowledge of drugs, he is better able to 
appreciate the benefits of medical treatment ; and that ignorant lay- 
men are the ones who are victims of medical pretenders. 

Mr. Wilbert announced that Dr. J. N. McCormack would deliver 
an address on certain phases of the work of the Ameriean Medical 
Association at Witherspoon Hall, Philadelphia, on the evening of 
May nth, and urged those present to attend the lecture. 

At the close of the discussion a vote of thanks was tendered 
Professor Hallberg for his interesting address. 

Florence Yaple, Secretary pro tern. 

Am May^m rm *} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 243 


The annual meeting of the members of the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy was held on Monday, March 30, 1908, at 4 p.m. in the 
Library. The President, Howard B. French, presided. Twenty-six 
members were present. 

The minutes of the quarterly meeting, heid December 30, 1907, 
were read and approved. 

The minutes of the meetings of the Board of Trustees, held De- 
cember 2, 1907, January 7th, and February 4, 1908, were read by 
the Registrar, J. S. Beetem, and approved. 

The President read his report for the year ending at this date, 
from which the following items are abstracted: 

Owing to the excessive amount of work required of the electrical plant, it 
was found necessary to have the dynamo rewound, and to prevent a recurrence 
of similar trouble a circuit-breaker was placed on the switchboard. 

The electrical plant is now in first-class order, but unfortunately it is too 
small for present requirements,, and a duplicate plant will soon be necessary. 

The old Quiz room on the third story of the back building has been remod- 
eled and provided with desks, electric lights, shelving and compartments for 
the use of the Department of Botany and Pharmacognosy. The cost of these 
alterations was $1384.37. This gives the Department double the laboratory space 
heretofore occupied. The new laboratory has been devoted to the uses of the 
Pure Food and Drug Classes, the students in Bacteriology, and those doing 
special work, In addition a number of students from the other classes have 
taken advantage of the increased facilities thus afforded for the purpose of 
examining specimens under the microscope, and of examining specimens com- 
posing the collections that have been placed in the laboratory. 

During the past winter several students desired to take up the examination 
of blood, and the physiological testing of drugs, and instruction was given 
them on these subjects. There is a growing demand for micro-analysts, and 
the students are taking advantage of the opportunity offered to qualify them- 
selves for this important work. 

A door has been cut through from the Chemical Laboratory to the Chemical 
lecture room, which enables the Professor of Analytical Chemistry to use more 
conveniently the latter room in instructing his classes. Other portions of the 
buildings have had more or less of repairs put upon them, and the entire Col- 
lege is now in fairly good condition. 

Early in the year the Board of Trustees authorized the Committee on Prop- 
erty to have plans and specifications drawn for the improvement of the Aim- 
well School property. The services of Messrs. Seymour Davis and Paul A. 
Davis, 3d, architects, were secured. Plans and specifications for a two-story 
and basement building were prepared and bids invited. A number of bids were 
received and the award was made to the lowest bidder, Mr. Herbert K. Havens. 

244 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am 'Miy"i£g arm - 

The building as erected is a model of convenience, is now almost completed, 
and will be turned over to the College at an early date. It is to be utilized as a 
Pure Food and Drug Laboratory. The President stated that with this addition, 
together with the new Microscopical Laboratory, the College is in better con- 
dition for perfecting students in the analysis and examination of Foods and 
Drugs than any other educational institution of which he was aware. It 
also gives the students of the College added facilities for perfecting themselves 
in chemistry as applied in many of the arts and manufactures, and to qualify 
themselves for important positions in manufacturing plants. In this connection 
he urged the establisement of a Post-Graduate Course. 

The work in Operative Pharmacy has been steadily advancing. The special 
course in Dispensing has proven of much value, and there is no doubt as to the 
wisdom of separating the instruction in Dispensing from that given to the 
regular classes. 

A new field of work has been inaugurated in the department of Operative 
Pharmacy, which may be termed " Pharmacopoeial Research." Preparations 
of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and National Formulary have been made by the 
students specially fitted for this work. Critical notes and suggestions for 
improvement in the processes have been made, which, it is hoped, will be of 
assistance to the Revision Committee of the U. S. Pharmacopoeia and the 
National Formulary. 

There is a net increase of fifty-four students over the corresponding period 
of last year. In the various departments of the College, viz.: Pure Food and 
Drugs course, Chemistry, Bacteriology, Microscopy and Special Studies, 103 
students are enrolled, in addition to those taking the regular pharmacy 

Special notice is taken of the death of the lamented Treasurer, James T. 
Shinn, whose death occurred suddenly on October 4, 1907. He had devoted 
much time and ability to the welfare of the College, and his death was a 
severe blow to the institution. He was a man of staunch character and lov- 
able traits, one who will long be missed and whose life is well worthy of 

Acknowledgment is made to many members and friends of the College for 
their liberality in contributing towards the erection of the new Annex 

The activity of the Alumni Association continues, for which it is strongly 

The President expressed his appreciation of the kindly co-operation of all 
officers of the College, and also the hope that unity of action and earnest effort 
on the part of all the members will be continued in the future. 

The Committee on Nominations presented their report, contain- 
ing the names of the various nominees for offices, trustees and com- 

The report of the Publication Com mittee was read by Professor 
Sadtler, which stated that ail bills for the year had been paid and 
that a balance remained to be carried over to the new account. 

Am M»?y'im arlB '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 245 

The report of the editor of the American Journal of Pharmacy 
contained a summary of the matter that has been published during 
the year. 

The report of the Committee on Pharmaceutical Meetings. The 
meetings have been held regularly during the year. The formulae 
and make-up of the National Formulary received considerable 
attention, and the discussions were of practical interest to retail 
pharmacists. At one of the meetings a resolution was passed 
requesting an early revision of the National Formulary, and pledging 
the assistance of the members of the College in carrying on the 

Curator's Report by Joseph W. England : 

The Museum is in good condition, but is in need of extension 
in several directions. The Martindale and College Herbarium Col- 
lections should be rearranged ; this will entail considerable work, as 
the numbers of the plants run into the thousands. It is important 
that some provision be made for the proper keeping and exhibition 
of the historical collection of the College. For this purpose new 
cases are needed, which could be placed in the gallery of the Mu- 
seum. A series of Museum lectures is recommended to be given 
during the year, exhibiting not only the collections in the Museum, 
but also those of special historical and other interest contained in 
the collections of the teachers. Thus, one lecture could be devoted 
to the Martindale and College Collection of plants, and one to plant 
products, one to chemical products, and one to pharmaceutical pro- 
ducts, etc. These lectures would be useful in making known the 
value of the collections, and would also open the door for the pre- 
sentation of new specimens, and thus keep the collections up-to- 

The Curator also suggested that the various collections in the 
College might be utilized for exhibition purposes during Founders' 
week in October next. 

In the discussion that followed the reading of the Curator's re- 
port, Professors Remington and Sadtler commended the suggestion 
of having the Museum lectures. On motion, the report was refer- 
red to the Board of Trustees for consideration. 

Librarian's Report by Thomas S. Wiegand : 

There have been added 180 volumes during the year, and in addi- 
tion a number of volumes have been donated. The library has 

246 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^m^'iST 111, 

also been enriched by the volumes of the large number of valuable 
exchanges, which have been bound. There are now in the library 
about 12,000 bound volumes and over 3,000 pamphlets. The 
library has been consulted by the students more than usual, and 
a number of non-members have enjoyed its privileges. 

Historical Committee Report, by George M. Beringer. During 
the past year a few additional contributions to the Historical 
Souvenirs and data that are being collected by the Museum have 
been received, notably some letters and correspondence of the late 
Prof. William Procter, Jr.; a letter in Latin of Baron Justus Liebig 
(received from Mr. Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, Ga.). 

The exhibit authorized by the College for the Pennsylvania State 
Museum has been completed and forwarded to Harrisburg, where it 
is now on exhibition in the Museum. It consists of a series of vol- 
umes of the American Journal of Pharmacy. A " hand made " 
book containing " Memoirs of Some of Those Identified with the 
Development of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy." Articles 
of Incorporation, Constitution and By-laws of the College and a 
Condensed History. Announcements of the College. A booklet 
entitled " The Faculty of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy." 
The printed text-books of Professors Remington, Sadtler, Kraemer 
and Moerk. 

A series of photographs of the buildings showing interior and 
exterior views, and portraits of the presidents of the College and 
those who have been teachers in the College, and the present faculty. 
(These portraits were prepared by Mr. Gutekunst, of a uniform 
style and size, and a duplicate set has been prepared and retained 
in the College.) In this collection of the portraits of the presidents 
there is still lacking the portrait of Mr. William Lehman, the second 
President of the College, who filled that office from 1 825-1829. 
The Committee have been unable to find a portrait of Mr. Lehman, 
but are continuing their search and hope to be able to supply the 

The laboratories of the College contributed to the exhibit as fol- 

The Pharmaceutical -Laboratory, a collection of approved pack- 
ages for dispensing of prescriptions. 

The Chemical Laboratory, six cards of Mounted Type Tests 
and Color Reactions. 

Am M° a y?i9S arm '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 247 

Botanical and Microscopical Laboratory, four cards containing 
Type Specimens of Commercial Opium and Alkaloidal Constitu- 
ents, Commercial Cinchonas and Alkaloidal Constituents, Commer- 
cial Cinnamons, and a Student's Case of Crude Vegetable Drugs. 

A letter from the Curator of the Museum at Harrisburg states 
that the exhibit has proved attractive and interesting. 

The committee recommend a vote of thanks to Mr. Joseph Jacobs 
for the autograph letter of Baron Liebig, which was, on motion, 

The resignations of Doctor William S. Weakley and George Y. 
Wood from active membership were read and accepted. 

The President made the following appointments : Delegates to 
the meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, to be 
held at Easton, June 23d, 24th and 25th, Clement B. Lowe, Mahlon 
N. Kline, William Mclntyre, H. L. Stiles and Charles H. La Wall. 
Committee on By-Laws, George M. Beringer, Joseph W. England 
and C. A. Weidemann. Delegates to the New Jersey Pharmaceuti- 
cal Association, George M. Beringer, Joseph P. Remington and C. 
B. Lowe. 

Mr. Wilbert presented a preamble and resolution relating to a bill 
now pending in Congress, known as " H. R." No. 16,091, which has 
for its object the improvement of the pharmaceutical service in the 
Public Health and Marine Hospital service. Considerable discus- 
sion followed the presentation ; numerous amendments and motions 
were made, after which a special committee, consisting of Messrs. 
Remington, Cliffe and Wilbert were appointed to consider the mat- 
ter, who subsequently proposed the following amendment to the 
House bill : 

"Resolved, That we recommend that appointments to the rank of 
Assistant Pharmacists be limited to graduates of pharmacy from a 
recognized college or school of pharmacy." 

This was adopted, and copies of the preamble and resolution, and 
amendment directed to be sent to the chairman of the Committee 
on Expenditures of the Treasury Department, and the Representa- 
tives in Congress from Philadelphia. 

The election of officers, trustees and committees being now in 
order, Messrs. Cliffe and England were appointed tellers, who, after 
a ballot was had, reported the election of : President, Howard B. 
French ; First Vice-President, Mahlon N. Kline ; Second Vice-Presi- 

248 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am -£?!i^ arm " 

dent, R. V. Mattison; Treasurer, Richard M. Shoemaker; Corres- 
ponding Secretary, A. W. Miller; Recording Secretary, C. A. 
Weidemann ; Curator, Joseph W. England ; Librarian, Thomas S. 
Wiegand ; Editor, Henry Kraemer ; Trustees, Joseph P. Reming- 
ton, Gustavus Pile and C. Carroll Meyer. Theodore Campbell was 
elected to fill the unexpired term of Richard M. Shoemaker, who 
was elected treasurer; Publication Committee, Samuel P. Sadtler, 
Henry Kraemer, Joseph W. England, Martin I. Wilbert, Miss 
Florence Yaple, Charles H. La Wall ; Committee on Pharmaceuti- 
cal Meetings, Joseph P. Remington, C. B. Lowe, William L. Cliffe, 
William Mclntyre, and the editor. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 


December 2, 1907. Fifteen members were present. 

Committee on Property reported progress on the new Pure Food 
and Drug Laboratory building, which, it was stated, would be under 
roof by January 1, 1908. 

Special Finance Committee reported progress in securing contri- 
butions towards the new building. 

January 7, 1908. Eleven members were present 

Committee on Property reported that weather conditions had 
delayed work on the new annex building. 

Committee on Library reported a number of accessions to the 
library during the past two months. 

Committee on Examinations reported as suitable candidates a 
number of names for the award of the degree of Master in Pharmacy. 

The subject of conferring the honorary degree of Doctor in Phar- 
macy (P. D.), had been discussed by the committee, but no recom- 
mendation was made. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer submitted the name of John J. Bridgeman, 
Jr., as additional assistant in the microscopical laboratory. 

Prof. F. X. Moerk submitted the name of Joseph A. Wolfe as 
additional assistant in the chemical laboratory. 

The selection of these assistants was confirmed by the board. 

Professor Sadtler stated that he would endeavor to arrange for 
some special lectures to the students in the Pure Food and Drugs 
Course by the first of April. 


Am. Jour. Pharm. 
May, 1908. 



February 4, 1908. Fifteen members were present. 

Committee on Property reported that the work on the new build- 
ing was progressing favorably, though it had been delayed, but it 
was expected that the building would be completed in about three 
weeks. The committee further reported that a new electric light 
plant would be necessary. 

Committee on Library reported a number of accessions during 
the month. 

The Special Committee, to whom was referred the selection of 
names from those submitted at the last meeting by the Com- 
mittee on Examinations, upon whom the degree of Master in Phar- 
macy should be conferred, submitted five names, and their selection 
was approved by the board. 

The Committee on Property was authorized to arrange for a 
formal opening of the new Pure Food and Drug Laboratory. 

The Secretary of the College was authorized to sign the names 
of officers and faculty, deceased, on duplicate diplomas and certifi- 
cates, and an engrossed foot-note on the diploma or certificate, 
stating that such names were signed by the Secretary of the College 
by order of the Board of Trustees. 

George B. Evans and Richard H. Lackey were elected active 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 



Dr. Jacob A. Miller, one of the best known druggists of Harris, 
burg, Pa., died at his residence in that city on April 27, 1908, from 
cancer of the throat, he having been ill since January. 

Dr. Miller was born in Lancaster seventy-one years ago. He 
was graduated from Lafayette College in 1858 and from the Medi- 
cal Department of the University of Pennsylvania in 1861. That 
year he became assistant superintendent of the Pennsylvania State 
Lunatic Hospital located at Harrisburg. 

At the outbreak of the Civil War he was assigned from General 



Am. Jour. Pharm, 
May, 1908. 

McClellan's headquarters as a surgeon to Burdan's New York 
Sharpshooters and was later transferred to the Second Regiment^ 
Rhode Island Volunteers. The last time he was ill with the excep- 
tion of the illness that resulted in his death, was when he was taken 
sick with camp fever and sent home, when he again assumed his 
duties at the Insane Hospital. For a number of years in the early 
sixties he was county physician in Lancaster. 

Forty years ago he opened his drug store at Second and Chest- 
nut Streets and for thirty years he was secretary of the Pennsyl- 
vania State Pharmaceutical Association. He served for a number 
of years as secretary of the Dauphin County Pharmaceutical Asso- 
ciation and was the first secretary of the Lancaster County Medical 

Dr. Miller represented the Third Ward in the School Board from 
1878 to 1887. 

For thirty-one years Dr. Miller was an elder in the Market 
Square Presbyterian Church and also clerk of the session. He 
taught in the Sunday-school for thirty years or more and for many 
years held an unbroken record for attendance. 

Dr. Miller is survived by a wife and two sons : John Z. Miller, 
of Erie, and Charles G. Miller, of Harrisburg. 



fUNE, 1908 


By Frederick B. Power and Harold Rogerson. 
A Contribution from the Wellcome Chemical Research Laboratories, London. 

Tpomcea purpurea, Roth (syn. Ipomoea conge sta } R, Br., Convol- 
vulus purpureus, Linne, Pharbitis hispida, Choisy), Fam. Convolvu- 
lacece, is indigenous to the tropical regions of both hemispheres. It 
is largely cultivated in temperate climates on account of the beauty 
of its flowers, being known as the common Morning Glory (com- 
pare Gray's " Manual of Botany," sixth edition, p. 369). 

The above-mentioned plant was brought to the notice of Messrs. 
Burroughs, Wellcome & Co., London, a few years ago by Mr. J. 
Medley Wood, A.L.S., Director of the Natal Botanic Gardens, Dur- 
ban, South Africa, and to the kindness of Mr. Wood we are in- 
debted for the material employed in this investigation, which was 
specially collected under his supervision for the. purpose. 

The interest pertaining to this subject depends upon the fact that 
the stems and roots of the respective plant, called by the natives of 
South Africa " i-Jalapa," are used by them as an aperient medi- 
cine, and are believed to be as valuable for this purpose as true 
jalap. It is, however, well known that among the 300-4OO species 
of the genus Ipomcea y which are distributed throughout tropical and 
temperate countries, there are many which possess purgative prop- 
erties similar to those of jalap, and a number of these plants, or 
the resins obtained from them, have in fact been employed to some 
extent medicinally (compare " The National Standard Dispensa- 
tory," p. 836; "United States Dispensatory," nineteenth edition, 
p. 675 ; " Pharmacographia Indica," Vol. II, pp. 527 et seq.). 


252 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea, { Am june?i908? rm ' 

With consideration, therefore, of the recognized value of true 
jalap, and also of the conditions which in recent years have so un- 
favorably influenced the quality of this drug, it would appear to be 
very desirable that such plants as are capable of affording products 
of similar or equal activity should be subjected to a complete 
chemical and physiological examination. The results of such 
investigations, apart from the scientific interest they may possess, 
would doubtless often prove useful in directing attention to the 
particular value of native remedies, even should their employment 
remain restricted to the country of their production. 

A description of Ipomcea purpurea (Roth), with its synonymy and 
geographical distribution, is contained in the 4 ' Flora Capensis," 
Vol. IV, section 2, p. 59. London, 1904. It is stated in this work 
that the plant not only occurs in the Kalahari and eastern regions 
of South Africa, such as the Transvaal and Natal, but also in Cen- 
tral and South America and Australia. 

A more detailed description of the same plant, under the name 
oi' Ipomcea congesta, R. Br., is given in the work entitled Natal 
Plants," by J. Medley Wood, A.L.S., and Maurice S. Evans, 
M.L.A., F.Z.S., Vol. I, Part 2, p. 75. Durban, 1899. This 
description is accompanied by an uncolored plate, representing a 
flowering plant with dissections ol the flower. It is likewise 
noted by these authors that the plant is not uncommon in the coast 
districts of Natal, and that it is also a native of Australia. 

The material employed in this investigation evidently consisted 
chiefly of the aerial stems of the above-mentioned plant. It had 
the following general characters : — Curved, rope-like pieces, a metre 
or more in length, and varying in diameter from 8 millimetres in 
the larger pieces to I millimetre or less in the branches. Color, 
light brown ; fracture, short, except in the bark, where fine, long, 
silky fibres project; odor and taste slight. 


As a preliminary experiment for ascertaining the general charac- 
ters of the drug, fifty grammes of the finely-ground material were 
extracted successively in a Soxhlet apparatus with various solvents, 
when the following amounts of extract, dried at 100° C, were 

' } Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 253 

.r etroieuin ^o. p. 40-00 v^.j 


017 gramme — u 34 per cent. 


0*30 " = o*6o " (f 

0-34 " = o'68 (t " 

< < 

3*07 grammes = 6*14 " " 

Water . 

5*25 " = 10*50 " 


9-13 " 18-26 " " 

Determination of Total Resin. 

For the determination of the total resin in the drug the following 
method was employed : — Fifty grammes of the finely-ground material 
were thoroughly extracted in a Soxhlet apparatus with hot alcohol 
(94 per cent). To the liquid thus obtained 25 c.c. of water were 
added, and the alcohol removed by distillation, after which the resi- 
due was brought into a dish and heated on a water-bath in order to 
remove the last traces of alcohol. The separated resin was then 
washed three or four times with hot distilled water, and finally dried 
in a water-oven until of constant weight. Two concurrent deter- 
minations yielded 2-4 grammes of resin, corresponding to 4-8 per 
cent, of total resin in the drug. The proportion of this crude resin 
which was soluble in ether, as determined by its complete extrac- 
tion with the latter solvent in a Soxhlet apparatus, corresponded 
to 15-5 per cent, of its weight. 

Optical Rotation of the Crude Resin. 

It has been indicated by P. Guigues 1 that the specific optical rota- 
tory power of certain convolvulaceous resins is a factor which may be 
utilized for discriminating between them, and for the detection of 
substitutes and adulterants. Thus the resin of scammony, obtained 
from the root, is said to have a rotation varying from — 18 30' to 
— -2 3° 30', whereas the upper limit for the resin from the natural 
gum-resin scammony is — 25 °. Resins having a rotation between 
— 23 30' and — 25° are considered to be derived from Ipomcea 
orizabensis, Ledanois/ The addition to the above products of offi- 
cial jalap resin or that of Ipomoea turpethum, R.Br., increases the 
rotation, while an admixture of colophony, sandarac or mastic would 
lower it, since the latter are dextrorotatory. 

1 Jo urn. de Pharm. et de Chim. [6J, 33, 241, and Chem. Centralblatt, 1907, 
Bd. I, p. 309. 

254 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am jine?iS)8 arm ' 

In order to determine the value of this factor in connection with 
the resin under investigation, the method suggested by Guigues was 
employed. About 2-5 grammes of the crude resin were dissolved 
in 50 c.c. of alcohol, and the solution boiled with successive small 
portions of animal charcoal until it became practically colorless. 
The rotation of this liquid was then observed in a 1 dcm. tube, 
after which 10 c.c. of the liquid were evaporated to dryness, the resi- 
due dried at 105 — uo° C, and weighed. The initial rotation in a 
I dcm. tube having been found to be — 42', and as the amount of 
solid substance in 10 c.c. of the liquid was 0-1374 gramme, the 
specific rotatory power of the resin is [a] D — 50*95°. 

Preliminary Extraction of the Crude Resin with Different Solvents. 

In order to ascertain the general character of the crude resin, an 
amount of the latter obtained from 100 grammes of the drug (4 8 
grammes) was dissolved in alcohol, mixed with purified sawdust, 
and the thoroughly dried mixture extracted successively in a Soxhlet 
apparatus with various solvents. The percentages of extract, dried 
at no° C, were as follows : 

Per cent. 

Petroleum (b. p. 40-60 C.) extracted 8.0 

Ether " 7-3 

Chloroform " 9*8 

Ethyl acetate " . . . 23-8 

Alcohol " 490 

Loss 21 


For the further complete examination of the drug a quantity 
(43/4 P oun ds = I9'6 kilograms) of the ground material was com- 
pletely extracted with hot alcohol. The extract thus obtained, after 
the removal of the greater portion of the alcohol, was brought into 
a large flask, some water added, and the mixture distilled in steam 
until volatile products ceased to pass over. A turbid distillate was 
thus obtained, from which a few oily drops separated on the surface. 
After this operation there remained in the distilling vessel a dark- 
colored, aqueous liquid (A), which possessed an agreeable, fruity 
©dor, and a quantity of soft, very dark greenish resin (B), which 
was thoroughly washed with warm water and the washings added 
to the aqueous liquid. 

Am ju O n U e?i908 a,m *} Chemical Examination of Ipomoea Purpurea. 255 
Examination of the Steam Distillate. 

The distillate was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid being 
dried with anhydrous sodium sulphate, and the ether removed. A 
small amount of an essential oil was thus obtained which, when dis- 
tilled under a pressure of 35 mm., passed over between 90 and 180 
C. It had a pale yellow color, a strong characteristic odor, and the 
following constants: d 20°/20° =09085; a D — 4 52' in a 1 
dcm. tube. The amount of this essential oil was 3-5 grammes, cor- 
responding to 0-018 per cent, of the weight of the drug. 

Examination of the Aqueous Liquid (A). 

The aqueous liquid remaining in the steam distillation flask was 
separated from the previously mentioned soft resin, and, together 
with the washings from the latter, evaporated to a small volume. 
It then formed a very dark, syrupy liquid, which, on standing, de- 
posited a quantity of crystals amounting to about 40 grammes. 
These were separated, and washed with a little alcohol, when on 
further examination they were found to be entirely inorganic, and to 
consist of a mixture of potassium chloride and nitrate. 

The syrupy liquid was subsequently diluted with water, and 
treated with a slight excess of solution of basic lead acetate, when 
an abundant, deep yellow precipitate was produced. This was col- 
lected on a filter and washed with water, the washings being added 
to the filtrate. 

Basic Lead Acetate Precipitate. — This was suspended in water, 
decomposed with hydrogen sulphide, and the lead sulphide removed 
by filtration. The filtrate had an orange-yellow color and gave a 
greenish-brown coloration with ferric chloride, indicating the pres- 
ence of a small amount of tannic matter. When concentrated, it 
formed a dark brown syrup. As the latter deposited nothing of a 
crystalline character on standing, it was extracted with ether, and 
the ethereal liquid shaken with successive portions of a solution of 
sodium carbonate. The first two extractions with alkali were of a 
red color, and, when diluted, showed a blue fluorescence, whereas 
the subsequent extractions were colorless. The alkaline liquids 
were then acidified and extracted with ether, but only a trace of an 
amorphous, reddish substance was obtained. The original ethereal 
liquid which had been shaken with alkali was dried and the ether 
removed, but it gave practically no residue. 

256 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

Filtrate from the Basic Lead Acetate Precipitate. — This was treated 
with hydrogen sulphide for the removal of the lead, the mixture 
filtered, and the filtrate concentrated under diminished pressure to 
the consistency of a thick syrup. The latter, on cooling, deposited 
a further quantity of the above mentioned mixture of potassium 
chloride and nitrate. The syrupy liquid, amounting to about 250 
grammes, only reduced Fehling's solution very slowly on heating, 
and no osazone could be obtained directly from it. It was therefore 
mixed with pnrified sawdust, the mixture thoroughly dried in a 
vacuum, and extracted successively in a Soxhlet apparatus with 
ethyl acetate, absolute alcohol, and water. The amounts removed 
by these solvents were about 20, 190 and 40 grammes, respectively- 
Both the ethyl acetate and alcohol extracts were uncrystallizable 
syrups, and only reduced Fehling's solution after heating with a dilute 
mineral acid. They then afforded crystalline osazones, melting at 
2 1 3—214 C, thus indicating that by the treatment with acid hydrol- 
ysis had ensued with the production of glucose. In both cases 
during the hydrolysis a peculiar, fragrant odor was developed, and 
on distilling the liquid the aromatic substance was found to be vola- 
tile in steam, but it was only small in amount, and did not afford a 
reaction for furfural or other aldehydes. The final aqueous extract 
formed a thick syrup, which, in distinction from the above-mentioned 
ethyl acetate and alcohol extracts, reduced Fehling's solution directly 
on heating, although slowly. After hydrolysis, however, the reduc- 
tion was effected immediately, and it then afforded ^/-phenylglucosa- 
zone, melting at 2io-2ii°C. With the exception, therefore, of 
the previously mentioned inorganic salts, nothing of a crystalline 
character could be isolated from the original aqueous liquid. 

Examination of the Resin (B). 
For the purpose of completely examining the resinous material 
the previously mentioned, soft, dark- colored mass was thoroughly 
mixed with prepared sawdust, the mixture dried, and extracted 
successively in a Soxhlet apparatus with the following solvents : 
(I) Petroleum (b. p. 40-60 C), (II) Ether, (III) Chloroform, (IV) 
Ethyl acetate, (V) Alcohol. 

I. Petroleum Extract of the Resin. 
This was a soft, thick extract, possessing a deep green color. It 
was hydrolyzed by heating with an alcoholic solution of an excess 

Am ju O n U e r ,'i908 arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 257 

of potassium hydroxide, the alcohol then removed, and the residual 
thick, green liquid poured into a large volume of water. The 
strongly alkaline liquid was extracted six times with ether, the com- 
bined ethereal solutions washed with water, dried with calcium 
chloride, and the ether removed, when a dark-colored liquid was 
obtained which, on cooling, solidified to a crystalline mass. This 
was dissolved in alcohol, the solution heated with animal charcoal, 
and filtered, when, on cooling, a quantity of a solid substance sepa- 
rated, which was collected on a filter and spread on a porous plate. 
After being again subjected to the same process of purification, it 
was finally distilled under a pressure of 15 m.m , ween it was obtained 
as a white, silky mass. This was crystallized from ethyl acetate, 
from which it separated in small, lustrous leaflets, melting sharply 
at 74-75 C. 

0-0794 gave 0-2480 C0 2 and 01042 H 2 0. = 85-2; H = 14 6 
C 35 H 72 requires = 85-4; H = 14.6 per cent. 

The above described substance was thus identified as pentatria- 

The alcoholic mother-liquors from the first crys tallization of the 
pentatriacontane were concentrated and allowed to stand, when a 
further portion of a solid substance separated. This was collected, 
dried on a porous plate, and subsequently crystallized several times 
from a mixture of ethyl acetate and alcohol containing a little water. 
It was then obtained in colorless laminae, melting at 132-133 C, 
and afforded the color reactions characteristic of the phytosterols. 
On analysis it gave the following results: 

0-1912 of the air-dried substance when heated to 105 C. lost 0-0090. 

H 2 = 4-7 

0-0682 of anhydrous substance gave 0-2094 0O 2 and 0-0722 H 2 

= 837; H = u-8 
C 27 H 46 O, H 2 requires H 2 = 4-5 per cent. 
C^H^O requires C = 83 9 ; H = 1 1-9 per cent. 

This substance was thus identified as a phytosterol. Its optical 
rotatory power was determined with the following result : — 
0-2336 of anhydrous substance, dissolved in 25 c.c. of chloroform, 
gave a D — O- 36 in a 2 dcm. tube, whence [a] D — 32-1°. 

From the character of this phytosterol it would appear probable 

258 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am ju n U e r ,'ifo8 arm ' 

that it is identical with sitosterol (compare Chem. Centralblatt, 1902 , 
Bd. I, p. 743, and 1903, Bd. I, p. 980). 

The strongly alkaline, aqueous liquid resulting from the hydrol- 
ysis of the petroleum extract, and from which the pentatriacontane 
and phytosterol had been extracted by means of ether, was concen- 
trated to a small bulk, acidified with sulphuric acid, and distilled 
with steam. The distillate had an acid reaction, and in the first 
portions some oily drops were observed. It was therefore extracted 
with ether, the ethereal solution being washed with a little water, 
dried with calcium chloride, and the ether removed, when a small 
amount of a pale-yellow, oily acid was obtained. This was neutralized 
with ammonia, and, by fractional precipitation with a solution of 
silver nitrate, several silver salts were prepared, which were washed, 
dried in a vacuum over sulphuric acid, and analyzed. 

(I) 2004 of salt gave on ignition 0728 Ag. Ag = 36-3 
(II) 0.0760 " " " 0-0300 Ag. Ag = 39.5 

(III)ooii2 " " " 0-0046 Ag. Ag = 4i-i 

C 9 H 17 Oo Ag requires Ag = 40-8 per cent. 
C n H 21 6 2 Ag " Ag = 36 9 " - 

The results of these analyses indicate the volatile oily product 
to be a somewhat complex mixture of acids, and no conclusion can 
be drawn respecting the identity of the latter. 

The aqueous distillate, after extraction with ether, still contained 
a small amount of acid which was converted into a barium salt. 
This yielded reactions indicating the presence ,of both formic and 
butyric acids. 

After the removal of the volatile acids by distillation with steam, 
the contents of the distillation flask, when allowed to cool, consisted 
of a yellowish liquid, on the surface of which a quantity of a green 
solid substance had separated. This was removed, dissolved in 
ether, and the ethereal liquid extracted with a solution of sodium 
carbonate. There then remained in the ether but a small quantity 
of substance which, when purified, was obtained in the form of color, 
less crystals, melting at 74-75 C. This evidently consisted of penta- 
triacontane, which had escaped extraction by the treatment of the 
alkaline product of hydrolysis with ether. The sodium carbonate 
extract was acidified, when a green product was precipitated, which 
was treated with light petroleum, a small amount of tarry matter 

Am jfme r 'i908. arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 259 

remaining undissolved. The petroleum solution was warmed with 
a little animal charcoal, filtered, and the solvent removed, when a 
green colored mass was obtained. This was distilled under 15 mm. 
pressure, when it passed over for the most part at 230° C. as a pale 
yellow oil, which solidified on cooling to a nearly white, crystalline 
mass, and amounted to 4 5 grammes. The solid was dissolved in 
hot alcohol, from which, on cooling, the greater portion separated, 
and, after drying, melted at 60-62 C. This portion was converted 
into a lithium salt, and the acid regenerated from the latter obtained 
in two fractions. The first of these melted at 66-68° C, and was 
analyzed with the following result: 

0-0730 gave 0-2036 C0 2 and 0826 H 2 0. C = 76-1 ; H == 126. 

C ls H 36 2 requires C = 76-1 ; H = 127 per cent. 

This substance was evidently stearic acid. 

The second fraction of acid melted at 60-62° C, and was also 

0600 gave 0-1660 C0 2 and 0-0696 H 2 0. C — 75-4; H '= 12-9 
C 16 H 32 2 requires C = 75 ; H = 12-5 per cent, 
C 18 H 36 2 « C =76-1 ; ¥L = 12 7 « « 

The characters of this second fraction indicated it to consist of a 
mixture of palmitic and stearic acid. 

The alcoholic mother-liquor from the crystallization of the above 
mentioned acids was tested for the presence of unsaturated acids by 
treatment with an alcoholic solution of lead acetate, and digesting 
the precipitated lead salt with ether. The portion of salt dissolved 
by the ether was decomposed with hydrochloric acid, when a very 
small amount of an oily acid was obtained. The latter, when dis- 
solved in chloroform, decolorized a solution of bromine in the same 
solvent, thus indicating the presence of some unsaturated acid. 

II. Ether Extract of the Resin. 

This extract was a hard, dark green, brittle resin. 

Fusion with Potassium Hydroxide. — Forty grammes of the resin 
were fused with 240 grammes of potassium hydroxide in a nickel 
basin, the temperature of the mixture being kept for some time at 
200° C, and finally increased to 260° C, when the mass became 
thick and pasty. After being allowed to cool, it was dissolved in 

260 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

water, the liquid acidified with sulphuric acid, and distilled with 
steam. The first portion of the distillate contained a brown-colored 
oil of disagreeable odor floating on the surface. The entire distillate 
was therefore first extracted with ether in order to remove the oily- 
acid, the ethereal liquid being washed, dried, and the solvent re- 
moved. The product thus obtained was distilled under a pressure 
of 50 mm., when it passed over as a dark yellow oil, showing no 
constant boiling-point, and amounted to 1-5 grammes. A portion 
of the acid was converted into the ammonium salt, and from this, 
by fractional precipitation with a solution of silver nitrate, two 
silver salts were prepared, which were analyzed with the following 
results : 

(I) 0-1574 of salt gave on ignition 00616 Ag. Ag = 39-1 

(II) 0-0982 " " « " " 0-0410 Ag. Ag = 417 

C 9 H 17 2 Ag requires Ag = 40-8 per cent. 
C 10 H 19 O 2 Ag « Ag = 387 " " 

It is evident from these results that the oily acids represent a 
mixture of somewhat indefinite composition. 

The aqueous distillate, after extraction with ether, still contained 
some acid, which was converted into a barium salt, of which about 
7 grammes were obtained. This salt afforded reactions indicating 
the presence of formic and butyric acids. After drying at I io° C. 
it was analyzed : 

o 2866 of the dried salt gave o 2580 BaSi 4 . Ba = 52-9. 
(CH0 2 ) 2 Ba requires Ba = 60 4 per cent. 
(C 4 H 7 2 ) 2 Ba " Ba = 44-1 « « 

This salt would thus appear to have consisted of barium formate 
and butyrate in about equal proportions. 

After the removal of the volatile acids by steam, as above de- 
scribed, there remained in the distillation flask a quantity of resin 
and an aqueous liquid, which were separated by filtration. The 
aqueous liquid was extracted with ether, and from this ethereal 
liquid, after the removal of the solvent, a small amount of a dark 
red syrup was obtained. The latter, when dissolved in . water, 
yielded with ferric chloride the characteristic catechol reaction, and, 
after treatment with animal charcoal, deposited a very small amount 
of a substance in the form of small, crystalline plates. This sub- 
stance melted sharply at 103-104 C, was acid to litmus, and gave 

Am june^im arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 261 

no coloration with ferric chloride, but yielded precipitates with solu- 
tions of silver nitrate and lead acetate. It appeared to be identical 
with an acid which was subsequently obtained in larger amount by 
the fusion of the alcohol extract of the resin with potash, and which 
proved to be azelaic acid. The mother-liquor from this acid de- 
posited an exceedingly small amount of a crystalline substance 
which gave the above described coloration with ferric chloride, but 
it could not be obtained in a pure state. 

Treatment with Dilute Alcoholic Sulphuric Acid. — Thirty grammes 
of the resin were dissolved in alcohol, and such an amount of sul- 
phuric acid added, with a little water, that the total liquid contained 
about 5 per cent, of its weight of acid. The liquid was then heated 
in a reflux apparatus on the water-bath for about four hours, after 
which the alcohol was removed, and the residue subjected to distil- 
lation in a current of steam. The distillate, which contained a small 
amount of oil floating on the surface, was extracted with ether, the 
ethereal liquid being first washed with a little water, and then 
shaken with a solution of sodium carbonate in order to remove any 
acids present. After this treatment the ethereal liquid was dried 
with calcium chloride and the ether removed, when a small amount 
of a dark green oil was obtained. This was first distilled under a 
pressure of 10 mm., and then at the ordinary pressure, but as the 
range of temperature at which it passed over was very wide, it was 
evidently a complicated mixture. The amount of neutral oil thus 
obtained was i-8 grammes. It was a pale yellow liquid, having a 
rather agreeable odor. 

The alkaline liquid obtained by extraction of the original oily 
product with sodium carbonate was acidified, and extracted with 
ether, the ethereal liquid being washed, dried with calcium chloride, 
and the solvent removed. A small amount of an oily acid was thus 
obtained, which was converted into an ammonium salt, and from this 
a silver salt was prepared. The latter was washed, dried in a 
vacuum over sulphuric acid, and analyzed. 

o 1288 of salt gave on ignition 0498 Ag. Ag = 38 7 
C 10 H ]9 O 2 Ag requires Ag = 387 per cent. 

The figures obtained by this analysis are seen to be in exact 
agreement with those required for the silver salt of a decylic acid, 
although it is probable that the acid was a mixture. 

262 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { ^ m jun U e r ."i908 arm * 

The aqueous distillate which had been extracted with ether still 
contained a small amount of acid, which was converted into a barium 
salt, and this yielded reactions indicating the presence of formic 
and butyric acids. 

After the removal of the volatile products of hydrolysis by dis- 
tillation with steam there remained in the distillation flask a quantity 
of greenish-black resin and a dark- colored, aqueous liquid, which 
were separated by filtration. From the resinous substance nothing 
of a crystalline nature could be obtained. The acid, aqueous liquid 
was first extracted with ether, which removed only a very small 
quantity of a syrupy substance, and the sulphuric acid then removed 
by means of baryta. After filtration the liquid was concentrated, 
when about 3 grammes of a syrup were obtained which instantly re- 
duced Fehling's solution on heating, and when treated with phenyl- 
hydrazine acetate yielded af-phenylglucosazone, thus indicating the 
presence of glucose. This syrupy liquid also contained a small 
amount of a readily soluble organic acid. 

III. Chloroform Extract of the Resin. 

This extract formed a brown mass, which could readily be pow- 
dered. Its solution in chloroform was first repeatedly extracted 
with a solution of sodium carbonate, but this removed only a very 
small amount of an amorphous, acidic substance. 

Fusion with Potassium Hydroxide. — Twenty grammes of the resin 
were fused with 120 grammes of potassium hydroxide, the operation 
being conducted in the same manner as has been described in con. 
nection with the ether extract. The cooled mass, when dissolved 
in water, acidified with sulphuric acid, and distilled with steam, yielded 
a small amount of oily acid. This was extracted with ether, con- 
verted into an ammonium salt, and from the latter three fractions of 
silver salt were prepared and analyzed : 

(I) 0-1364 of salt gave on ignition 00516 Ag. Ag = 37-8 
(11)0 0644 " " % \ 00260 Ag. Ag = 40-4 

(III)o-0494 " " " 0206 Ag. Ag = 417 

C 9 H 17 2 Ag requires Ag = 40 7 per cent. 
C u H 21 2 Ag << Ag = 36 9 per cent. 

The volatile acids remaining in the distillate after extraction with 
ether were neutralized with baryta, when about 2 grammes of a 

^ m jSnef i908. arilJ " } Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 263 

barium salt were obtained. This afforded reactions indicating the 
presence of formic and butyric acids, and, after drying at 1 io° C, was 
analyzed with the following result : 

0-4848 of the dried salt gave 0-4420 BaS0 4 . Ba ^= 537 

(CH0 2 ) 2 Ba requires Ba = 60-4 per cent. 

(C 4 H.0 2 ) 2 Ba " Ba = 44-1 per cent. 

This salt would thus appear to have consisted of barium formate 
and butyrate in approximately equal proportions. 

The liquid contained in the distillation flask was separated from 
a quantity of resin and extracted with ether, which removed a very 
small quantity of substance in the form of a syrup. This gave with 
ferric chloride the catehol reaction, but nothing of a crystalline 
nature could be obtained from it. 

Treatment with Dilute Alcoholic Sulphuric Acid. — Twenty grammes 
of the resin were dissolved in alcohol, and such an amount of sulph- 
uric acid added with a little water, that the total liquid contained 
about 5 per cent, of its weight of acid. After heating for about 
four hours in a reflux apparatus, the alcohol was removed and the 
residue distilled with steam. The distillate, which contained some 
oily drops, was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid shaken with 
a solution of sodium carbonate, and the alkaline liquid separated. 
After the removal of the ether a very small amount (0-5 gramme) 
of a pale yellow, neutral oil was obtained, which was very similar in 
character to that described in connection with the ether extract of 
the resin. The acid extracted from the ethereal solution of the 
original oily liquid by means of sodium carbonate was converted 
into an ammonium salt, from which two fractions of silver salt were 
prepared and analyzed. 

(I) 0-0352 of salt gave on ignition 0132 Ag. Ag = 37 5 

(II) 0-0324" " " " " 0-0134 Ag. Ag = 41-4 

C 9 H 17 2 Ag requires Ag = 40-7 per cent. 
C n H 21 2 Ag « Ag = 36-9 <i « 

The acids remaining in the aqueous distillate after extraction with 
ether were converted into a barium salt, of which about I gramme was 
obtained. This gave reactions indicating the presence of formic and 
butyric acids. 

After the removal of the above described volatile products by 
distillation with steam, there remained in the distillation flask a 

264 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am jine?i908 arm * 

quantity of resinous substance and an aqueous liquid. The latter, 
alter the removal of the sulphuric acid, yielded about 1*5 grammes 
of a syrup in which, by the formation of ^.phenylglucosazone, 
the presence of glucose was determined. This syrupy liquid also 
contained a small amount of a readily soluble organic acid. 

From these results it will be seen that the chloroform extract of 
the resin, by treatment with dilute sulphuric acid, yielded products 
very similar in character to those obtained from the ether extract. 

IV. Ethyl Acetate Extract of the Resin. 

This extract, as originally obtained, was allowed to stand for some 
time without removing the solvent, when it deposited a considerable 
quantity of a brown, viscid resin, together with a small amount of 
a slightly colored, flocculent substance. The ethyl acetate liquid 
was decanted from these products, which were then treated with 
alcohol, when most of the flocculent substance remained undissolved, 
and was separated by filtration. The alcoholic filtrate, after being 
boiled with animal charcoal and again filtered, was concentrated to 
a small bulk, when a little more of the flocculent substance was 
obtained. The ethyl acetate liquid, which had been decanted from 
the above-mentioned products, was concentrated, when a further small 
amount of the flocculent substance separated, and was removed by 
filtration. This filtrate was finally mixed with the alcoholic solution 
of the viscid resin and the solvents removed, the residual product 
thus representing the total resin extracted by ethyl acetate, deprived 
so far as possible of the small amount of light colored, flocculent 

Isolation of a New Dihydric Alcohol, Ipuranol, C^HggO^OH)^ 

The several portions of flocculent solid described above were 
mixed, dissolved in alcohol, and the solution boiled with animal 
charcoal. After filtering, and concentrating the liquid, the substance 
separated in a perfectly white condition. The amount obtained was 
only about 2 gramme. When heated on platinum-foil it first charred, 
and then burned with a smoky flame, leaving finally no residue. It 
was very sparingly soluble in alcohol or ethyl acetate, and quite 
insoluble in water, even when hot. Its alcoholic solution was neutral 
to litmus. The substance was not decomposed by dilute acids or 
alkalis, even on boiling. It was found to be freely soluble in pyri- 

Am jJne, r i£8. arm ' } Chemical Examination of Ipomce a Purpurea. 265 

dine, and was therefore dissolved in a hot, aqueous solution of this 
solvent, from which, on cooling, it separated in its original form. 
After drying, it was finally dissolved in hot alcohol, and the pure 
white substance which separated on cooling then melted at 285-290 
C, and was analyzed : 

0-0708 gave 0-1884 C0 2 and 0-0676 H 2 0. C = 72-6 ; H = io-6 
C 23 H 40 O 4 requires C = 72 6; H = 10*5 per cent. 

From the remaining portion of the substance an acetyl derivative 
was prepared. The latter, when crystallized from acetic anhydride, 
was obtained in pearly leaflets, melting sharply at 160 C, but the 
amount was too small for analysis. 

A substance possessing the same empirical formula as that of the 
above-described compound, namely, C 23 H 40 O 4 , and having the same 
properties, has recently been isolated in these laboratories from olive 
bark, and has proved to be a new dihydric alcohol. As the acetyl 
derivatives of these two preparations have the same melting point, 
which is not altered when they are mixed, it is evident that the two 
alcohols are identical. It has thus been possible to establish the 
correctness of the formula assigned to the above-described substance, 
and, in view of its being a new alcohol, it is proposed to designate 
it ipuranol. 

The resinous portion of the ethyl acetate extract was finally ob- 
tained in the form of a yellowish-brown powder. This was subjected 
to the same treatment as has been described in connection with the 
ether and chloroform extracts of the resin. 

Fusion with Potassium Hydroxide.- — Thirty grammes of the resin 
were fused with 160 grammes of potassium hydroxide, the operation 
being conducted in the same manner as has been described in con- 
nection with the ether extract. The cooled mass, which was very 
light in color, was dissolved in water, the solution acidified with 
sulphuric acid, and distilled with steam. The distillate, which con- 
tained some dark brown, oily drops, was extracted with ether, the 
ethereal solution being washed, dried with calcium chloride, and the 
ether removed. A dark brown, oily liquid was thus obtained, which 
amounted to 1-5 grammes. This was distilled under a pressure of 
40 mm., when it passed over within a wide range of temperature as 
a light brown oil which darkened in color on standing. A portion 

266 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am juTe?i908 arm ' 

of this oily acid was converted into an ammonium salt, from which 
two fractions of silver salt were prepared and analyzed : 

(I) 0-1302 of salt gave on ignition 0-0490 Ag. Ag = 37 6 

(II) 0-1156" " " " " 0-0484 Ag. Ag = 419 

C 8 H 15 2 Ag requires Ag = 43-0 per cent. 
C 10 H 19 O 2 Ag " Ag = 38-7 << « 

The acids remaining in the aqueous distillate after extraction with 
ether were converted into a barium salt, of which about 8 grammes 
were obtained. This afforded reactions which established the pres- 
ence of formic and butyric acids. After drying at HO C, it was 
analyzed with the following result : 

0-5934 of the dried salt gave 0-5242 BaS0 4 . Ba = 52 
(CH0 2 ) 2 Ba requires Ba = 60-4 per cent. 
(C 4 H 7 2 )2 Ba " Ba = 44-i " « 

This salt would thus appear to have consisted of barium formate 
and butyrate in about equal proportions. 

The liquid remaining in the distillation flask after the removal ot 
the volatile acids with steam was separated by filtration from the 
resin and extracted with ether, but this yielded only a very small 
amount of an amorphous substance which gave a green coloration 
with ferric chloride. 

Treatment zvith Dilute Alcoholic Sulphuric Acid. — Thirty grammes 
of the resin were dissolved in alcohol, and such an amount of sulphuric 
acid added, with a little water, that the total liquid contained about 
5 per cent, of its weight of acid. After heating for about four hours 
in a reflux apparatus the alcohol was removed, and the residue dis- 
tilled witrrsteam. The distillate, which contained some oily drops, 
was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid shaken with a solution 
of sodium carbonate, and the alkaline liquid separated. After the 
removal of the ether a small amount (0-7 gramme) of an aromatic, 
neutral oil was obtained, which was very similar in character to that 
produced under the same conditions from the ether and chloroform 
extracts of the resin. This oil was distilled under a pressure of 40 
mm., when it passed over up to a temperature of 170 C. The acid 
extracted from the original oily liquid by means of sodium carbonate 
was obtained as a yellow oil which was converted into an ammo- 
nium salt, and from the latter three fractions of silver salt were pre- 
pared and analyzed. 

Am 'ju°ne,'i908 arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 267 

(I) 0-1300 of salt gave on ignition 0-05 14 Ag. Agrr=39/5 
(11)0 0974 " " " 0-0416 Ag. Ag = 42-7 

(111)0 0464 " " " 0-0198 Ag. Ag = 427 

C 8 H 15 2 Ag requires Ag = 43-0 per cent. 
C 10 H 19 O 2 Ag « Ag = 387 per cent. 

The acids remaining in the aqueous distillate after extraction with 
ether were converted into a barium salt. This was at first syrupy, 
but soon solidified almost completely, and amounted to about two 
grammes. It afforded reactions, indicating the presence of formic and 
butyric acids. The salt was first brought on to a porous tile to 
deprive it of a little mother-liquor, then recrystallized three times 
from water, and, after being heated to 1 io° C. until of constant 
weight, was analyzed. 

0-4028 of the dried salt gave 03574 BaS0 4 . Ba — 52-2 
(CH0 2 ) 2 Ba requires Ba = 60-4 per cent. 
(C 4 H 7 2 ) 2 Ba " Ba == 44- 1 per cent. 

This salt thus appears to have consisted of barium formate and 
butyrate in about equal proportions. From the above results it is 
also seen that the volatile acids formed by the treatment of the resin 
with dilute sulphuric acid are very similar in character to those pro- 
duced by its fusion with potassium hydroxide. 

The dark yellow, aqueous liquid remaining in the distillation 
flask was filtered from the resin and extracted with ether, the ethe- 
real liquid being dried with calcium chloride and the ether removed. 
A very small quantity of an acid, oily liquid was thus obtained, 
which gave a brown coloration with ferric chloride. The aqueous 
liquid which had been extracted with ether, was treated with baryta 
for the removal of the sulphuric acid, filtered, and the filtrate con- 
centrated, when a small amount of a syrupy liquid was obtained, 
which immediately reduced Fehling's solution on heating, and yielded 
^-phenylglucosazone, thus indicating the presence of glucose. This 
syrupy liquid also contained a readily soluble organic acid. 

The resin which was separated from the acid liquid after distilla- 
tion with steam, as above described, was dried, dissolved in alcohol, 
and mixed with purified sawdust. The thoroughly dried mixture 
was then extracted successively in a Soxhlet apparatus with light 
petroleum and ether, but only relatively small amounts of resinous 
products of an acidic nature were thus obtained. 

268 Chemical Examination of Ipomosa Purpurea. { Am jine?i908? rm * 

V. Alcohol Extract of the Resin. 

This constituted by far the largest proportion of the total resin, 
and, when dry, could readily be reduced to a very light brown, mo- 
bile powder. 

In order to insure the freedom of this resin from substances sol- 
uble in water, it was dissolved in alcohol and reprecipitated by the 
addition of water. Its further purification was effected by heating 
the alcoholic solution with a little pure animal charcoal. After fil- 
tering the liquid and removing the solvent a very light colored prod- 
uct was obtained, which, when dry, could be reduced to a perfectly 
white powder. 

The resin, purified as above described, after being dried at 1 10° C. 
was found to soften at 140 C, and to melt somewhat indefinitely 
between 150 and 160 C. When heated on platinum-foil it fuses, 
chars, and burns with a smoky flame, leaving finally no visible resi- 
due. With cold,, concentrated sulphuric acid it gives only a light 
brown color, whereas with nitric acid no coloration is produced. 

The optical rotatory power of this purified resin was determined 
in the same manner as has been described in connection with the 
crude resin. An alcoholic solution containing 1 3070 gramme of the 
resin in 25 c.c. had an initial rotation of — 27° in a I dcm. tube, 
whence [a] D — 51-64°. 

With the endeavor to ascertain whether this resin is homogeneous 
in character, 10 grammes of it were dissolved in 100 c.c. of alcohol, 
and to this solution was added an alcoholic solution of lead acetate. 
As no precipitate was produced, an alcoholic solution of ammonia 
was subsequently added in slight excess, when an abundant precipi- 
tate was obtained. This precipitate was collected, well washed with 
alcohol, then suspended in alcohol, and decomposed by hydrogen 
sulphide. After the removal of the lead sulphide by filtration, the 
liquid was concentrated to a small bulk, and ether added to precipi- 
tate the resin, which was subsequently dissolved in a little alcohol, 
the solution evaporated, and the residue dried. The weight of the 
resin which had thus been precipitated by the basic lead acetate 
was 6 grammes. The alcoholic filtrate from the basic lead acetate 
precipitate was deprived of lead by means of hydrogen sulphide, 
and, after filtration, concentrated to the consistency of a syrup. On 
the subsequent addition of ether a quantity of resin was precipitated, 

Arn jine?i903 arm *} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 269 

which, when collected and dried, was found to weigh 3 grammes. 
This resin, when again dissolved in alcohol and treated with basic 
lead acetate as before, yielded a further small quantity of a precipi. 
tate from which, after treatment with hydrogen sulphide, about 1 
gramme of dry resin was obtained. The filtrate from this second 
precipitation, after removal of the lead, yielded finally 2 grammes 
of resin, the alcoholic solution of which was no longer precipitated 
by basic lead acetate. 

The result of the above experiment would appear to indicate that 
the alcohol extract of the resin, notwithstanding the various 
methods of purification- to which it had been subjected, was still not 
a homogeneous or individual substance. 

Destructive Distillation of the Resin under Diminished Pressure. — It 
was thought of some interest to ascertain the character of the prod- 
ucts afforded by the dry distillation of the purified alcohol extract 
of the resin, especially when this operation was conducted under 
greatly diminished pressure. For the purpose of this experiment 
10 grammes of the dry resin were brought into a small distillation 
flask, which was connected with a receiver, and the apparatus evac- 
uated to a pressure of 20 mm. On heating gently, the resin first 
melted, then fumes were evolved, and, on gradually increasing the 
temperature, a viscid red liquid passed over, until finally, at 280 
C./20 mm., the distillation was stopped. The amount of this 
liquid was 2 grammes, or one-fifth of the weight of resin employed, 
the remainder having been chiefly converted into a brittle, black 
mass. The distillate was almost entirely soluble in ether, and on 
shaking the ethereal liquid with a solution of sodium carbonate the 
greater portion of the dissolved substance was removed, thus indi- 
cating it to be of an acidic nature, while a further small amount 
was removed by subsequent extraction with a solution of sodium 
hydroxide, a little finally remaining in the ethereal liquid. The 
amount of these products was not sufficient for their further exam- 
ination, and they did not appear to be of sufficient interest to justify 
the use of larger quantities of the resin in this manner. It may be 
noted in this connection that Klimenko and Bandalin 1 have recorded 
an experiment in which they subjected 600 grammes of "jalapin" 
to dry distillation, and obtained therefrom 285 grammes of a viscid, 

1 Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Ges., 1893, 26, IV, 591. 

270 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

reddish-brown liquid. By the fractional distillation of this product 
they established the presence of acetic, tiglic, and palmitic acids. 
As, however, there is no indication that the resin employed by them 
had been freed from substances soluble in petroleum, it is probable 
that the palmitic acid pre-existed, and was not produced by the 
destructive distillation. 

Fusion with Potassium Hydroxide. — Twenty grammes of the resin 
were fused with 120 grammes of potassium hydroxide in the 
manner described in connection with the ether extract of the resin. 
The reaction was particularly vigorous between 220 and 230 C, 
the temperature of the mass having been finally raised to 250 C. 
After allowing the mass to cool, it was dissolved in water, the solu- 
tion acidified with sulphuric acid, and then subjected to distillation 
with steam. The distillate, which contained some oily drops, was 
extracted with ether, the ethereal solution being washed with water, 
dried with calcium chloride, and the ether removed, when about 
2 grammes of oily acid were obtained. This was distilled under 
30 mm. pressure, and the distillate collected in the following three 
fractions: (1) below no°; (2) no-120 ; (3) above 120 C./30 
mm. The fractions (1) and (2) were analzyed. 

Fraction below no C./30 mm. 
00996 gave 0-2074 CO, and 0.0874 H 2 0. C = 56-8; H == 97 

Fraction uo-120 C. / 30 mm. 
0-1290 gave 0-2746 C0 2 and o-i 120 H 2 0. C = 58-1 ; H = 9 6 
C 4 H 8 2 requires C = 54-5 ; H = 9-1 per cent. 
C 5 H ie 2 « C = 58 8 ; H = 9-8 " « 

From these results it may be concluded that the above two frac- 
tions consisted chiefly of mixtures of butyric and valeric acids. 

Fraction above 120 C./jo mm. 

From this fraction a silver salt was prepared, which, after being 
well washed with water and dried in a vacuum, was analyzed. 
0-1834 of salt gave on ignition 0-0790 Ag. Ag. = 43-1 
01874 " " " 0-0806 Ag. Ag. = 43-0 

C 8 H 15 2 Ag requires Ag = 43-0 per cent. 

Although the results of these analyses are in agreement with the 
figures required for silver octoate, it is not probable that the frac- 
tion consisted of a pure substance. 

Am 'june?i908 arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomoea Purpurea. 271 

The acids remaining in the aqueous distillate after extraction with 
ether were converted into a barium salt, of which 13 5 grammes 
were obtained. This salt afforded reactions which established the 
presence of formic and butyric acids. After drying at no° C. it 
was analyzed with the' following result: 

o 5178 of the dried salt gave 04532 BaS0 4 . Ba = 5 -1-5. 
(CH0 2 ) 2 Ba requires Ba = 60 4 per cent. 
(C 4 H 7 2 ) 2 Ba « Ba = 441 " « 

From these results it may be inferred that this salt consisted of 
barium formate and butyrate in nearly equal proportions. 

The liquid remaining in the distillation flask after the removal 
of the volatile acids by steam was very light in color, and contained 
practically no resin. It was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid 
being washed, dried with calcium chloride, and the ether removed, 
when a small amount of an oily liquid was obtained, which, on cool- 
ing, solidified to a crystalline mass. The substance was acid to 
litmus, and also soluble in a solution of sodium carbonate. It was 
recrystallized from water, from which it separated in small, colorless 
plates, melting at 103-104 C. On analysis it gave the following 
result : 

0-0956 gave 0-2020 C0 2 and 0-0754 H 2 0. C = 57-6; H = 8.8 
C 9 H 16 4 requires C = 574; H = 8 5 per cent. 

A silver salt of the acid was also prepared and analyzed : 

0-0268 of salt gave on ignition 0*0144 Ag. Ag = 53-7 
C 9 H 14 4 Ag 2 requires Ag = 53 7 per cent, 

It is evident from these results that the above-described substance 
is a dicarboxylic acid, corresponding in its composition and proper- 
ties to azelaic acid. 

Treatment with Dilute Alcoholic Sulphuric Acid. — Forty grammes 
of the resin were dissolved in alcohol, and such an amount of sul- 
phuric acid added, with a little water, that the total liquid contained 
about 5 per cent, of its weight of acid. The liquid was then heated 
on a water-bath in a reflux apparatus for four hours, after which the 
alcohol was removed, and the residue subjected to distillation with 
steam. The distillate was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid 
being shaken with a solution of sodium carbonate, then washed with 
water, dried with calcium chloride, and the ether removed. A very 

272 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am jt°e^908 arm 

small quantity (0-5 gramme) of a neutral, oily liquid was thus ob- 
tained, which was more viscid than the corresponding products 
from the previously-described extracts of the resin. The sodium 
carbonate liquid was acidified and extracted with ether, when a very 
small amount of an oily acid was obtained, from which a silver salt 
was prepared and analyzed : 

0-1208 of salt gave on ignition 0-0600 Ag. Ag = 497 

C 5 H 9 2 Ag requires Ag = 517 per cent. 

C«H u 2 Ag « Ag = 4 8' 4 " " 

The acids remaining in the aqueous distillate after extraction with 
ether were converted into a barium salt, of which 18 grammes were 
obtained. This salt afforded reactions which established the pres- 
ence of formic and butyric acids. After drying at no° C. it was 
analyzed with the following results : 

0-5588 of the dried salt gave 0-3898 BaS0 4 . Ba = 41-0 
8000 " " " " " 0-5584 BaS0 4 . Ba = 41 o 

As this salt contained a considerably lower percentage of barium 
than that required for barium butyrate (44-1 per cent. Ba), it must 
also have contained some acid of higher molecular weight. 

After the removal of the above-described volatile products by 
distillation with steam, and allowing the contents of the distillation 
flask to cool, it was observed that a small quantity of a white solid 
had separated, and that the resinous matter, which formed a solid 
cake floating on the surface of the liquid, was very much smaller in 
amount than in the case of the corresponding products from the 
previously-described extracts. The white solid substance was sepa- 
rated, dried on a porous plate, and crystallized from hot water, from 
which it separated in fine, long, interlaced needles, melting at 
100-102° C. This substance was evidently identical with a new acid, 
C 14 H 28 4 , which was subsequently isolated from the above-mentioned 
cake of resinous matter, and will presently be described. 

The acid filtrate from the white solid substance and resinous 
matter was extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid being shaken 
with a solution of sodium carbonate, then washed with water, dried, 
and the ether removed. Only a trace of a neutral oily liquid was 
thus obtained, which gave no coloration with ferric chloride. The 
sodium carbonate liquid, which had a dark red color, was acidified 
and extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid being dried and the 

Am ju°nTi?08 arm *} Chemical Examination of Ipomoea Purpurea. 273 

ether removed. A small amount of a dark red oil was thus obtained 
which, on standing for some time, became solid. This solid sub- 
stance was dried on a porous plate and crystallized from hot water, 
when it separated in fine, long needles, melting at 100-101 C. It 
consisted of a further small amount of the new acid which is de- 
scribed below. 

The above-mentioned acid filtrate, which had been extracted witn 
ether, was treated with baryta for the removal of the sulphuric acid, 
and the filtrate evaporated under diminished pressure to the con- 
sistency of a thick syrup, the amount of which was 18 grammes. 
This syrup readily reduced Fehling's solution on heating, and yielded 
^-phenylglucosazone, melting at 215 C, thus indicating the pres- 
ence of glucose. It also contained a readily soluble organic acid, 
which could not be separated from the sugar. 

Isolation of a New Dihydroxymonocarboxylic Acid, Ipurolic Acid, 
C 13 H 25 (OH) 2 • C0 2 H. 

The cake of brown resinous matter obtained by the treatment of 
the alcohol extract of the resin with dilute sulphuric acid, as above 
described, was dried on a porous plate, then dissolved in alcohol, 
the solution mixed with purified sawdust, and the mixture, after 
being thoroughly dried, extracted successively in a Soxhlet apparatus 
with light petroleum and ether, after which nothing, remained on 
the sawdust. The petroleum removed about 2 grammes of an oily 
substance which was soluble in a solution of sodium carbonate and 
the fixed alkalis, and on acidifying these solutions it separated in its 
original form. On boiling this oily product repeatedly with large 
volumes of water, filtering the liquids while hot, and allowing them 
to cool slowly, a small amount of a colorless, crystalline substance 
was deposited. This melted at 68° C, and was apparently identical 
with a hydroxylauric acid, which was subsequently obtained in 
larger quantity, as will presently be described. 

The subsequent extraction of the brown resinous matter with 
ether yielded about 5 grammes of a viscid liquid, which solidified on 
cooling. This solid substance was dissolved in a dilute solution of 
sodium hydroxide, when, after standing for some time, a product 
separated which appeared to be crystalline. The solution was there- 
fore diluted with water, heated with a little animal charcoal, filtered, 
and concentrated, when, on cooling, the whole solidified to a crys- 

274 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am 'j , un U e r "i908 arm ' 

talline mass. By recrystallizing this salt four times from water it 
was obtained perfectly white, and then melted at 185-190 C* 
From the sodium compound the acid was liberated by means of 
acetic acid. On heating the acidified liquid the solid acid melted, 
then dissolved, and, on allowing the solution to cool, it separated in 
long, thin, interlaced needles which melted at 100-101 C. It can 
also readily be purified by crystallization from warm chloroform. 
On heating the acid at 100-105 C. there was no loss of weight, 
and it is therefore anhydrous. When dissolved in absolute alcohol 
it was found to be devoid of optical activity. It was analyzed with 
the following result : 

00686 gave 0-1618 C0 2 and 0-0674 H 2 0. = 64-3; H = 10*9 
C 14 H 28 4 requires C = 64-6 ; H = io-8 per cent. 

The sodium salt gave, on analysis, the following results : 

0*2212 of the air-dried salt, on heating at 1 10° C, lost 0*0106 H 2 0. 

H 2 = 4-8 

0-2 106 of the anhydrous salt gave, on ignition, 0-0400 Na 2 0O 3 . 

Na = 8-2 

14 H 27 O 4 Na, H 2 requires H 2 = 6 per cent. 
C 14 H 27 4 Na requires Na — 8-2 per cent. 

The somewhat low percentage of water found in this salt indicates 
that some efflorescence had occurred. 

From the sodium salt a silver salt was prepared, which also was 
crystalline, and melted at 160 C. Oa. analysis it gave the follow- 
ing results : 

0-1430 gave 0-2382 COo, 0-0940 H 2 0, and 0428 Ag. 
C=45'4I H = 7-3; Ag = 29-9 
0-1304 gave on ignition 00390 Ag. Ag — 29-9 
C 14 H 27 4 Ag requires C = 45-8; H — 7-4 ; Ag — 29-4 per cent. 

A copper salt was likewise prepared from the sodium salt by pre- 
cipitation with a solution of copper sulphate. This was obtained 
in the form of a pale blue, amorphous powder, but on analysis was 
found to be highly basic and ot indefinite composition. 

The preceding results prove that the above described substance 
is a monocarboxylic acid, having the empirical formula, C 14 H 28 4 . 
As it is not identical with any acid hitherto described, it is proposed 
to designate it ipurolic acid. 

Am ju'ne?i908? rm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 275 

In order to ascertain whether ipurolic acid could be distilled, a 
small quantity (5 grammes) of it was heated in a distillation flask 
under a pressure of 15 mm. During the operation witer was elimin- 
ated, and between 240 and 250 C. the greater portion passed over as 
a viscid yellow oil, the temperature being finally increased to 280 C. 
at 15 mm. As the oily product did not solidify, it was dissolved 
in ether, and the ethereal liquid extracted with a solution of sodium 
carbonate. On subsequently removing the ether about 0-5 gramme 
of a non-acidic substance was obtained, whereas the sodium carbon- 
ate had extracted about 4 grammes of acidic substance. Both these 
products were unsaturated, but their analysis and the determina- 
tion of their iodine values showed them to be complex mixtures 
which did not permit of further examination. 

Methyl Ipurolate, C 13 H 25 (OH) 2 . C0 2 CH 3 . 

Five grammes of ipurolic acid were dissolved in hot methyl alco- 
hol, and dry hydrogen chloride passed into the solution until it was 
saturated. The solution was then poured into water, when the ester 
separated as a white precipitate, and was extracted by means of 
ether. The ethereal liquid was washed, first with a solution of 
sodium carbonate to remove any unchanged acid, and then with 
water, after which it was dried with calcium chloride, and the ether 
removed. A crystalline mass was thus obtained, which was 
recrystallized from dilute methyl alcohol, when the ester separated in 
the form of fine needles, melting sharply at 68-69 C. On analysis 
it gave the following result : 

0-1042 gave 0-2500 C0 2 and 0-1038 H 2 0. G-= 65-4 ; H = n 1. 
C 15 H 30 O 4 requires C = 657 ; H = 10-9 per cent. 

For the purpose of ascertaining the presence of hydroxyl groups 
in ipurolic acid, an attempt was made to prepare its acetyl and ben- 
zoyl derivatives. The products, however, could only be obtained 
in the form of thick syrups, which were not suitable for analysis. 

Di-phenylurethane of Methyl Ipurolate, C 13 H 25 (O-CONH C 6 H 5 ) 2 C0 2 
CH 3 . — Two grammes of methyl ipurolate were heated with an excess 
of phenyl w^cyanate in a sealed tube in a water-bath for about eight 
hours. After being allowed to cool, the product was shaken 
with light petroleum, when a solid was precipitated. This was dis- 
solved in a small quantity of ether and cooled to — io° C, when a 

276 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am june?i5» arm 

product separated, which was removed and found to be the 
unchanged ester. The ad iition of light petroleum to the filtrate 
caused the separation of a substance which melted at 95-96 C. 
This was dissolved in ether, and such an amount of light petroleum 
added that the solid separated slowly. By this means it was 
obtained in the form of small rosettes, which melted at 96-97 C, 
and after two recrystallizations the melting point remained 
unchanged. The compound was then analyzed with the following 
results : 

(I.) o- 1 100 gave 0-2572 C0 2 and 00798 H 2 0. C = 68-2 ; H — 8-1. 
(II.) 00352 gave 0-0882 C0 2 and 00250 H 2 0. C = 68-3 ; H = 7-9- 
0-1562 gave 7*0 c.c. of moist nitrogen at 759 mm. and 19 C. 

N = 5-6. 

Co9H 40 O 6 N 2 requires C = 68-o ; H = 7 8 ; N = 5-5 per cent. 

These results prove conclusively that the above substance was a 
di-p he ny lure thane of methyl ipurolate. Ipurolic acid, therefore, is a 
dihydroxymonocarboxylic acid. 

Methyl Monomethylipurolate , C 13 H 25 (OH) (OCH 3 ) C0 2 CH 3 . — A 
quantity (2 5 grammes) of methyl ipurolate was heated in a sealed 
tube with an excess of methyl iodide and dry silver oxide at 100- 
110 C. for four hours. The product was then filtered, the filter 
with its contents being thoroughly washed with ether. After the 
removal of the ether, a residue was obtained, which, when recrys- 
tallized from light petroleum, separated in small needles melting at 
64-65 C, and this melting point was not changed by further 
crystallization. The substance was then analyzed. 

0848 gave 2066 C0 2 and 0834 H 2 0. C = 66 4 H = 10 9. 
C 16 H 32 4 requires C — 66-7 ; H == H i per cent. 

It is evident that by the above treatment only one of the hydroxyl 
groups in methyl ipurolate had become methylated. 

Hydrolysis of the Alcohol Extract of the Resin, with Barium 


A quantity (200 grammes) of the purified resin was dissolved in 
alcohol (rooo c.c), and a freshly prepared, cold, saturated solution 
of barium hydroxide gradually added until the liquid showed an 
alkaline reaction. The liquid was then kept at a temperature of 
about 35 C, small portions of solution of barium hydroxide being 

Am june?i908 arm * } Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 277 

added from time to time in order to maintain alkalinity. This 
treatment was continued until, on testing a small portion of the 
liquid with water, no precipitate was produced, a condition which 
was never attained in less than twelve hours. The liquid was then 
diluted with a little water, filtered, and the alcohol removed, after 
which it was deprived of the excess of barium by means of carbon 
dioxide and filtering. The barium, which still remained in the fil- 
trate in combination with the acids formed from the resin, was exactly 
precipitated by sulphuric acid, when, after removing the barium 
sulphate, a clear, lemon-yellow liquid was obtained. This liquid 
was subjected to distillation with steam in order to remove any vola- 
tile acids present. The distillate, which contained no oily drops, 
'was extracted with ether. The ethereal liquid was shaken with a 
solution of sodium carbonate, washed with water, dried with calcium 
chloride, and the ether removed, when a very small amount of an 
oily residue was obtained, which possessed a somewhat disagreeable 
odor. The sodium carbonate liquid and washings were then acidi- 
fied and extracted with ether, the ethereal liquid being dried with 
calcium chloride and the ether removed, when 10 grammes of a 
colorless acid were obtained, thus representing 5 per cent, of the 
weight of resin originally employed. This acid was distilled under 
the ordinary pressure, when it passed over almost completely 
between 174 and 176 C. as a colorless liquid, having an odor 
resembling that of valeric acid. On analysis it gave the following 
results : 

01274 gave 2760 C0 2 and o-i 132 H 2 0. C — 59-1 ; H = 9 9 
0-1436 gave 0-3090 C0 2 and o 1240 H 2 C = 58-7; H = 9-6 
0-1428 gave 0-3082 C0 2 and 01256 H,0. 0=589; H = 9 8 
C 5 H 10 O 2 requires C = 58 8 ; H = 9 8 per cent. 

The silver salt of the acid was also prepared and analyzed. 
2240 gave, on ignition, 01 156 Ag. Ag = 51-6. 

C 5 H 9 2 Ag requires Ag = 51-7 per cent. 

The density of the acid was 0-9471 at 16-5° C. It was optically 
active, and a determination of its specific rotatory power gave the 
following result : 

a D in a 25 mm. tube at 16-5° C. = -f 4° 15', whence [«] D -f 17-95°. 

2?$ Chemical Examination of lpomcea Purpurea. { ^ m 'junl'S^ rm ' 

It is evident, therefore, that the above-described liquid consisted 
of the quite pure, optically active valeric acid, ^-methylethylacetic 
acid, CH(CH 3 )(C 2 H 5 ) . C0 2 H, which is recorded 1 as having 

Md + 17*85° 

The aqueous distillate, alter the removal of the methylethylacetic 
acid by extraction with ether, still contained some acid, which was 
converted into a barium salt. This afforded the reactions of both 
formic and butyric acids, although the amount of the former acid 
was relatively small. After drying at 1 io° C. it was analyzed. 

0-3936 of the dried salt gave 2904 BaS0 4 . Ba = 43 4. 

Since barium butyrate requires Ba = 44-1 per cent., it is probable 
that the above-mentioned barium salt also contained valerate. 

After the removal of the volatile acids by distillation with steam, 
there remained in the distillation flask a clear liquid. This was 
extracted with ether, but as nothing was removed by this treatment 
it was concentrated under diminished pressure to the consistency of 
a syrup. It then still remained clear, possessed an orange-yellow 
color and a strongly acid reaction, but did not reduce Fehling's 
solution until after heating with a mineral acid. With the object of 
effecting a purification of the product, which may be termed the 
hydrolyzed resin, it was mixed with prepared sawdust, and the 
thoroughly dried mixture extracted successively in a Soxhiet appa- 
ratus with the same solvents as had been employed for the extrac- 
tion of the original mixture of resins. The results were as follows : 

Petroleum (B. P. 40-60 C.) removed nothing. 

Ether extracted a light yellow syrup (13 grammes), which did not 
become solid. 

Chloroform extracted a dark yellow syrup (4 grammes), which did 

not become solid. 
Ethyl acetate extracted a dark yellow syrup (9-3 grammes), which, 

on drying, formed a hygroscopic, amorphous mass. 
Alcohol removed the remainder of the material (130 grammes), 

which solidified to a clear, brittle mass, and could be reduced to 

a nearly colorless powder. 

All the above products were then subjected to treatment with 
dilute sulphuric acid, in the following manner : — 

1 Ber. d. deutsch. chem. Ges., 1896, 29, 52. 

Am jane'i5T rm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomce a Purpurea. 279 

Ether Extract of the Hydrolyzed Resin. — The entire amount of this 
extract (13 grammes) was brought into a flask provided with a re- 
flux condenser, together with 130 c.c. of 5 per cent, aqueous sul- 
phuric acid, and the mixture boiled for three hours. The liquid, cn 
cooling, remained quite clear, and had a pale yellow color. It was 
distilled with steam, and the distillate extracted with ether, but this 
removed practically nothing. A very small amount of acid was, how- 
ever, contained in the aqueous distillate, and this, after conversion 
into a barium salt, afforded reactions indicating the presence of 
formic and butyric acids. 

The aqueous acid liquid remaining in the distillation flask after 
the removal of the volatile acids with steam, as above described, 
was extracted with ether, and the ethereal liquid shaken with a 
solution of sodium carbonate. After the removal of the ether, a very 
small amount of an oily liquid was obtained. The sodium carbonate 
liquid, when acidified and extracted with ether, yielded a small 
amount of an oily acid, but not sufficient for its further examination. 

The aqueous acid liquid, which had been extracted with ether, 
reduced Fehling's solution on heating. It was treated with baryta for 
the removal of the sulphuric acid, and the filtrate concentrated, when 
it formed a thick syrup which was found to contain the barium salt 
of a readily soluble organic acid. The attempts to obtain this acid 
in a solid state were unsuccessful. 

Chloroform Extract of the Hydrolyzed Resin. — The amount of this 
extract was only 4 grammes. On treatment with dilute sulphuric 
acid it yielded products very similar to those afforded by the ether 
extract of the hydrolyzed resin. Thus in distilling the acid liquid 
with steam, the distillate was found to contain a very small quantity 
of a neutral oil, together with formic and butyric acids, while the 
liquid remaining in the distillation flask reduced Fehling's solution 
on heating, and, after the removal of the sulphuric acid by baryta 
and concentrating, yielded a very small amount of a syrup contain- 
ing the barium salt of a readily soluble organic acid. 

Ethyl Acetate Extract of the Hydrolyzed Resin. — This extract, like 
the preceding ones, was relatively small in amount. The entire 
quantity (9-3 grammes) was heated for about four hours with 100 c.c. 
of 5 per cent, aqueous sulphuric acid. On cooling, the liquid in the 
flask was observed to contain a small amount of a white, flocculent 
substance, together with a small cake of solid matter. It was there- 

280 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { Am J inea9 P o8 arm * 

fore extracted with ether, which removed all the solid material. 
The ethereal liquid, after being shaken with a solution of sodium 
carbonate, was dried with calcium chloride, and the ether removed, 
when a very small, oily residue was obtained, which soon solidified 
in the form of crystalline needles. This substance was practically 
insoluble in water, and was therefore recrystallized from ether, after 
which it melted at 23 3-235 ° C, but the amount was much too small 
for further investigation. 

The sodium carbonate liquid was acidified and extracted with 
ether, when a very small amount of a substance was obtained, which, 
after recrystallization from 50 per cent, alcohol and finally from hot 
water, separated in handsome needles melting at 100-101° C. On 
analysis it gave the following result : 

00346 gave 0820 C0 2 and 0-0338 H 2 0. C = 64 6 ; H = io-8. 
C 14 H 28 4 requires C = 64-6; H = 10 8 per cent. 

This substance was evidently identical with ipurolic acid, which 
has previously been described. 

The acid liquid, from which the above-mentioned substances had 
been extracted by ether, was distilled with steam. The distillate 
contained a small amount of acid, which, after conversion into a 
barium salt, was found to consist of a mixture of formic and butyric 
acids. The liquid remaining in the distillation flask was treated 
with baryta for the removal of the sulphuric acid, filtered and con- 
centrated. A syrup was thus obtained which reduced Fehling's 
solution on heating, and, like the corresponding products from the 
above-described ether and chloroform extracts, contained the barium 
salt of a readily soluble organic acid. 

Alcohol Extract of the Hydrolyzed Resin. 

This product represented by far the largest portion of the hydro- 
lyzed resin, and amounted to 130 grammes. As first obtained it was 
in the form of a syrup, but, after drying, could be reduced to a fine 
powder, and by treatment with animal charcoal was obtained quite 
white. The powdered material is not altered on exposure to the 
air, and dissolves readily in cold water, forming a clear solution. 
After drying in a vacuum over sulphuric acid, it melted at 105-1 10° C. 
With cold concentrated sulphuric acid it gives a deep red color. 
It is optically active, and its specific rotatory power was determined 
with the following result : — 

Am. Jour. Ptaarm. 
June, 1908. 

Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 


An aqueous solution containing 1-7680 grammes of substance in 
25 c.c. gave a D — 4 47' in a 1 dcm. tube, whence [a] D — 67. 63 . 

Treatment with Dilute Sulphuric Acid. — A quantity (25 grammes) 
of the above-described material was dissolved in 250 c.c. of 5 per 
cent, aqueous sulphuric acid, and the solution heated for about four 
hours in a reflux apparatus. It was then distilled with steam, and 
the distillate extracted with ether, when a very small quantity of a 
neutral oil was obtained, which was similar in character to that 
afforded by the treatment of the alcohol extract of the original 
resin with dilute sulphuric acid. After extraction with ether, the 
distillate still contained a small quantity of acid which was converted 
into a barium salt, and this gave reactions indicating the presence 
of formic and butyric acids. The liquid remaining in the distilla- 
tion flask, after the removal of the volatile substances by steam, 
and being allowed to cool, contained a considerable quantity (5-5 
grammes) of a solid crystalline product, part of which was in the 
form of a brownish cake. It was therefore extracted with ether, 
the ethereal solution dried, and the solvent removed. The product 
thus obtained was dissolved in alcohol, the solution mixed with 
purified sawdust, and, after thoroughly drying the mixture, it was 
extracted successively in a Soxhlet apparatus with {a) light petro- 
leum and {b) ether. 

(a) Petroleum Extract. — This liquid deposited a small amount of 
a crystalline substance in the form of handsome rosettes, which were 
associated with a little oily matter. After the complete removal of 
the solvent, the substance was crystallized from 50 per cent, alcohol, 
and finally from a large volume of hot water. It was thus obtained 
in handsome, colorless needles, me lting at 69-70 C, and on 
analysis gave the following result : 

0-0676 gave 0-1646 C0 2 and 00670 H 2 0. C — 66-4; H = n-o. 
C 12 H 24 3 requires C = 66 6; H = ii-i per cent. 

The silver salt of the acid was also prepared and analyzed. 

0-2042 of salt gave on ignition 00678 Ag. Ag = 33*2. 
C 12 H 23 3 Ag requires Ag =33*4 per cent. 

The above-described substance is thus seen to agree in composi- 
tion with a hydroxylauric acid. 

A hydroxylauric acid has previously been obtained by Hoehnel 1 

1 Archiv der Pharm., 1896, 234, p. 670. 

282 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. { ^ m 'j°nl'wm arm ' 

from the so-called purgic acid, a product of the alkaline hydrolysis 
of " convolvulin" by treatment with dilute sulphuric acid. As 
Hoehnel, however, did not record the melting point of his acid, and 
the amount of acid obtained by us having been too small to permit 
of the preparation of the derivatives described by him, it is 
impossible to decide whether the two substances are identical. 

Guerin 1 has synthesized a-hydroxylauric acid, the melting point 
of which is stated to be 73-74° C. As Guerin had prepared an 
anilide of this acid (m. p. 83 ° C), a little of the corresponding 
derivative was made from the acid obtained by us for the purpose 
of comparison, the method employed having been precisely the 
same as that adopted by Guerin. A product was obtained in the 
form of small, lustrous plates, which melted at 15 5-157 C. It is, 
therefore, evident that the hydroxylauric acid obtained from 
Ipomoea purpurea is not the alpha compound. 

An attempt was made to obtain an acetyl derivative of the above- 
described acid, but the product was an oil, which did not solidify. 

(b) Ether Extract. — This constituted the remainder of the solid 
product obtained from the alcohol extract of the hydrolyzed resin. 
After purification it was found to consist entirely of ipurolic acid, 
C 14 H 28 4 , which had previously been obtained by the treatment of 
the alcohol extract of the original resin with dilute sulphuric acid. 
On analysis it gave the following result : 

0-2228 gave 5280 C0 2 and 0-2146 H 2 0. C — 64-6; H = 107. 
C 14 H 28 4 requires C = 64-6 ; H = 10 8 per cent. 

The acid liquid, from which the above-mentioned crystalline acids 
had been separated, was treated with baryta for the removal of the 
sulphuric acid, and, after filtration, diluted to the measure of I litre. 
This liquid readily reduced Fehling's solution on heating, and 
yielded an osazone which, after crystallization from pyridine, melted 
at 212-213 C, and was therefore ^-phenylglucosazone. A quanti- 
tative determination, by means of Fehling's solution, of the amount 
of sugar, formed by the action of dilute sulphuric acid on the alco- 
hol extract of the hydrolyzed resin, indicated that 25 grammes of 
the latter had yielded 4-3 grammes of glucose. If the amount of 
crystalline acid (5-5 grammes), consisting essentially of ipurolic 

1 Bull. Soc. chim., 1903 [3], 29, 1124-1128, and Journ. Chem. Soc, 1904, 86, 
Part I, p. 138. 

Am Vune r ,'i908 arm '} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 283 

acid, which was obtained by the above-described treatment was 
present in the extract in the form of a glucoside, the latter would 
have yielded on hydrolysis an amount of glucose corresponding to 
3 8 grammes. It is evident, therefore, that practically the entire 
amount of glucose found resulted from the hydrolysis of the gluco- 
sides of ipurolic and hydroxylauric acids. On the other hand, as 
the 5-5 grammes of crystalline acids obtained would correspond to 
about 9 grammes of the respective glucosides, and as the weight of 
alcohol extract of the hydrolyzed resin which was treated with 
sulphuric acid was 25 grammes, it follows that this extract con- 
tained a considerable proportion of a substance which was not a 

The liquid which had been freed from sulphuric acid by means 
of baryta, as described above, contained, besides glucose, a consider- 
able quantity of a barium salt, but this did not separate, even when 
the liquid was concentrated to the consistency of a thick syrup and 
allowed to stand for a long time. The acid contained in this salt 
was evidently highly oxygenated, and doubtless represented that 
constituent of the alcohol extract of the hydrolyzed resin which 
was not glucosidic in character. Numerous attempts were made 
to isolate this soluble organic acid, but without success. A deter- 
mination of the amount of barium in the liquid showed, however, 
that the soluble non-glucosidic acid yielded by '25 grammes of the 
alcoholic extract of the hydrolyzed resin corresponded to 4-15 
grammes Ba. 


As the details of the preceding investigation are necessarily some- 
what extended, it appears desirable that the more important results 
should be briefly summarized. 

The material employed, consisting chiefly of the aerial stems of 
Ipomcea purpurea, Roth, was kindly supplied to us by Mr. J. Medley 
Wood, Director of the Natal Botanic Gardens, Durban, South 
Africa. When extracted with alcohol, and the resulting extract 
distilled with steam, an amount of essential oil was obtained cor- 
responding to 0-018 per cent, of the weight of the drug. This 
essential oil was a pale yellow liquid, having a strong, characteristic 
odor and the following constants: d 20°/20° == 0-9085 ; a D — 4°52 / 
in a 1 dcm. tube. After the removal of the volatile substances 

284 Chemical Examination of Ip omasa Purpurea. { ^ m jin U e?i9osf rm> 

by distillation with steam, there remained in the distillation flask a 
dark-colored aqueous liquid and a quantity of a soft resin. The 
aqueous liquid contained a considerable quantity of potassium 
chloride and nitrate, together with tannic and coloring matters, and 
yielded glucose on heating with a dilute mineral acid. 

The most important product yielded by Ipomcea purpurea is the 
above-mentioned resin, the amount of which corresponded to 4-8 
per cent, of the weight of the drug, and of this resin 15-5 per cent, 
was soluble in ether. The crude resin, which, when dry, can be 
reduced to a dark brown powder, is, however, an exceedingly com- 
plex mixture, as has been shown by the results of its successive 
extraction with the following solvents : (I) light petroleum, (II) 
ether, (III) chloroform, (IV) ethyl acetate, and (V) alcohol. The 
examination of these various extracts has, moreover, rendered it 
evident that each of them is likewise of complex composition. 

The crude resin is optically active. After treatment with animal 
charcoal to deprive it of coloring matter, it was found to have a 
specific rotatory power, in alcoholic solution, of [a] D — 50*95 °. 

The products obtained from the various extracts of the resin were 
as follows : 

I. Petroleum Extract. — This represented 8 per cent, of the total 
resin. After treatment with an alcoholic solution of potassium 
hydroxide, it yielded pentatriacontane, C 35 H 72 (m. p. 74-/5° C.) ; a 
phytosterol, C 27 H 46 0, H 2 (m. p. 132-I33°C; [a] D — 32-1°); formic, 
butyric, and higher volatile acids; stearic, and apparently some pal. 
mitic acid, with a very small amount of an unsaturated oily acid. 

II. Ether Extract. — This represented 7-3 per cent, of the total 
resin. When fused with potassium hydroxide it yielded formic and 
butyric acids, a mixture of higher volatile acids, and a very small 
amount of a crystalline acid, melting at 103-104 C, which was 
apparently azelaic acid, C 9 H 16 4 , together with a trace of substance 
giving the catechol reaction. The extract, when heated with 5 per 
cent, alcoholic sulphuric acid, yielded, besides a quantity of resin, a 
small amount of a neutral oil, having a pleasant odor, together with 
formic, butyric and higher volatile acids, a readily soluble non-vola- 
tile acid, and glucose. 

III. Chloroform Extract. — This represented 9-8 per cent, of the 
total resin. When fused with potassium hydroxide, it yielded pro- 
ducts analogous to those obtained under the same conditions from 

Am j J u°n u e,'i908 arm "} Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. 285 

the ether extract, but no crystalline acid could be isolated. When 
heated with 5 per cent, alcoholic sulphuric acid, it likewise afforded 
products which were very similar to those obtained from the ether 
extract of the resin. 

IV. Ethyl Acetate Extract. — This represented 23-8 per cent, of the 
total resin. From this extract there was isolated a very small 
amount of a new crystalline alcohol, ipuranol, having the formula 
C 23 H 38 2 (OH) 2 , and melting at 285-290 C. Its acetyl derivative 
formed pearly leaflets, melting sharply at 160 C. The extract, 
when fused with potassium hydroxide, as also when heated with 5 
per cent, alcoholic sulphuric acid, yielded products analogous in 
character to those obtained from the above-described ether and 
chloroform extracts of the resin by the same treatment. 

V. Alcohol Extract. — This represented about one-half of the total 
crude resin. When purified by means of animal charcoal, it was 
obtained in the form of a perfectly white powder, which, after dry- 
ing at no C, melted somewhat indefinitely between 150 and 160° 
C. Its specific rotatory power was [_a~\ D — 51-64°. 

When heated with 5 per cent, alcoholic sulphuric acid, this extract 
like the preceding ones, yielded a small amount of a neutral oil, 
formic, butyric and higher volatile acids, and a non-volatile acid 
which was readily soluble in water, together with glucose. In 
addition to these products, however, it afforded a quantity of a 
new dihydroxymonocarboxylic acid, C 13 H 25 (OH) 2 -C0 2 H, designated 
ipurolic acid, which crystallizes in fine, colorless, silky needles, melt- 
ing at 100-101° C. Several derivatives of this acid have been pre- 
pared, such as its sodium salt, C 13 H 25 (OH) 2 -C0 2 Na,H 2 ; silver salt, 
C 13 H L5 (OH) 2 C0 2 Ag (m. p. 160° C); methyl ester, C^H^OH),- 
CO0CH3 (m. p. 68-69° C.) ; the monomethyl derivative of the methyl 
ester, C 13 H 25 (OH)(OCH 3 )C0 2 CH 3 (m. p. 64-65° C.) ; and the diphenyl- 
urethane of the methyl ester, C 13 H 25 (0 CO-NH-C 6 H 5 ) 2 -C0 2 CH 3 , melt- 
ing at 96-97° C. 

The above-described alcohol extract of the resin, when treated in 
alcohol solution with barium hydroxide, yielded, besides formic and 
butyric acids, a quantity of optically active valeric acid (^-methyl- 
ethylacetic acid), b. p. 174-176° C. ; [a] D + 17*95°, together with, 
a mixture of acids which was readily soluble in water. This mix- 
ture of acids was extracted successively with ether, chloroform and 
ethyl acetate, when small amounts were removed by each of these 
solvents, the larger proportion being soluble only in alcohol. These 

286 Chemical Examination of Ipomcea Purpurea. {^ m j^ifos arm ' 

various extracts were finally subjected to treatment with 5 per cent, 
aqueous sulphuric acid. The portions extracted by ether and chloro- 
form yielded, for the most part, identical products, namely, formic 
and butyric acids, together with a readily soluble, non-volatile acid, 
and apparently a little glucose. The portion extracted by ethyl 
acetate yielded, in addition to the products just mentioned, a very 
small amount of ipurolic acid. The portion which was soluble 
only in alcohol was considerable in amount. After further purifica- 
tion with animal charcoal, it was obtained in the form of a nearly 
white powder. It melted at 105-110° C, and was optically active, 
having in aqueous solution [a] D — 67-58°. When treated with 
5 per cent, aqueous sulphuric acid, it yield ed, besides formic and 
butyric acids, a hydroxy I auric acid (m. p. 69-70 C.) and ipurolic 
acid, together with a readily soluble organic acid and glucose. 

The physiological action of the above-described extracts of the 
original resin was kindly determined for us by Dr. H. H. Dale, 
Director of the Wellcome Physiological Research Laboratories, and 
our thanks are due to him for the assistance which he has thus 
rendered us. 

One gramme of each of the extracts was administered at inter- 
vals of several days to a dog, with the following results. The 
petroleum extract produced no definite effect. The ether, ethyl 
acetate and alcohol extracts had a very marked purgative action 
two hours after ingestion, which lasted for about twenty-four hours, 
after which the animal became quite normal. There was no notice- 
able difference in the action of these three extracts. The chloroform 
extract, on the other hand, had a rather less pronounced aperient 
effect, and caused slight vomiting. 

The alcohol extract of the resin which had been hydrolyzed by 
means of baryta, consisting of a product which was readily soluble 
in water, had no perceptible physiological action when administered 
to a dog in doses of one gramme. This result is in accordance 
with the observations previously recorded respecting the action of 
an analogous, but less completely purified product from jalap resin, 
which has been designated " convolvulic acid" (compare Husemann, 
" Die PflanzenstofTe," second edition, 1882, p. 1141). 

It will be seen from this investigation that Ipomcea purpurea, 
Roth, like many other species of the same genus, contains resins 
which possess purgative properties, and is thus capable of being 
utilized medicinally. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
J tine, 1908. 

Progress in Pharmacy . 




Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

The Food and Drugs Act continues to be a favorite subject for 
discussion in pharmaceutical journals. From the evidence now at 
hand there are not lacking dealers, and even manufacturers, who, 
having discovered that this law is actually to be enforced, are 
anxious to have a number of the regulations abrogated or amended. 

The evidently inspired attacks that are being made in the columns 
of medical, pharmaceutical and confectioners' or food journals, on 
the individuals who have been entrusted with the enforcement of the 
Federal law, may rightfully be considered as being indicative of the 
far-reaching influences of this law. 

Pure Drug Bill in New York. — The Whitney Bill, introduced at 
the request of the druggists of New York State, has been passed by 
both branches of the State Legislature. 

This bill places the enforcement of the act entirely in the hands 
of the State Board of Pharmacy, though it does not in any way 
abrogate the present power or privileges of the State or local boards 
of health. 

Pure Food and Drug Law in Kentucky. — A pure food and drug 
law recently enacted in Kentucky is based on the Federal law, but 
contains a number of clauses that are original or distinctive. 

Among other rather interesting features, a drug will also be 
deemed adulterated " if one article is substituted for a different 
article, or if a greater or less quantity of any ingredient specified in 
the prescription is used." 

Another clause provides that " no prescription shall be knowingly 
refilled except for the person for whom it was written." 

The sections regarding drugs are to take effect on January 1, 
1908. {Jour. A.M.A., March 21, 1908, page 985.) 

An Important Precedent. — The first suit that has been brought 
under the provisions of the Food and Drugs Act has been decided in 
favor of the Government. This case, popularly known as the Harper 
case, establishes the precedent that a name like " Cuforhedake Brane 
Fude " constitutes a violation of the misbranding clause of the Food 

288 Progress in Pharmacy. { Am jane?i908 arm ' 

and Drugs Act. With Mr. Harper a number of other manufacturers 
have thought it wise, or at least expedient, to eliminate the word 
cure from labels on medicinal preparations. 

Limitatiofis of the Guarantee. — There is such a widespread misunder- 
standing as to the use or the limitation of the guarantee label, that the 
following definite statement contained in the " Circular of Informa- 
tion to the Drug Trade," published by the Indiana State Board of 
Health, will perhaps serve to awaken pharmacists to a realization of 
their duty and responsibility in connection with pure drugs. 

" The guarantee is a protection against prosecution only in case of 
goods in original packages ; but as soon as the box is opened, stopper 
drawn or seal detached, the guarantee ceases and all responsibility 
for the character of the goods passes from the manufacturer or jobber 
to the retailer. It is, therefore, useless to ask for a guarantee for 
use on broken packages." 

Definition for Proprietary or Patent Medicine. — The Patent Medicine 
Bill recently introduced into the Canadian House of Commons by 
the Hon. William Templeman contains the following definition: 
" Proprietary or Patent Medicine means every artificial remedy or 
prescription manufactured for the internal use of man, the name, 
composition, or definition of which is not to be found in the British 
Pharmacopoeia, the Codex Medicamentarius of France, the Pharma- 
copoeia of the United States, or any foreign Pharmacopoeia approved 
by the Minister or any formulary adopted by any properly consti- 
tuted pharmaceutical association approved by the Minister, or upon 
which is not printed in conspicuous manner and forming an insepar- 
able part of the label or wrapper the true formula or list of ingredi- 
ents." [Chem. and Drug., May, 1908, page 663.) 

Tue Propaganda for Publicity and Truth. — What has become known 
as the U.S.P. and N.F. propaganda has been variously accused as 
having degenerated into a poorly veiled attempt to substitute indif- 
ferently made imitations of nostrums for the nostrums themselves. 
While this assertion is far from being accepted as true, there can be 
no gainsaying the fact that many pharmacists, in all parts of the 
country, are devoting altogether too much attention to the develop- 
ment of a demand for complex fixed formula preparations, and are 
not advancing themselves as they should in the necessary knowledge 
of the science of their calling, and rendering themselves of real use 
and practical value to the community in which they live. 

A_m. Jour. Pbarm. 
June. 1908. 

Prog?' ess in Pharmacy. 


Dr. McCormack and His Work. — A popular meeting held under 
the auspices of the Philadelphia County Medical Society, on the 
evening of May 11, 1908, gave pharmacists of Philadelphia an op- 
portunity to familiarize themselves with an important, though as 
yet scarcely developed, field for association work. 

Dr. J. N. McCormack, the Chairman of the Committee on Organi- 
zation of the American Medical Association, addressed a large and 
enthusiastic audience on " The Relation of the Physician to the Pub. 
lie." In the course of his address Dr. McCormack pointed out that, 
despite the shortcomings and the faults of medical men, they were 
not alone to blame for the present-day lack of development in hygiene 
and sanitation. He asserted that the public at large, and particu- 
larly the more responsible portion of the public, is fully as much to 
blame as is the medical profession. 

The members of the pharmaceutical profession were well repre- 
sented both in the list of vice-presidents as well as in the audience, 
and the opinions expressed by Dr. McCormack and the other 
speakers were generally agreed to by the pharmacists who were 

The Meeting of the American Medical Association, at Chicago, June 
2 to 5, 1908, promises to be one of unusual interest and will un- 
doubtedly prove to be of considerable import to the future progress 
of pharmacy. 

The meetings of the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics 
should prove to be of practical interest and value to pharmacists. 
The preliminary programme contains a list of communications that 
are of direct importance to pharmacists, and many if not all of the 
contributions should be of value to the pharmacist who is earnestly 
striving to improve himself in his calling. 

At least one of the sessions will be devoted to a discussion of the 
United States Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary. This 
symposium will be augmented by an exhibition of U.S. P. and N.F. 
preparations, made by the Chicago Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association. It is generally believed that the officers 
and members of the Chicago Branch expect to make this exhibi- 
tion one of unusual interest to physicians, and they will no doubt 

Medical Education in the United States. — The report of the meet- 
ing of the Council on Medical Education of the American Medical 


Progress in Pharmacy. 

Am. Jour. Pharm 
June, 1908 

Association (Jour. A. M. A, Vol. L, pages 1544, 1637), contains 
much of a suggestive nature that teachers and others interested in 
pharmaceutical education should take cognizance of and profit by. 

Few of us are perhaps aware that some of the best, as well as 
practically all of the worst, medical schools in the world are to be 
found in the United States. At the present time there are 335 
medical colleges in the civilized world ; of this number 164, or 48 
per cent., are in the United States. So far as known, proprietary 
schools constitute a development of institutions that are indigenous 
to the United States, where they constitute a fair proportion of the 
schools that are classed as deficient both as regards preliminary 
requirements and length of medical course. 

Post- Graduate Instruction in Sivitzerland. — The first of a series of 
postgraduate courses for pharmacists, based on the new fourth 
edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia was held in the Pharmaceutical 
Institute of the University of Bern, from the 2d to the 12th of 
March, 1908. 

This initial course was attended by thirty registered pharmacists, 
a rather high attendance when one remembers that in the whole of 
Switzerland there are but 520 apothecary shops, conducted by 533 
registered apothecaries. {Schweiz. Woch.-Schr. f. Chem. u. Phar. y 
1908, page 208.) 

A French Formulary. — The general Association of French Phar- 
macists has nominated five of its members to form, with an equal 
number of members of the Pharmacists' Association of the Loiret 
Department, the committee for drawing up a formulary of medica- 
ments. {The Chem. and Drug., April 18, 1908, page 584.)' 

A New Swedish Pharmacopceia. — The recently published eighth 
edition of the Swedish is practically out of print, and in view 
of the many changes that would be necessitated by the inclusion 
of the Protocol of the International Conference for the Unification 
of the Formulae of Potent Medicaments, the Revision Commission 
has decided to prepare and to publish a revised ninth edition of 
the Swedish Pharmacopoeia. (Phat. Post, 1908, page 398.) 

The Standardization of Tetanus Antitoxin. — Hygienic Laboratory 
Bulletin, No. 43, March, 1908, contains a detailed description of the 
work that has been done in connection with the newly adopted 
American standard for tetanus antitoxin. 

This American unit, established under the Act of July 1, 1902, is 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

Progress in Pharmacy. 


defined as follows : " The immunity unit for measuring the strength 
of tetanus antitoxin shall be ten times the least quantity of anti- 
tetanic serum necessary to save the life of a 350-gramme guinea pig 
for ninety-six hours against the official test dose of a standard toxin 
furnished by the Hygienic Laboratory of the Public Health and 
Marine Hospital Service." 

Sterilization in Pharmacy. — An ever-increasing number of foreign 
pharmacopoeias are devoting considerable attention to sterilization 
of medicaments and materials by the pharmacist. As opinions as 
to methods and processes of sterilization naturally differ, and as the 
need for this precautionary measure becomes more and more appre- 
ciated, the problems connected with the official introduction of satis- 
factory processes become more apparent. 

So far, methods for sterilization have been introduced into the 
..pharmacopoeias of Austria, Belgium and Switzerland. In Germany 
the need for complying with the evident requirement is being actively 
discussed, and the Swedish Pharmacopceial Commission is also con- 
sidering the advisability of including the same in the forthcoming 
edition of their pharmacopoeia. 

The Alkaloids of the Poppy Plant. — Professor Thorns has demon- 
strated (Phar. Zeit'g, April 8, 1908, page 292) that the amount of 
opium and of its alkaloids yielded by poppy plants may be increased 
by suitable soil and proper cultivation. He has also shown that the 
several opium alkaloids may be obtained directly from the unripe 
poppy capsule, and these alkaloids also occur, ready developed, in 
the young poppy plants. 

Coloration of Adrenine Solutions. — Gunn and Harrison [Phar. 
Jour., April 18, 1908, page 513) have investigated the causes of the 
color in adrenine solutions and have discovered that adrenine dis- 
solved in water with one molecule equivalent of hydrochloric acid, 
becomes pink quicker than a solution containing a greater propor- 
tion of hydrochloric acid. They have also found that the alkali of 
the glass accelerates the formation of color, as do also exposure to 
air and light and contamination with iron. 

Activity of Colored Solutions of Adrenine. — Prof. W. E. Dixon, of 
Kings College, London, finds that the loss of activity of adrenine 
solutions is proportional to the depth of the color. He also found 
that the artificial adrenine has only about one-half the activity cf 
the natural product. (Phar. Jour., April 18, 1908, page 514.) 


Progress in Pharmacy. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

Adulterated Belladonna Leaves. — J. Warin, in reporting on a series 
of comparative assays of extract of belladonna, asserts that he met 
with samples of belladonna leaves which were evidently derived 
from Scopola carniolica, and also samples of Italian origin which 
contained an appreciable admixture of Phytolacca decandra. An 
extract made from commercial (Austrian) leaves assayed 1-127 per 
cent, of alkaloids, while one of the samples made from Italian leaves 
assayed but 0-318 per cent, of mydriatic alkaloid. (Jour. Phar. et 
Chim., 1908, page 321.) 

Frangula and Cascara. — Kroeber has made a comparative 
examination of the fluidextracts of Rhamnus purshiana and of 
Rhamnus frangula, and believes that the widespread preference for 
cascara sagrada is not well founded. He finds that, according to 
colorimetric tests for oxymethylanthrachinon, as proposed by 
Tschirch, fluidextract of Rhamnus frangula contains from 4-5 to 5 
per cent., and fluidextract of Rhamnus purshiana from 2-o to 4-14 
per cent, of oxymethylanthrachinon. (Schiveiz. Woch.-Schr. f. Chem. 
u. Phar., 1908, page 131.) 

The Constituents of Simaruba Bark. — Charles Gilling {Phar. Jour., 
April 18, 1908, page 510) reports on an exhaustive examination of 
simaruba bark from British Guiana, doubtless derived from Simaruba 

He concludes that the bark of Simaruba amara contains a fixed 
oil, a crystalline bitter substance, C 22 H 30 O 9 , giving a violet coloration 
with concentrated sulphuric acid, and a crystalline, non-bitter 
substance. The presence of a fluorescent principle was also 
indicated, but this was not isolated. 

The Development of Cinchona Alkaloids. — Experiments conducted 
in the Dutch Government laboratories indicate that the develop- 
ment of bases in Cinchona ledgeriana takes place in the following 
order : amorphous alkaloid, cinchonine, cinchonidine, quinine and 
quinidine. The seeds contain both amorphous alkaloid and cin- 
chonine, the latter increasing as the seeds begin to germinate. The 
leaves of young trees contain cinchonidine, cinchonine and amorphous 
alkaloid. Quinine first appears in the roots of young plants. 
{Phar. Zen?h. y 1908, page 233.) 

Strychnos Aculeata. — The fruits of Strychnos aculeata or of a 
closely allied species are employed by the natives of the ivory coast 
as a fish poison. The entire fruit weighs 100 to 150 grammes and 

Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
June, 1908. 

Progress in Pharmacy. 


the seed 30 to 40 grammes. The fruit contains no strychnine and 
only a trace of brucine. This occurs mostly in the kernel, where it 
amounts to 0-05 per cent. The toxic substance is probably a gluco- 
side, and it is said that 1 part of the fruit macerated in 10,000 parts 
of water will kill fish. So far as known, it does not affect frogs or 
mammals. (Phar. Jour., March 28, 1908, page 413, from Jour. 
Phar. ct Chim.) 

Vanilla Statistics. — The total crop of vanilla for the season 1907- 
1908 is estimated to be 475 tons, or about 75 tons in excess of the 
previous season's yield. The source of this supply is : Mexican, 
100 tons ; Tahiti, 120 tons ; Bourbon, 40 tons ; Seychelles, 65 tons ; 
Comores and Mayotte, 80 tons; Madagascar and Nossi-Bes, 50 tons ; 
Mauritius, 3 tons; Ceylon and Java, 7 tons; Fiji and Zanzibar, 4 
tons; Guadeloupe and Martinique, 6 tons. {Client, and Drug., 
March 14, 1908, page 426). 

Arhovin.— This is described by the Journal of the American 
Medical Association as " A proprietary in process of evolution." It 
was originally described by the manufacturer as " thymyl benzoate 
of diphenylamine ;" later this was changed to " a chemical compound 
of diphenylamine, thymol and benzoic acid." A still later descrip- 
tion asserts that " Arhovin consists of diphenylamine and thymol- 
benzoic acid ethyl ester in molecular proportions." This, the 
Journal of the American Medical Association, points out is an evolu- 
tion from the atomic to the molecular, and from the specific to the 
general, so that we may confidently expect to hear that this much- 
advertised synthetic has, in time, become a mere mixture. (Jour. 
A. M. A., May 9, 1908, page 1-541.) 

Arsenogen. — This is said to be a combination containing 16 4 per 
cent, of iron, 2 per cent, of phosphorus and 14 per cent, of arsenic 
with paranucleinic acid. It has been recommended as a general 
tonic. {Phar. Zeitg, 1908, page 280.) 

Arthvisin. — This is a name given to acetylsalicylamide, and prob- 
ably has no distinct advantages over the many other well-known 
compounds of acetylsalicylic acid. {Phar. Zenfh., 1907, page 283.) 

Camphosal. — This is said to be a neutral camphoric acid ester of 
santal oils, It occurs as a brownish-yellovv oil that is readily sol- 
uble in ether, alcohol, benzol, chloroform and petroleum ether 
Unlike santalol and the oil of sandalwood, it is but slightly soluble 
in 70 per cent, alcohol. 

294 Progress in Pharmacy. { xm '£™e,im a,Tm ' 

Camphosal may be given in doses of from 5 to 15 minims. (Chem. 
and Drug., 1908, page 328.) 

Dimenthyldimethylene ether is used as an antiseptic and antipyretic. 
It is obtained by treating menthol with symmetrical di-halogen 
methyl ether. (Client, and Drug., 1908, page 328.) 

Ethyl B or salicylate (Boryt) — This is obtained by heating together 
boric acid, 62; salicylic acid, 138; water, about 200; then adding 
to the solution, alcohol (95 per cent.) 60; sulphuric acid, about 40; 
and boiling (under a reflux condenser). When esterification is com- 
plete, and after washing with water to remove the sulphuric acid, 
the resulting product should occur in crystalline needles having a 
higher melting point than that of salicylic acid. 

Ethyl boro salicylate has been recommended for use externally and 
internally as an antiseptic and for the treatment of rheumatism. 
(Phar. Jour., April 18, 1908, page 518, from V Union Phar in) 

Iodofan. — F. Zernik, in a recent address to the German Pharma- 
ceutical Society, reiterates his former statement that iodofan con- 
tains only 4 per cent, of iodine instead of from 42 to 47 per cent, as 
claimed by the manufacturers. {Jour. A. M. A., April 4, 1908, 
page 1135.) 

Neoform. — This is said to be a basic tri-iodo-phenolate of bismuth, 
and occurs as a yellow powder, with a distinctive, though not objec- 
tionable odor. This preparation is said to be insoluble in the ordi- 
nary solvents and does not melt on heating. It begins to decompose 
at temperatures varying from 170 to 180 . 

Neoform is said to be useful as an antiseptic and absorbent powder. 
(Zeitschr. d. Allgemein. Oest. Apoth. Ver., 1908, page 213.) 

Pyrenol. — H. Thorns reiterates the report made by F. Zernik, 
some time ago, that pyrenol is a mechanical mixture composed of 
equal parts of sodium salicylate and sodium benzoate, with 1 per 
cent, of benzoic acid and a trace of thymol, not more than 3 per 

The product is evidently obtained by fusing a mixture of the 
constituents. (Apothek. ZeiVg, 1908, page 317.) 

Salol-Chloral — It is claimed that a definite compound of salol and 
chloral results from the heating together on a water bath, at about 
100° C, of 214 parts of salol and 147 5 parts of hydrated chloral. 
The resulting product is an oily liquid, insoluble in water, that crys- 
tallizes on cooling. Salol chloral has been recommended as a hyp- 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
June, 1908. 

} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 


notic and antiseptic. (Pkar. Jour., 1908, page 518, from V Union 

Vapo-Cresolene. — From an examination made in the chemical 
laboratory of the American Medical Association, it appears that 
vapo cresolene is essentially cresol and corresponds in every respect 
to the requirements for cresol in the United States Pharmacopoeia. 
(Jour. A. M. A., April 4, 1908, page 11 35.) 

Zinc Boropicrate (Chrysyl). — Picric acid, 349 ; boric acid, 62 ; 
water, about 400, are heated together, and zinc oxide, 82, is added 
to the solution. The resulting yellow powder has been used as a 
sedative drying agent in the treatment of skin affections and for 
ophthalmic application. (Phar. Jour., April 18, 1908, page 518, 
from P Union Pharm?) 


The eighty-seventh annual commencement of the Philadelphia 
College of Pharmacy was held in the American Academy of 
Music, corner Broad and Locust Streets, Thursday evening, May 
2ist. After prayer by the Rev. August Pohlman, M.D., the degrees 
were conferred by President Howard B. French. 

The degree of Master in Pharmacy (Ph.M.) honoris causa was 
conferred upon Samuel William Fairchild, Ph.G., New York City ; 
Horatio Nelson Fraser, Ph.G., New York City ; John Francis Han- 
cock, Phar.D., Baltimore; William Mclntyre, Ph.G., Philadelphia; 
and Samuel Arno Darlington Sheppard, Ph.G., Boston. The follow- 
ing are the names of those who received the degree of Doctor in 
Pharmacy, together with the subjects of their theses: 

Ackley, Kelso Carter, Glyceriuum, 

Allen, Clyde M., The Manufacture of Sodium Chlor- 

Name. Thesis. 

State or Country. 
New Jersey 

ide in New York State, 

New York 

Anderson, Gus. Goodfred, Liquid Medicines versus Pills, 

Ay res, John, Disinfection, 

Baer, Howard Jacob, Magma Magnesise, 

Baldwin, Chas. Hampton, EOrgota 

Ballinger, Reeve Leslie, Liquor Calcis, 

Bannan, Samuel Joseph, Cataplasma Kaolini, 

Barrett, Kdson Jay, A Practical Container for the Distri- 

New Jersey 

New Jersey 

bution of Liquid Soap, 



Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

A.m. Jour. Fharm. 
J une. 1908. 


Beam, Eugene Cecil, 

Beecham, Edgar F. Carroll, 
Bethel, Allen Paul, 
Bourne, James Frank, 
Bower, Roy Carson, 
Bridgeman, John Joseph, 

Brigadell, James Chris., 
Burt, William Henry, 
Buzzell, Edgar Robert, 
Camp, Walter Sam. (P.C.), 
Church, Charles Corss, 
Ciancarelli, Silvio, 
Clark, Milton Renn, 
Coldren, Arthur Bard, 
Cope, Roy Thomas, 
Copella, George William, 
Corp, Clarence Henry, 
Cutler, Ralph, 
Dauphinee, For. Whitney, 
Davies, Chester Stanley, 
Dean, J. Atlee, 
DeLaney, Harry Lee, 
Delle, Oscar Artus, 

Dillon, LeRoy Victor, 
Djmmoyer, Paul Revere, 
Dry, William Reddig, 
Duntze, Francis Chas., Jr., 
Eldon, Clarence Howard, 
England, Paul Roberts, 
Feuerstein, Rose (Miss), 

Fitzpatrick, Richard, 
Fleming, John Merle, 
Fowler, Jesse A., 
Fox, Clarence Roy, 
Frailey, W. Otterbein, Jr., 
Gabriel, Rose (Miss), 
Geety, William Wallace, 
Glise, Amos Chester, 
Goicouria, Pedro Prudencio, 
Graeff, Claude Conner, 
Hamaker, Amos Leopold, 
Harr, Charles Nelson, 
Hillegass, Frank Stanley, 
Hopkins, John Oliver, 


of Volatile 

Oil of 


Circulatory Displacement 
Microscopic Study of Crude Drugs, 
Rhamnus Purshiana, 
A Microscopical Examination of 

Exhausted Ginger, 
Turpentine, New Process, 

Glycerite of Bismuth, 

Cotton Root Bark, 

Ginseng, the Chinese Specific, 


Ointment Containers, 


Arseni Trioxidum, 

Liquor Magnesii Citratis, 

Oleum Terebinthinae Rectificatum, 



State or Country. 

West Virginia 

New Jersey 


New York 

Elixir Ferri Quininae et Strychninae, Pennsylvania 
Iodine, Pennsylvania 
Essence of Pepsin N. F., Pennsylvania 
Pepsin — Its Importance as a Stand- 
ard Liquid Preparation, Pennsylvania 
Pharmacy, Pennsylvania 
Linimentum Camphorae, Pennsylvania 
Benzoinum, Pennsylvania 
The Castor Oil Plant and Bean, Tennessee 
Sambucus. Pennsylvania 
Boron and Its Compounds, Ohio 
Microscopical and Chemical Study 

of Digitalis, Pennsylvania 

Oil of Wintergreen, New Jersey 

Vaccine Virus, Pennsylvania 

Mel, New Jersey 

Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Pennsylvania 
A New Pharmaceutical Appliance, Pennsylvania 

Lime Water, Russia 

Powdered Tragacanth, New York 

Alcohol, Pennsylvania 

A Number of Species of Datura, Puerto Rico 

Thyreoidectin, Pennsylvania 

Mucilage of Myrrh, Pennsylvania 

Ointment Bases, Pennsylvania 

American Hellebore, New Jersey 

Opium, Maryland 

Alu. Jour. Ptiarru. 
June, 190*. 

Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 


Hopkins, Maxwell, 
Huebner, Walter Fred., 
Johnston, Ralph Rupp, 
Kelly, Thomas Joseph, 
Knight, Harry Martin, 
Kraemer, William, 
Ladakis, Triantaphyllo C, 
Lambert, Roy Albert, 
Landis, Frederick Samuel, 
Laws, Thomas Davis, 
Light, Abraham, 
Light, Mandell, 
Link, John William, 
Lowe, Clement Wakelin, 
McAnulty, John Francis, 
McElroy, David Gregory, 
McGovern, John Francis, 
McMichael, Dan. Webster, 
Maltman, William Stewart, 
Mauger, Lee Fillmen, 

Miller, Franklin Peter, 
Morton, Eugene Faunce, 
Murray, Joseph Leo, 

Nelden, Ralph, 

Oden welder, Asher J., Jr. 

Ohming, Harry W., 
Parson, Henry Edwin, 
Paterno, Feliciano, 
Pennock, Joseph Levis, 
Rather, Hugh Henry, 
Reighter, David Henry, 
Roman, Jose, 
Ross, Hendric Arnold, 
San tee, Boyd Arthur, 
Saul, George Milton, 
Schaffer, Frank Warren, 
Schuehle, Martin Charles, 
Shields, Edwin Fay, 
Shoemaker, Stowe, 
Simpson, John Morton, 
Smith, Edward Gibbon, 
Stevens, Charles Henry, 

Thesis. State or Country. 
Apis Mellifica and Its Products, Pennsylvania 
Iodoform and Iodoform Ointment, Pennsylvania 
Aromatic Elixir, Ohio 
Copaiba, Pennsylvania 
Commercial Vanilla Bean, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Illinois 
Pharmacy in Turkey, Turkey 
Digitalis and Its Action, Pennsylvania 
Powder Folders, Pennsylvania 
Tinctura Strophanthi, Delaware 
Cacao Beans, New York 
Liquor Magnesii, New York 
Vetiver, Pennsylvania 
Prescription Economics, Pennsylvania 
Crystallization, Pennsylvania 
Glandulae Thyroideae, Pennsylvania 
Cod Liver Oil, Pennsylvania 
Silver, Texas 
Myristica Delaware 
Fluid Extracts of the National For- 
mulary, Third Edition, Pennsylvania 
Acridity of Arisaema Triphyllum, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, New Jersey 
The Relative Size of the Drops of a 
Saturated Solution of Potassium 
Iodide, Pennsylvania 
The Thalleioquin Reaction, Utah 
Leguminosae and Their Influence on 

Agriculture, Pennsylvania 
Acetphenetidinum, Illinois 
Twentieth Century Pharmacist, Pennsylvania 
Phyllanthus Niruri, L. (Sampalucan), Manila, P. I. 
Acacia, Pennsylvania 
Sapo Liquidus, Mississippi 
Elixirs of the National Formulary, Pennsylvania 
Cassia Foetida, Puerto Rico 
Oleum Gossypii Seminis, Arkansas 
Conium Maculatum, Pennsylvania 
Greaseless Creams, Pennsylvania 
Animal Diastase, Pennsylvania 
Juniperus Nana, Pennsylvania 
Camphora, Ohio 
Prunus Virginiana, Pennsylvania 
Stearic Acid, Pennsylvania 
Manufacture of Pig Iron Pennsylvania 
Some Cultivated Varieties of Cap- 
sicum, Pennsylvania 


Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 

Am. Jour. Pliarm. 
June, 1908. 


Stetler, Harry Aaron, 

Stokes, Edward Verry, 
Stover, Harman Albert, 
Strauch, Robert, 
Stucker, Lester Eldridge, 
Study, Edwin Lever, 

Suter, Louis Adolph, 
Sweeney, Edward James, 
Teter, Claude Jacob, 
Titus, Frank DeWight, 

Trainer, Maurice Winfield, 
True, Chester Arthur, 
Umlauf, Harry Jacob, 
Wagner, John George, 
Watson, Herbert Tustin, 
Weinberg, Samuel, 
Wendel, Paul Herman, 

Whaland, Berta (Miss) (P. 
Wheeler, C. E. Richardson 
Wisman, Robert Maphis, 
Wolfe, Joseph Albert, 
Woodman, Charles David, 

Wyss, Walter Aultman, 
Young, Edgar Joseph, 
Young, Jos. Bartholomew, 

Zeller, Chas. Bruce Boyle, 
Zelt, John William, 

Thesis. State or Country. 

The Cultivation and Industry of 

Gossypium, Pennsylvania 
Malt Extracts, Maryland 
Syrup of Tolu, Pennsylvania 
Liquor Magnesii Citratis, Pennsylvania 
Petrolatum Saponatum Liquidum Iowa 
Olive Oil and Adulteration as Found 

and Shown in Drug Stores, Pennsylvania 
Spiritus Ammonias Aromaticus, Maryland 
Distribution of Mucilage in Sassafras, Pennsylvania 
Iodine and Its Antiseptic Properties, Pennsylvania 
Camphor Estimation in Spirit of 

Camphor, Pennsylvania 
Diphtheria Antitoxin, Pennsylvania 
Cinchona and Its Alkaloids, Maine 
Sandalwood, Pennsylvania 
Iodine, New Jersey 

The Production of Olive Oil, Pennsylvania 
Cannabis Indica, New Jersey 

The Microscopical Examination of 

Powdered Drugs, New Jersey 

C), The Rancidity of Fats, Pennsylvania 
, Agaricus Campestris, Pennsylvania 
Sodium Phosphate, Virginia 
Aqua Hydrogenii Dioxidi , Maryland 
Microscopical Study of Sassafras 

Medulla, Pennsylvania 
Ginseng, Ohio 
Pharmacy a Profession, Pennsylvania 
Microscopical Examination of Seve- 
ral Varieties of Opium, Pennsylvania 
Salaeratus, Maryland 
Asbestos, Preparation and Products, Pennsylvania 

The following are the names of those who received the degree of 
Pharmaceutical Chemist (P. C), together with the subjects of their 

theses : 

Allen, James Henry, 
Bell, Howard Homer, 
Bonnell, Frank Sumner, 
Etoch, Michael Antoine, 
French, Robert Samuel, 

Greeninger, Chas. Wenger, 

Hering, George, 


Lime Tablets, 

Liquor Antisepticus U.S.P. 
Labarraque's Solution, 

State or Country. 


Micro-chemical Tests and the Physio- 
logical Testing of Drugs, Oregon 

Elixir Ferri, Quininae et Strychninas 

Phosphatum, Pennsylvania 

Tincture of Strophanthus, New Jersey 

Am j J u n U e r ;ifo8 arm -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 299 

Name. Thesis. Country. 

Jones, Elisha Roy, Examination of Substances for 

Poison, Texas 

LaDow, Harry, Urinary Analysis, New Jersey 

Mathewson, William, Desiccated Suprarenal Gland, Pennsylvania 

Nahikian, Kissag Marookeh,The Use of the Microscope as an 

Adjunct to the Pharmacist, Armenia 

Neal, Clark, Theobroma Cacao, Pennsylvania 

R igg> John, Phenol, New Jersey 

Zahn, Herman Stanley, Fluid Glycerite of Krameria, New Jersey 

The following were awarded the certificate of Proficiency in 

Name. State. 

Davy, F. Covell (P.D.) Pennsylvania 

Fry, Elmer Jay Ohio 

Keiser, Charles Raymond . . Pennsylvania 

Wade, Joseph Louis (P.D.) Pennsylvania 

There were 140 candidates for the degrees in course, coming from 
the various States and countries as follows : Arkansas, 2 ; Armenia, 
1 ; Delaware, 2 ; Georgia, 1 ; Illinois, 2 ; Iowa, 2 ; Italy, I ; Maine, 
1 ; Manila, P. I., 1 : Maryland, 7; Mississippi, 1 ; New Jersey, 15 ; 
New York, 5; Ohio, 5; Oklahoma, 1; Oregon, 1; Pennsylvania, 81; 
Puerto Rico, 2 ; Russia, I ; Tennessee, 1; Texas, 3 ; Turkey, I ; Utah, 
1; Virginia, 1; West Virginia, 1. 

The valedictory address was delivered by Hon. Ralph D. Cole, 
Representative in Congress from Ohio, and was highly appreciated. 


The following students received the grade of distinguished : T. C. 
Ladakis and Ralph Nelden. The grade of meritorious was attained 
by Oscar A. Delle, Paul R. England, Frank DeW. Titus, Hugh H. 
Rather and Joseph A. Wolfe. 

The Procter Prize, a gold medal and certificate, for the highest 
general average of the class with a meritorious thesis, was awarded 
to Ralph Nelden, the presentation being made by President French. 

The William B. Webb Memorial Prize, a gold medal and certi- 
ficate, offered for the highest general average in the examinations of 
the committee, operative pharmacy and specimens, was awarded to 
Ralph Nelden, the presentation being made by Professor Sadtler. 

300 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. {^j^S 1 m ' 

The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : T. C. Ladakis and Hugh H. Rather. 

The Pharmacy Prize, a gold medal, offered by Prof. Joseph P. 
Remington for original pharmaceutical work, was awarded to Lee 
F. Mauger. The following graduates received honorable mention 
in connection therewith: William O. Frailey, Jr., and Frederick S. 

The Materia Medica Prize of $25, offered by Prof. Clement B. 
Lowe for the best examination in materia medica and in the recog- 
nition of specimens with a meritorious thesis, was awarded to Ralph 
Nelden. The following graduates received honorable mention in con- 
nection therewith : Edson J. Barrett, John F. McGovern, T. C. La- 
dakis, Edward J. Sweeney and Frank DeW. Titus. 

The Microscopical Research Prize, a Zentmayer microscope, 
offered by Prof. Henry Kraemer, for the best thesis involving origi- 
nal microscopical work, was awarded to Pedro P. Goicouria. The 
following graduates received honorable mention in connection there- 
with: John J. Bridgeman, Jr., Robert S. French, Feliciano Paterno, 
Charles H. Stevens, Harry J. Umlauf, Charles C. Church, John W. 
Link, Martin C. Schuehle, Edward J. Sweeney, Charles D. Woodman 
and Joseph B. Young, Jr. 

The Analytical Chemistry Prize, $25, offered by Prof. Frank X. 
Moerk, for the best work in qualitative and quantitative analysis, 
was awarded to Ralph Nelden. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : James H. Allen and 
Oscar A. Delle. 

The Operative Pharmacy Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington, for the best examination in operative phar- 
macy, was awarded to Thomas Davis Laws, the presentation being 
made by Wm. L. Cliffe. The following graduates received honora- 
ble mention in connection therewith : Edson J. Barrett, Clarence H. 
Eldon, T. C. Ladakis, Joseph L. Pennock, Frank DeW. Titus, For- 
rest W. Dauphinee, Paul R. England, Ralph Nelden, Hugh H. Rather 
and Charles B. B. Zeller. 

The Maisch Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Mr. Jacob H. Redsecker, 
of Lebanon, Pa., for histological knowledge of drugs, was awarded 
to Ralph Nelden, the presentation being made by Theodore Camp- 
bell. The following graduates received honorable mention in con- 
nection therewith : James H. Allen, Eugene C. Beam, J. Atlee Dean, 

Am j^ 1 £| arm -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, 301 

Harry J. Umlauf, Howard J. Baer, John J. Bridgeman, Jr., Pedro 
P. Goicouria and Joseph A. Wolfe. 

The Theoretical Pharmacy Prize, a Troemner Agate Prescrip- 
tion Balance, offered by Mr. Mahlon N. Kline for the best exami- 
nation in Theory and Practice of Pharmacy, was awarded to T. 
C. Ladakis, the presentation being made by George M. Beringer. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith : Ralph Nelden and Hugh H. Rather. 

The Commercial Training Prize, $20 in gold, offered by Prof. 
Joseph P. Remington to the graduate who passed the best exami- 
nation in Commercial Training at the final examination for the 
degree, was awarded to Edwin L. Study, the presentation being 
made by Warren H. Poley. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Edson J. Barrett, Oscar 
A. Delle, T. C. Ladakis, Thomas D. Laws, Lee F. Mauger, James 
F. Bourne, Paul R. England, Ralph R. Johnston, Clement W. Lowe, 
Ralph Nelden and Hugh Henry Rather. 

The Instructors' Prize, $20, offered by the instructors of the 
College for the highest term average in the branches of Pharmacy, 
Chemistry and Materia Medica, was awarded to Lee F. Mauger. 
The following graduates received honorable mention in connection 
therewith: T. C. Ladakis, Clark Neal, Robert Strauch, William 
Mathewson, Ralph Nelden, Frank DeW. Titus and Joseph A. 

The Pharmacy Review Prize, one year's membership in the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, offered by Prof. Charles H. 
La Wall for the best term work in theory and practice of pharmacy, 
was awarded to Ralph Nelden. The following graduates received 
honorable mention in connection therewith : Eugene C. Beam, 
Clarence H. Eldon, T. C. Ladakis, Lee F. Mauger, Harman A. 
Stover, Frank DeW. Titus, Oscar A. Delle, Robert S. French, Wil- 
liam Mathewson, Clark Neal, Robert Strauch and Joseph A. Wolfe. 

The Kappa Psi Fraternity Prize, a gold medal, offered by the 
Eta Chapter of the Kappa Psi Fraternity to the graduate making 
the highest general average during his or her senior course at the 
College, was awarded to Ralph Nelden. The following gradu- 
ates received honorable mention in connection therewith : Oscar 
A. Delle, T. C. Ladakis, Frank DeW. Titus, Paul R. England, Hugh 
H. Rather and Joseph A. Wolfe. 

302 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am jin" ifo8 arm * 


A very pleasant function following the Commencement exercises 
was a reception and dinner given at the Union League by the 
officers and faculty of the College to the guests of the evening, 
including the Hon. Ralph D. Cole, those receiving honorary degrees 
and the members of the Board of Trustees of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia Convention. President French acted as toastmaster, 
and short speeches were made by the recipients of honorary degrees. 

On Wednesday evening, May 20th, a complimentary supper was 
tendered the graduating class by members of the Faculty. Pro- 
fessor Remington, as dean of the Faculty, acted as toastmaster, and 
in addition to the speeches by the members of the Faculty and 
instructors, a number of the members of the graduating class made 
brief responses. 


Baccalaureate services were held in the Church of St. Luke and 
The Epiphany, on Sunday afternoon, May 17th, the sermon being 
delivered by the rector, the Rev. David M. Steele. 


The forty-fourth annual meeting was held in Alumni Hall, Mon- 
day, May 1 8th, at 2.30 p.m., with the President, Charles H. La Wall, 
in the chair. Following the annual address of the President, were 
the reports of officers and standing committees. The annual election 
of officers was then held and resulted as follows : President, E. 
Fullerton Cook ; first vice-president, Clarence H. Campbell ; second 
vice-president, David J. Reese ; recording secretary, Joseph W. 
England; corresponding secretary, Otto W. Osterlund; treasurer, 
C. Carroll Meyer ; board of directors : Jacob M. Baer, William H. 
Gano, William E. Lee, Edwin L. Newcomb, Charles S. Cameron and 
Alfred Heineberg. 

The annual reception given by the Association to the members of 
the graduating class was held on the evening of the same day in the 
College Museum. 



JULY, 1908 


By Henry Kraemer and Harry B. Sindaee. 

Besides its use in medicine, ginger is extensively used in the 
United States, both as a condiment and confection, and also in the 
preparation of ginger ale. While there are about twenty species of 
the genus Zingiber, most of the commercial article is obtained from 
Zingiber officinale, Roscoe. According to Watt, 1 this species is not 
known in a truly wild state, but is doubtless a native of Tropical 
Asia. It is now extensively cultivated in both the Eastern and 
Western Hemispheres, having been introduced into nearly all 
tropical countries. 

It is a perennial herbaceous plant, belonging to the family Zingi- 
beracece, a monocotyledonous group of plants which are character- 
ized by their aromatic properties. The plant produces two kinds of 
shoots, one composed of leaves only and one which bears flowers^ 
It is of interest to note in this connection that although the plant is 
grown in many of the botanic gardens of the world, it is claimed by 
Bentley and Trimen 2 that it does not flower under these conditions. 
An excellent illustration of the plant is given by Berg and Schmidt, 3 
and this has been reproduced by Engler and Prantl 4 and other 

* This is the second of this series of papers, the first having appeared in the 
January number of this Journae on the "Examination of Black Pepper." 
It probably should be stated that the chemical analyses given in this series 
of papers are beiug carried on by Mr. Sindall, the remaining part of the 
work being by Professor Kraemer. 


304 Examination of Commercial Ginger. { Am, juiy r /i9£ arm ' 

When grown for commercial purposes, the plant is propagated 
from cuttings of the rhizomes. In India great care is bestowed upon 
this crop, special attention being given both to the physical condi- 
tion of the soil and its composition. Frequently the Dolichos vine 
is grown along with the ginger plants to keep the ground moist and 
cool, or the plants are protected by a leafy covering. The cuttings 
are planted in April or May, or later, according to locality, and it 
takes about nine months for the plant to reach maturity. In Jamaica 
the planting season begins in March or April. 

When the overground parts of the plants die down, the rhizomes 
are dug and variously treated to prepare them for market. In 
Jamaica, according to Kilmer, 5 the rhizomes are first peeled 
and then washed with clean water, in some cases lime-juice being 
added to the water, after which they are dried in the sun. In India 
the rhizomes are usually partly peeled and treated with boiling 
water, or, according to Simmonds, 6 with boiling lime water. In 
some cases the peeled rhizomes are subsequently coated with calcium 
carbonate (chalk) or calcium sulphate (gypsum) to prevent the 
ravages of insects. Decorticated ginger is often bleached, by the 
use of chlorinated lime or sulphurous acid. 

The rhizome is described as being a sympodium, that is, belongs 
to the dichotomous system of branching, in which the branches on 
one side are less developed. Its external morphology, as well 
as histology, has been studied by Meyer, 7 and by Oesterle 
and Tschirch. 8 The rhizome is flattened, and as a result of its 
branching habit assumes the peculiar form sometimes spoken of as 
a " hand," the branches being called " fingers." 


Gingers are known commercially as " scraped " or " decorticated," 
and " coated," the scraped including those sorts from which the 
cortex has been removed in whole or in part by peeling, as the 
Cochin, Jamaica and Japan gingers ; whereas the coated gingers 
include those which retain the periderm or outer natural- layers of 
the rhizomes, as African, Calcutta and Calicut. " Bleached " and 
" unbleached " sorts are also distinguished, the former including 
rhizomes which are lighter in color, owing to careful washing and 
drying or other treatment as already stated. There has long been 
a demand for " white ginger," which demand has been met by coat- 

Fig. I. — Commercial gingers : A, African ; B, Calcutta ; C, Calicut ; D, 
Cochin ; E, Jamaica ; F, Japan. (One half natural size). 

306 Examination of Commercial Ginger. {^'z^lvm? 1 *' 

ing the rhizomes with lime. The United States Government stand- 
ards do not, however, permit any considerable percentage of lime, 
but, on the contrary, require the gingers of the market to be care- 
fully garbled, and that only clean pieces be used. 

The principal commercial gingers which are coming into this 
market at present are African, Calcutta, Calicut, Cochin, Jamaica 
and Japan (Fig. i). 

African Ginger.^ — This sort occurs in short-branched pieces 
(Fig. /) that vary from 2 to 4 cm. in length, and from 6 to 12 mm. 
in width. The pieces are partly peeled on the flattened sides, the 
patches where the cortex is removed being smooth and of a brown 
color. The unpeeled portion is longitudinally wrinkled, or reticulate, 
and of a grayish-brown color. The fracture is short or short-fibrous. 
Internally, the color varies from lemon-yellow to a dark-bluish or 
slate color, and the sections exhibit yellowish oil dots and light- 
yellow to garnet resin dots. The odor is strongly aromatic and the 
taste is intensely acrid. 

Calcutta Ginger. — This ginger somewhat resembles the African 
ginger, but the branches or fingers are larger, and there is a con- 
siderable proportion of shriveled pieces. The pieces vary from 2 
to 7 cm. long, and from 5 to 20 mm. wide. The color is grayish- 
brown, the peeled parts being of a grayish-blue or slate color, due 
to the presence of a mold. The fracture is short and mealy, or 
horny. Internally, the rhizome is of a light yellow or light brownish- 
yellow color, and exhibits resin dots which are yellow to yellowish- 
brown in color. The odor is aromatic, and the taste starchy and 
strongly pungent. 

Calicut Ginger. — The pieces of this sort resemble those of Cal- 
cutta ginger, but more of the periderm is removed. They are from 
2 5 to 5-5 cm. long and from 10 to 18 mm. wide. The color is more 
or less uniformly light brown. The fracture is short, or short- 
fibrous, and mealy. The color internally is light or brownish-yel- 
low, the resin dots under the lens being yellowish. The odor is 
aromatic and the taste is strongly acrid. 

Cochin Ginger. — The pieces are more or less plump and uniform 
in size, varying from 2 to 4 cm. long, and from 10 to 20 mm. wide. 
A large proportion of the periderm is removed, and the color varies 
from a light brown to a grayish-yellow. The fracture is short and 
mealy. Internally, the pieces are of a light cream color, and under 

Am '/uiy?i908 arm '} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 307 

a lens show numerous black resin dots. The odor is aromatic and 
the taste is acrid, but less persistent than in some of the other kinds. 
Jamaica Ginger. — The main branches of the rhizome appear to 

Fig. 2. — Transverse sections showing relative width of cortex in the follow- 
ing commercial gingers : A, African ; B, Calcutta ; C, Calicut ; D, Cochin ; E, 
Jamaica ; F y Japan. 

C, cork ; R, pigment layer ; P, parenchyma of cortex, containing secretion 
cells and fibrovascular bundles ; E, endodermis ; S, stele with parenchyma, 
secretion cells and fibrovascular bundles. 

be comparatively small, and the pieces vary from 2 to 4 cm. long, 
and from 2 to 17 mm. wide. All of the periderm is removed and 
the surface is smooth and grayish-white to dark gray in color. The 

308 Examination of Commercial Ginger. { Am j J u °iy^f h & rm ' 

fracture is short and smooth. The color internally is light yellowish- 
brown, showing few reddish-yellow resin dots under a lens. The 
odor is very aromatic and the taste agreeably pungent. 

Japanese Ginger. — The pieces are sparingly branched and vary 
from 2 to 4 cm. long, and from 10 to 20 mm. in width. The peri- 
derm is mostly removed, the surface being smooth and of a whitish 
color, due to the presence of a coating of calcium carbonate. The 
fracture is short and very mealy, the color internally varying from 
cream to light brown. Under the lens the sections exhibit reddish 
resin dots. The odor is aromatic and the taste is acrid. 


The ginger rhizome has the typical monocotyledonous stem 
structure [Fig. 2). It consists chiefly of parenchyma containing 
starch, among the cells of which are numerous secretion cells with 
suberized walls that contain oil and resinous substances, and about 
one-third to one-fourth as many fibrovascular bundles, which are of 
the closed collateral type. Separating the central cylinder, or stele, 
from the cortex, is a more or less interrupted endodermis, the radial 
walls of the cells of which are slightly suberized, but in the dried 
material it is distinguished with some difficulty. A portion of the 
cork is found in African, Calcutta, Calicut and Cochin gingers, but 
is wanting in the Jamaica and japan varieties. 

Parenchyma. — The parenchyma cells are nearly isodiametric, 
varying from 25 to 120 /jl in diameter, and are somewhat elongated. 
The walls are composed of cellulose and are about 1 fx thick. The 
parenchyma cells of the stele are uniformly larger than those of the 
cortex. It has been stated that the parenchyma contains calcium 
oxalate, but this substance has not been detected in the commercial 
sorts included in this examination, the cells containing starch as 
already stated. 

Starch Grains. — The careful study of the starch grains of ginger 
is very important, for not only may the different commercial sorts 
be distinguished by the characters of the starch grains, but their 
appearance also possibly throws some light on the manner of curing 
of the rhizomes. While it is true that the starch grains vary con- 
siderably in the same ginger as well as in the different gingers, still 
they possess some dominant characters which serve to distinguish 
to a certain extent the different commercial gingers. In a general 

Am "j J u°iy?i9(S arm "} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 309 

way the grains vary from irregular-spherical to ellipsoidal, ovoid, 
ovoid-pointed and somewhat rectangular as viewed on the side 
{Fig. 3). While occasionally a grain may show distinct lamellae, 
this is not the rule. For some reason ginger starch grains do not 
polarize well. Very few of the grains show a distinct cross, and 
usually the contrast in the parts of the field is faint, unless they are 
mounted in oil and heated to 6o° C, 

The starch grains of Japan ginger are the most easily distin- 
guished. In addition to the typical grains, which vary from 20 to 
35 fx in length, there are numerous compound grains varying from 
4 to 25 fji in diameter (Fig. 3, f). They differ from the ordinary 
compound grains by being more or less irregular and of varying 
size, and apparently more easily detached from one another than is 
usually the case. In Calcutta ginger there appears to be a larger 
proportion of spherical grains, reminding one of those of wheat, and 
varying from ,15 to 25 fi in diameter. The larger grains are ovoid, 
pear-shaped, or ovoid and beaked, and not more than 30 to 40 \i in 
diameter (Fig. 3, b). In Jamaica ginger the grains are uniformly 
larger than in the other gingers, it being not unusual to find them 
45 jx long and occasionally 60 /jl long (Fig. 3, The starch grains 
of African, Calicut and Cochin gingers are quite similar, and vary 
in diameter from 20 to 45 [i In Calicut ginger there are, however, 
a few compound grains and a considerable number of helmet-shaped 
grains (Fig. 3, c). In Cochin ginger the grains show a stronger 
polarization than those of the other gingers, even when mounted in 
water (Fig. 3, d). In African ginger there is a preponderance of 
ellipsoidal, ovoid and pear-shaped grains, which on an average are 
from 25 to 30 /jl in length (Fig. 3, a). 

Secretion Cells. — In ginger there are two kinds of secretion cells, 
one kind being found with the parenchyma and being nearly spher- 
ical, and another associated with the fibrovascular bundles and 
elongated. Those found in the parenchyma vary in number from 
IO to 50 per square millimeter as viewed in transverse section, and 
are more numerous in the cortex than in the stele, and furthermore 
occur in greater number near the endodermis (Fig. 2). The cells 
vary in diameter from 45 to 150 yu. The largest of these cells are 
found in Japan ginger. In fresh ginger and in the confection known 
as " crystallized ginger," the contents are oily and of a light yellow 
color, changing to a golden yellow with sulphuric acid. In most of 

E F 

Fig. 3. — Starch grains of the following commercial gingers : A, African ; 
B, Calcutta ; C, Calicut ; D, Cochin ; E, Jamaica ; F y Japan. 

Am "/uiy?i908 arm '} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 311 

the dried commercial specimens the contents consist of a yellowish 
to reddish-brown balsam-like or resinous substance, which becomes 
of a deep brownish-black color on treatment with sulphuric acid. 
In Cochin ginger many of these cells contain a black tar-like pro- 

The elongated secretion cells are from 60 to 150 \x long and from 
9 to 1 5 in diameter. They are somewhat irregular in outline and 
more or less pointed at the ends. In dried material the contents 
are of a yellow or bright yellowish-brown color. 

Fibrovascular Bundles. — The fibrovascular bundles are, as already 
stated, of the closed collateral type, and the group of cells composing 
them vary in diameter from 60 to 360 fi, the smaller bundles always 
being in the region of the endodermis, and the larger occurring in 
the stele, and averaging from three to five in number per square 
millimeter. The bundles may consist entirely of two or three 
tracheae and accompanying sieve cells, or they may include, in addi- 
tion, from two or three to forty-five or fifty sclerenchymatous fibers. 
The latter appear to be more numerous in the Calcutta and Calicut 
gingers. The tracheae are mostly reticulate, and vary from 30 to 
60 fx in diameter {Fig, 5). The walls consist mostly of cellulose 
and contain little or no lignin, that is, the reaction with phloroglucin 
is very obscure. The sclerenchymatous fibers vary from 0-3 to 1-3 
mm. long, and from 20 to 30 /jl in diameter. The walls are about 
3 fx thick, slightly yellowish, and have slender oblique simple pores. 
The walls are said to be slightly lignified, but this does not appear 
to be true of the samples herein described. They readily swell with 
sulphuric acid, are first colored deeper yellow with chlor-zinc-iodide, 
then blue, and are not affected by phloroglucin and hydrochloric 
acid. The fibers are easily separated either in the crude drug or 
powder by the use of Schulze's macerating fluid, and some of the 
more typical ones from the different gingers are shown in Fig. 4. 

Endodermis .—The endodermal cells are not especially character- 
istic, but on treatment with sulphuric acid the radial walls are seen 
to be suberized. Sometimes the other walls appear to be partly 
suberized. The cells are from 60 to 90 ijl long and about 12 fx in 

Cork. — The cork cells are of the usual type, and in the African 
ginger the cork layer is about 3 mm. thick ; in Calcutta ginger, 
about 0-4 mm. thick. The cells are on an average about 60 fi long, 
and 25 fi wide. 

Am 'ju O iy!*i908. arm } Examination of Commercial Ginger. 313 

Ground or Powdered Ginger. — The color of powdered ginger varies 
from pale yellow to light or dark brown. The odor is strongly aro- 
matic and characteristic, and the taste is very pungent. In the 
making of the tincture of ginger, the U. S. Pharmacopoeia directs 
that the ginger shall be in the form of a moderately fine powder, 
that is, the particles composing the powder shall be about 0-5 mm. 
in diameter. An examination of the commercial powdered ginger 
shows that the particles exclusive of starch grains vary from O-i to 
06 mm. in diameter. Buchwald 9 call attention to the fact that when 
powdered ginger is dropped upon the surface of water the particles 
rapidly separate from one another and then sink in the liquid. This 
behavior of the ginger particles is all the more marked when it is 
compared with that of ether-extracted ginger, starch or lycopodium. 
When powdered ginger is treated with pure sulphuric acid, a reddish- 
brown color is at first produced, which rapidly changes to dark 
brown and finally to purplish-brown. 

In the microscopic examination of the powders {Fig. 5) it is neces- 
sary to use several reagents. After making a preliminary examina- 
tion of the material mounted in water, portions of the powders may 
then be mounted in one of the fixed oils, as olive or almond. While 
this medium brings out all of the elements of the powder, it is espe- 
cially useful in the study of the starch grains. For this purpose it is 
necessary to use a small quantity of material, not more than a milli- 
gram to two or three drops of oil. The entire field should be exam- 
ined carefully and the size and shape of the grains noted. If the 
preparation be heated at a temperature of 6o° C. for 10 to 15 min- 
utes, the polarizing effects of the grains become more pronounced 
[Fig. j). Inasmuch as there are no lignified cells in ginger, phloro- 
glucin is another important reagent in the examination of the powder, 
serving to. detect any of the usual adulterants which contain lignified 
cells, as wheat middlings or capsicum. The sclerenchymatous 
fibers may be isolated by the use of Schulze's macerating fluid. 
When the cells are separated, the material is mounted in alcoholic 
methylene blue and glycerin is added (Fig. 4). Sulphuric acid is 
not only useful for determining the presence of ether-exhausted 
ginger and distinguishing the oil and resin cells, and the presence 
or absence of cork, but is especially useful in detecting the fungus 
of moldy ginger, the hyphae and spores being both brought out 
with this reagent. 

314 Examination of Commercial Ginger. {^ m j J ^ 

Adulterated Ginger. — The study of ginger is rendered difficult by 
reason of the fact that in preparing it for the market it is treated in 
a manner which alters its character to a greater or lesser extent. 

Fig. 5. —Adulterated powdered ginger: F, sclerenchymatous fibers ; T, reticu- 
late tracheae ; SC, secretion cells ; K, cork ; S, starch grains ; W, swollen starch 
grains ; W, small swollen altered starch grains ; P, parenchyma ; H, hyphse of 
fungus and spores (F) ; Y, fragments of tissues of capsicum ; N, stone cells 
of olive endocarp. 

The water-soluble extract is partly removed by the washing to which 
it is subjected, and thus, as pointed out by Clayton, 12 the higher the 
price and the finer the appearance, the less the proportion of oleo- 
resinous constituents. In other words, an excessive amount of 

Am 'ju°yjfo8. arm "} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 315 

washing produces an effect similar to that found in exhausted ginger. 
Furthermore, it should be stated that on the keeping of ginger the 
contents of the secretion cells are oxidized and changed in color, as 
well as rendered insoluble in such solvents as alcohol, ether, acetone, 
glacial acetic acid, potassium hydrate solution, and chloral hydrate ; 
whereas, in the recently dried material, in the fresh rhizome and in 
preserved ginger the contents are of a distinct light yellow or yellow 
color, the oil is in the form of globules, and the contents are easily 
removed by means of any of the foregoing solvents. It would thus 
appear that the fresher the ginger the better it is in quality. 

While in the past a number of substances have been used in the 
adulteration of ginger, at the present time apparently exhausted 
ginger is chiefly used, its deficiency in pungency being made up by 
the addition of a small amount of capsicum or Cayenne pepper. In 
the examination of ground ginger for the detection of exhausted 
ginger or other adulterants, the following points should be borne in 
mind : 

1. Physical appearance. In powdered ginger the material is 
more or less uniform and granular, whereas in the exhausted powder 
the fibrous character of the material is especially manifest. The 
color of exhausted ginger is considerably lighter ; the odor is strik- 
ingly less aromatic and the taste is less pungent, unless capsicum 
has been added, in which case the characteristic pungency of this 
condiment is evident. 

2. When ether-extracted ginger is dropped on the surface of 
water, the particles are not distributed rapidly over the surface, and 
show a tendency to form a scum on the water, as is the case with 
wheat flour. 

3. On adding sulphuric acid to exhausted ginger, a greenish- 
brown color at first develops, which becomes darker, the reagent 
itself not being colored. 

4. With phloroglucin the stone cells of capsicum {Fig. 5, y) turn 
to a cherry-red, as also the lignified cells of soap bark. The 
cells of the sarcocarp of capsicum containing red chromoplasts are 
readily detected when the material is mounted in chloral or fixed 

5. When ginger has been exhausted with water or dilute alcohol, 
a comparatively larger number of the starch grains have bursted or 
have a swollen appearance at one end, and in among the grains are 

3 16 Examination of Commercial Ginger. { Am 'j , uiy r ,'i908!' rrD ' 

particles of starchy material formed from the altered starch grains. 
When viewed under the micro-polariscope, while the cross may 
appear to be less distinct in some of the grains, they do not for the 
most part seem to have lost their anisotropic character, or to have 
been changed in constitution. 


A number of excellent papers on the chemical examination of 
ginger have been published abroad, one of the most important of 
these being the one by Reich, 10 in which the various commercial 
sorts as well as exhausted ginger are considered. The most com- 
plete series of analyses that have thus far been made in this country 
is that published by Winton and Mitchell. 11 

The commercial gingers already enumerated were also examined 
chemically. The methods followed were those recommended by the 
Association of Official Agricultural Chemists, with the exception of 
that recommended for the determination of starch, which was esti- 
mated according to Allihn's original method for the determination 
of dextrose. 

The following data were obtained in the examination of samples 
of known purity : 

TABLE No. i. 

Total Ash. 

Ash Insoluble 
in 10 per cent. 

Cold Water 

Volatile Ether 



Crude Fiber. 

Starch by Di- 
rect Acid 

lyime as 
Calcium Oxide. 




8 '49 






7 "47 



3 06 



5 "46 



5 '64 


I ? -08 




1 -64 

48 77 








3 - °6 

52 00 



o - 45 



7 "30 










10 48 

1 '60 



The following figures were obtained in the examination of the 
ash of coarsely ground gingers of known purity. Ail of the figures 
given represent the average of two samples, except in the case of 
Calcutta ginger, in which the figures are the average of those 
obtained in the examination of four samples. 

'•} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 317 

TABLE No. 2. 

Total Ash. 

Insoluble Ash. 

Lime as Calcium Oxide 


1 35 



1 07 



o - 57 

o - i6' 










The following table shows the averages of the figures obtained in 
the partial analysis of from four to six samples of gingers of known 
purity : 

TABLE No. 3. 

1 Ash. 

in -rt 

:h by 


Tot a 

£1 V <-> u 


-* j 





57 "°9 

7 20 


5 60 

1 06 

48 99 





537 1 

6 36 





60 75 




2; 02 









5 '64 





5 - 5i 







48 55 

7-6 4 











5 '40 










62 97 





43 '64 



3 - 90 








io - 48 



o - 6r 

39 99 



6 14 




The following data were obtained in the examination of authentic 
samples of African and Calcutta gingers : 

3 18 Examination of Commercial Ginger. { Am j J 

TABLE No. 4- 

Total Ash. 

Insoluble Ash 
in 10 per cent. 

Crude Fiber. 

Starch by 
Direct Acid 


6 09 


6 88 











6 - 00 





5 '93 










4 80 


The following data were obtained in the examination of twenty- 
three samples of pure ground ginger: 

TABLE No. 5. 

Total Ash. 

Insoluble Ash in 
10 per cent. 
Hydrochloric Acid. 

Crude Fiber. 



2 19 



rc 4 




1 "45 


The following figures were obtained in the examination of com- 
mercial gingers bought on the market : . 

TABLE No. 6. 

Total Ash. 

Soluble Ash. 

Insoluble Ash 
in 10 per cent. 

Crude Fiber. 

Cold Water 


Volatile Ether 
Extract. | 

Ether Extract, j 

Lime as 
Calcium Oxide. 

Starch by 
Direct Acid 









7 09 




7 '05 


1 "54 


i2 - 64 


2 63 



45 - 27 








1 '90 







I- 18 




•I '45 



52 76 


5 00 






1 "90 

























Am juiy, r "i£8. arm '} Examination of Commercial Ginger. 319 

An examination of the figures given in Table 6 shows that all of 
the samples of commercial powdered ginger conform to the Govern- 
ment standard for starch and lime. All, except No. 2, contain less 
than 8 per cent, of crude fiber. They all come within the limits for 
insoluble ash, although the total ash is too high in Nos. I, 2, 3 and 
4. The samples are all lower in volatile ether extract than any of 
the authentic samples, analyses of which are given in Table 1, and 
Nos. 1, 4 and 5 show less cold-water extract. No. 7 was obtained 
as exhausted ginger, and is notably low in water-soluble ash, cold- 
water extract, alcohol extract, volatile ether extract and non-volatile 
ether extract. 



The foregoing samples of commercial powdered gingers were also 
examined microscopically. Nos. 1 and 2 show the presence of 
Cayenne pepper and of olive endocarp (Fig. 5). 

No. 4 contained aggregations of starchy material about 0-5 mm. 
in diameter, in which were distributed reddish oil globules resembling 
those of capsicum, which, together with the pungency characteristic 
of capsicum, suggested the addition of tincture of capsicum. 

No. 5 contained numerous fragments, about 0-5 mm. in diameter, 
with polygonal non-lignified cells containing numerous yellowish- 
brown globular masses from 20 to 30 /jl in diameter. 

Nos. 3, 4, 5 and 6 all contained a considerable amount of fibrous 
material, as well as thick- walled isodiametric cells which were strongly 
lignified. While the presence of this foreign material may have 
been due to failure in properly garbling the ginger rhizomes, the 
amount was such as to warrant one in looking upon the samples 
with suspicion. 

No. 7, which was obtained as an exhausted ginger, contained 
numerous fragments of quillaja or soap bark, as also the typical 
calcium oxalate crystals of quillaja. 


In considering the data obtained in both the microscopical and 
chemical examination of the samples of commercial powdered ginger 
and those of known purity, the conclusion is reached that commer- 

320 Examination of Commercial Ginger. { Am jK^iSs?" 11 ' 

cial powdered ginger, as, for example, samples 5, 6 and 7 in Table 
6, may conform to the official standards, and yet be adulterated or 
contain exhausted ginger, or on the other hand be pure and yet 
vary slightly in the percentage of ash, as given in Tables I, 4 and 5. 

The comparatively high percentage of ash in Calcutta ginger may 
probably be accounted for by the larger amount of cork and the 
number of sclerenchymatous fibers in the fibrovascular bundles. 
That this is true is also shown by the fact that the percentage of 
crude fiber in Calcutta ginger is higher than in the other gingers 
examined (Table 1). While the analyses of Calcutta and African 
ginger, as given in Table 4, do not strictly bear out this assumption, 
it is seen that in the case of African ginger there is a ratio between 
the crude fiber and total ash, i. e. } the higher the percentage of crude 
fiber the higher the percentage of ash. The same holds with Cochin 
ginger, where the fibrovascular bundles are large and numerous, not- 
withstanding the amount of cork is small. In the case of Japan 
ginger, the rather high ash is accounted for by the fact that it is a 
limed ginger. 

From the observations herein recorded, it would seem that there 
should be different standards for ash in the different sorts. In other 
words, it would probably be better to require the ash in Jamaica 
ginger to be between 4 and 5 per cent, and that for Calcutta ginger 
to be between 7 and 8 per cent., than to have a uniform standard of 
6 per cent. 

In forming an opinion as to the quality of powdered or ground 
commercial ginger, the following points should be borne in mind: 

1. The powder should be uniformly granular and have a pro- 
nounced characteristic aromatic odor and a characteristic pungent 

2. On treatment with sulphuric acid, the particles of genuine 
ginger become of a reddish-brown color, which changes rapidly to 
dark brown and finally to purplish-brown. 

3. With phloroglucin and hydrochloric acid, few or none of the 
fragments should be stained a cherry-red color. 

4. Of the official standards, those for the total ash and crude fiber 
are the most important. The latter is of special importance if the 
microscopic examination with phloroglucin shows the presence of 
any lignified tissues. 

5. The volatile ether extract should not be less than 3 per cent. 

Am juiv r ifos. arm- } Notes on "Physiological Testing" 321 


1 George Watt : A Dictionary of Economic Products of India, q, Part 4, p. 

2 Bentley and Tritnen : Medicinal Plants, 4, Monograph 270. 

3 Berg und Schmidt : Officinel Gewachse, Taf. XXXIV, b. 

* Engler und Prantl : Die natiirlichen Pflanzenfamilien, II. Teil, 6. Abteilung 
p. 26. 

5 F. B. Kilmer : American Journal of Pharmacy, ~o (1898), p. 75. 

6 P. L. Simmonds : Tropical Agriculture, p. 497. 

7 Arthur Meyer : Wissenschaftliche Drogenkunde, Part II, p. 64. 

8 A.'Tschirch und O. Oesterle : Anatomischer Atlas, Lief. VI, p. 109, Taf el 

9 Joh. Buchwald : Zeitschr. J, Untersuchung d. Nahr.- u. Genussmittel, 2 
(1899), p. 947- 

10 R. Reich : Zeitschr. /. Untersuchung d. Nahr.- u. Genussmittel, 14 (1907), 
P- 549- 

11 A. L. Winton and W. L. Mitchell : Connecticut Agricultural Experiment 
Station, Twenty-second Annual Report (1898), p. 144. 

12 E- G. Clayton: The Analyst, 34 (1899), p. 122. 


By Albert C. Crawford, 
Bureau of Plant Industry, United States Department of Agriculture, 
Washington, D. C. 

I was asked to speak on the question of physiological testing, I 
suppose, because of my former connection with certain of the large 
drug firms. This connection has given me a rather closer interest 
in the subject than is usual with pharmacologists in this country, 
and I had planned to write a series of papers on these methods. 
The first of this series — the one on the testing of suprarenal glands 
— has already been published, 2 but it is now a question as to whether 
I shall be able to complete the series. 

The use of animals for testing drugs and chemicals is a method 
of very old origin and long antedates the use of the term " physio 

1 Read before the Baltimore Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Asso 
ciation, May 21, 1908. 

2 Crawford, A. C. Use of the Suprarenal Glands in the Physiological Test- 
ing of Drug Plants. United States Department of Agriculture, Bureau of 
Plant Industry, Bulletin 112. 

322 Notes on "Physiological Testing." { Am j5^£g. arm 

logical testing." This term is, I think, so widely known because of 
its exploitation by certain of the large drug firms. It has come, in 
the minds of certain people, to mean a fairly quantitative test of 
drug preparations on animals. Kobert prefers the use of the term 
" biological testing," as it has a wider significance, and since the 
term may be used in reference to the testing qualitatively of chemi- 
cals on any form of life, while the term " biological assay " seems 
more desirable for the quantitative determination by this method. 

It has been well recognized that many of the drugs and chemicals 
cannot be standardized by the ordinary chemical methods, and for 
this reason they have been tested on animals. There are certain 
classes of drugs, which, at the present time, can be only thus stand, 
ardized; for example, the members of the digitalis group, cannabis 
indica, ergot, antitoxines and the preparations of the ductless glands. 
As yet we have no other method of testing yohimbin, curare, abrin, 
ricin, jequirity, 1 saponins, etc. Kobert practically admits that the 
chemical test is unsuited for the recognition of aconitine, and that 
such tests fail for small quantities of picrotoxin, etc. Dixon 2 claims 
that " lobelia can be standardized very accurately by its effect upon 
blood pressure and its subsequent paralytic action on certain nerve 
cells." Then again, there are preparations which, while they can 
be standardized by chemical means, may with advantage be con- 
trolled by the physiological test, at least qualitatively ; thus, cocaine 
produces characteristic anaesthesia of the mucous membranes, and 
atropine produces dilatation of the pupil, and the addition of these 
tests may render the chemical ones more certain. Others again 
may be tested by either chemical or biological methods, according 
to circumstances. Kobert, under certain conditions, prefers the test 
for arsenic by means of Penicillium brevicaule to the Marsh test, 
although it must be admitted that certain arsenic compounds by 
this test fail to respond. 


We, Baltimoreans, should be especially familiar with these glands 
because the first chemical work in this country was done in this 

1 Scholtz, K. Werthbestimmung d. ■ Jequiritols u. des Jequiritol- Heilserum 
durch Thierexperimente. Arch. J. Augenheilkunde, Vol. 55, p. 209. 1906. 

2 Dixon, W. E. Bio-Chemical Standardization of Drugs. Pharm. Journ., 
Vol. 75, P. 157. 1905. 

Am /u°iyyi9 P o8 arm '} Notes on "Physiological Testing:' 323 

city in Professor Abel's laboratory. The best-known preparation 
of the active principle of these glands which is on the market is 
that bearing the name of Takamine. Abel has shown, however, 
that this preparation is not chemically pure. Aldrich, Abel's former 
associate, has obtained an extremely pure form of this body, and 
retained Takamine's name ; but its production by Aldrich's method 
is not commercially possible. This adrenalin of Aldrich and Abel's 
later product, Epinephrin, are probably identical. 

There have been numerous attempts to assay these preparations 
by color reactions produced by iodine and iron chloride ; but, while 
these are fairly serviceable with the pure principle, when used with 
preparations of the glands themselves, which are colored, they are 
very misleading. It is admitted by most investigators that the 
physiological test is the most convenient method of assaying them. 
Objections have, however, been raised on account of the extreme 
delicacy of the test. 

The method which has been advocated is that by means of the 
frog's eye or that of Meyer by noting the contraction of strips of 
muscle while placed in the solution to be tested. In this country 
we usually assay such preparations by determining the minimum 
quantity of the solution which will cause a rise in the systemic 
blood pressure of a narcotized dog with the vagi nerves cut, and 
comparing this rise with that produced by a definite amount of the 
pure active principle. The difficulty with all methods is to decide 
what preparation to use as a standard. The ordinary commercial 
adrenalin contains a certain amount of extraneous matter (phos- 
phates), so that to standardize preparations accurately a high grade 
of adrenalin, such as that of Aldrich, or Abel's Epinephrin, should 
be used. 

A method which offers a future is the standardization against a 
nitrite solution, such as recommended by Cameron. He has shown 
that a definite amount of nitro-glycerine will neutralize the action 
on the blood pressure of a definite amount of adrenalin. The phy- 
siological test on blood pressure runs within about 5 per cent, error. 
These methods have been discussed in full in my paper on the 
suprarenal glands. 

The question as to the standardization of the thyroids and 
pituitaries has not yet been raised, but will no doubt soon be opened. 
These glands offer peculiar difficulties for the biological assay. As 

324 Notes on u Physiological Testing:' j J u °£%£gf rm * 

to the thyroids, the only test yet offered is that of Hunt. 1 The 
pituitaries cause a rise in blood pressure, and this test may perhaps 
be used, Unfortunately, after a few injections of pituitary extracts, 
the circulatory organs acquire a certain immunity to them and fail 
to respond by a rise in blood pressure. 


There has been an endless amount of discussion as to the active 
principle of ergot and its assay. The chemical work up to the 
present time has been one of utmost confusion. Recently, Barger, 
Carr and Dale, 2 of the Wellcome Research Laboratory, have isolated 
an amorphous base, ergotoxine, which forms crystalline salts, and a 
crystalline base, ergotinine, corresponding to Tanret's crystalline 
ergotinine. This forms amorphous salts. Ergotoxine has been shown 
to possess the action of ergot on the uterus, the cock's comb, and 
to cause a rise in blood pressure. Ergotinine is said to be inactive. 
The total alkaloidal content is about o-i per cent. 

Simultaneously with the appearance of this work, Kraft 3 inde- 
pendently published almost identical results, but named his alkaloidal 
bodies differently from the Wellcome Research workers. These 
investigators, however, finally agreed that they were working with 
the same compounds. The presence of more than one basic body 
had been noted several years ago by Tanret and still earlier by 
Wenzell. The preparations of Kobert and Jacobi are not chemically 
pure bodies, but are mixtures in varying degrees of the active prin- 
ciple with more or less inert matter. Clavin, the principle isolated 
by Vahlen, 1 is reported inactive by Cushny, 2 Dale and Kehrer. 

1 Hunt, R. Probable Demonstration of Thyroid Secretion in the Blood in 
Exophthalmic Goiter. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Vol. 49, p. 240. 1907. 

2 Barger, G. Ueber Mutterkornalkaloide. Arch. d. Pharm., Vol. 245, 
p. 235. 1907. 

Barger, G., and Dale, H. H. Ergotoxine and Some Other Constituents of 
Ergot. Bio-Chem. Jour., Vol. 2, p. 240. 1907. 

Barger, G., and Carr, F. H. Alkaloids of Ergot. Jour, of Chem. Soc, 
Vol. 91, p. 337. 1907. 

Barger, G., Carr, F. H., and Dale, H. H. An Active Alkaloid from Ergot. 
Brit. Med. Jour., 1906, Vol. 2, p. 1792. 

Dale, H. H. On Some Physiologic al Actions of Ergot. Jour. Physiol. , 
Vol. 34, p. 163. 1906. 

3 Kraft, F. Ueber das Mutterkorn. Arch. d. Phxrm., Vol. 244, p. 336. 1906. 

Am -^ 1 u y r ; 1 | h 8 arm -} Notes on u Physiological Testing." 325 

Dale has shown that ergotoxine will cause a marked rise in blood 
pressure in decerebrized cats. Dixon 3 claims the action of ergot on 
the blood pressure to run parallel to its action on the uterus. I have 
found that the alkaline ether shaken from ergot gives a persistent 
rise in blood pressure in narcotized dogs with cut vagi, and believe 
the trouble experienced by other experimenters (Sollman and 
Brown) 4 is probably due to the fact that the inorganic salts and per- 
haps cholin were not removed in their experiments. It seems at 
first sight to offer a possible method of standardizing these prepara- 
tions to use Dale's method and note the amount of ergot solution 
necessary to cause a reversal in action of a definite amount of 
adrenalin. Dale, however, believes that there is more than one 
principle involved in this action. If this is true, then we cannot as 
yet standardize entirely with reference to ergotoxine. 

Up to the present it has seemed to me that all we can do is to 
rely on the bluing of the cock's comb by either the injection or the 
feeding of ergot preparations. My own method has been to inject 
subcutaneously 5 c.c. of the fluidextract into a rooster, and after 
about an hour's interval the comb and wattles will become mark- 
edly blue and cold, provided the preparation is active. This bluing 
passes off during the course of twenty-four hours. Some of the 
large firms use the method of feeding ergot preparations to Leghorn 
roosters which have been starved for twenty-four hours. These 
animals are then fed 15 to 30 c.c. of the fluidextract, after evapor- 
ating off the alcohol. Bluing of the combs and wattles occurs in a 
few hours. The objection I see to this test is the fact that ergot 
preparations are often irritating and may not be absorbed, and thus 

1 Vahleri, C. Clavin, em neuer Mutterkornbestandtheil. Arch. f. exper. 
Path., Vol. 55, p. 131. 1906. 

2 Cushny, A. R. On the Movements of the Uterus. Jour. Physiol., Vol. 35, 
p. 19 1906. 

3 Dixon, W. E. Biochem. Standardization. Pharm. Jour., Vol. 75, p. 157. 

1 Sollman, T., and Brown, E. D. Intravenous Injection of Ergot. Jour, 
Amer. Med. Assoc , Vol. 45, p. 229. 1905. 

A good handling of the question of the action of ergot on the circulation can 
be found in E. Jolly. Die Einwirkung des Mutterkorns auf die Circulation. 
Gottingen 1905. 

326 Notes on "Physiological Testing." {^ m ju°5y'i 9 P c» aim - 

produce no action. I noted that, after repeated injections of ergot 
into cocks, these animals showed marked hypertrophy of the comb, 
and gangrene occurred at the site of injection, an observation agree- 
ing with those of Fere 1 and Santesson. 

The chemical test of the activity of ergot I think unreliable. Dr. 
Dohme 2 and I made some years ago a statement that the Keller 
method of assay for cornutine was a fairly accurate method of stand, 
ardizing ergot. I shall have to modify my part of this statement 
by saying that unquestionably, so far as I have seen, all the active 
principle which causes bluing of the cock's comb is shaken out by 
alkaline ether, in the Keller method, and, in fact, this extract seems 
to be more active than the original fluidextract of ergot itself ; but 
the mere weighing of this evaporated residue could not give any 
absolute idea as to the quantitative activity of ergot, because of the 
extraneous matter present. It seems that besides the active alkaloid 
also the inactive one is present in the ether extract, and interferes 
thus with the results. 3 

Barger and Dale 4 believe the cornutine of Keller to be a mixture 
of ergotinine with 25 per cent, ergotoxine. One of the strong argu- 
ments urged by Santesson against the possibility of Keller's cornu- 
tine being the active principle of ergot was the fact that in old, 
presumably inactive ergots, the assay for cornutine often ran rela- 
tively high. This now can be explained, as we know the active 
alkaloid can be readily converted into the inactive one and vice versa. 

I think the ideal method of testing preparations would be to 
standardize drugs for the use to which they are to be put in medi- 
cine. As ergot. is used almost entirely to promote uterine contrac- 
tions, under these conditions the satisfactory tests would be the 
standardization by its action on the uterus of some of the lower 

This method was used by Diez in 183 1. I have collected numer- 

1 Fere, C. Notesurune hypertrophic provoquee de l'ergot de coq. Comp. 
rend. hebd. Soc. de Biol., 1900, Vol. 52, p. 474. 

2 Dohme, A. R. L., and Crawford, A. C. Active Principle of Ergot. Proc. 
Amer. Pharm. Assoc., Vol. 74, p. 503. 1902. 

3 Santesson, C. G. Ueber die Wirkung des Cornutin Keller und einiger an- 
derer Secale-extracte. Skand. Arch. f. Physiol., Vol. 13, p. 107. 1902. 

4 Barger, G., and Dale, H. H. Ergotoxine and Some Other Constituents of 
Ergot. Sio-Chem. Journ., Vol. 2, p. 277. 1907. 

Am j J a°iy?i?o h 8 arm "} Notes on "Physiological Testing." 327 

ous data on this method, but have recently found that Kehrer 1 has 
developed it, using the isolated uterus from cats, and claims it to be 
the best method yet proposed. He uses as his standard O or gramme 
of ergot in 200 c.c. of Ringer solution as his minimal active dose. 
According to this test, ergots preserved one year in drug stores 
become seven or eight times weaker, while after two years, preserva- 
tion they become fifteen times weaker than originally. Kobert and 
Gruenfeld 2 showed, by testing on the cock's comb, that ergot lost its 
activity completely in six months under ordinary conditions. 
Kehrer, by his test, noted that aqueous extracts of ergot began to 
lose their activity in a few hours. According to Kobert, no fluid 
preparation of ergot preserves its activity over twelve months. Per- 
haps a part of such loss in activity is due to the action of micro- 
organisms. 3 It is, however, known that Bischofberger, 4 as a result 
of certain clinical experiments on women, claimed that ergot two 
years old was still active; but the clinical testing of drugs is often 
apt to be fallacious, as one is unable to control all the conditions, 
and clinicians are well acquainted with the fact that uterine contrac- 
tions often appear independent of any drug used. 5 


The chemistry of cannabis is another dark spot, and all that we 
can say is that at present the active principle seems to be a resinous 
body, cannabinol, which was obtained by Fraenkel 6 by distillation 

1 Kehrer, E. Der iiberlebende Uterus als Testobject fur die Wertigkeit der 
Mutterkornpraparate. Arch. f. exper. Path., Vol. 58, p. 366. 1908. Com- 
pare also the negative results of E. M. Kurdinowski, Physiol, u. pharniakol. 
Versuche an d. isolirter Gebarmutter. Arch. f. Physiol., Physiol. Abtheil. 
Suppl. Band., p. 372. 1904. 

2 Gruenfeld, A. Beitr. z. Kenntniss d. Mutterkornwirkung. Arbeit, d. 
pharmakol. Institut. z. Dorpat, Vol. 8, p. 149, etc. 1892. Kobert, R. Present 
State of the Ergot Question. Practitioner, Vol. 35, p. 416. 1885. 

3 L,eopard, H. Ueberd. Vorkommen von Mikroorganismen in Ergotinlosung. 
Dissert. Wiirzburg, 1887. 

4 Bischof berger, A. Geburts-klin . Untersuch. iiber. Haltbarkeit d. Mutter- 
korns. Dissert., p. 45. Bern, 1897. 

5 For literary details on the ergot question consult Krysinski, S. Pathol, u. 
krit. Beitr. z. Mutterkornfrage. 1888. 

6 Fraenkel, S. Chemie u. Pharmakol. d. Haschisch. Arch. f. exper. Path., 
Vol. 49, p. 266. 1903. 

328 Notes on u Physiological Testing." { Am J uiy"i9 P o8 arm ' 

in extremely high vacuum. Fraenkel found that this pure body 
would not act on subcutaneous use. We have no chemical method 
of standardizing cannabis, and the isolation of the body is attended 
with considerable difficulty, so that the method we use is to feed 
these preparations to dogs, and note the minimum quantities which 
will produce incoordination in their movement. Dogs thus fed will 
become unsteady in their legs and wobble from side to side. All 
dogs, even of the same weight, do not respond the same to cannabis, 
so that it may be necessary to feed the drug to a number of dogs 
and select the one which responds best and use it as the standard 
for the systematic testing of such preparations. This test has been 
reported on in full by Dr. Houghton in the January number of the 
Therapeutic Gazette. Ten to fifteen milligrammes per kilo of the 
extract should produce incoordination in one hour. Chevalier 1 has 
also recently experimented on this subject, and the report of Famu- 
lener and Lyons, 2 which is well worth perusal, furnishes details 
accessible to us. These latter authors claim that the fluidextract 
of cannabis underwent little deterioration in a twelve-months' 

Dixon uses in his tests cats weighing about 2^ kilos. He injects 
subcutaneously these animals with 10 minims of the tincture diluted 
with the same amount of water. In a short time their gait becomes 
unsteady, the reflexes are increased in activity and the pupils dilate, 
if the preparation is active. 

Houghton calls attention to the low toxicity of cannabis, and the 
question arises whether any very exact quantitative assay is neces- 
sary. Wood 3 and Houghton have made the impDrtant observation 
that American-grown cannabis has the activity of cannabis grown 
in India. 


The group of digitalis, strophanthus, squill, etc., is the most 
important one we physicians have to use, and urgently demands 

1 Bull. gen. de Therap., Vol. 155, p. 18. 1908. (Seen only in reference.) 

2 Famulener, L. W., and Lyons, A. B. Physiological Assay of Cannabis 
Indica. Proc. Amer. Pharm. Assoc., Vol. 51, p. 24.0. 1903. 

3 Wood, H. C. On the Medicinal Activity of the Hemp Plant as Grown in 
North America. Proc. Amer. Philos. Soc, Vol. 11, p. 226, 1871. 

An interesting article by Czerkis on Cannabinol can be found in the Pharma- 
ceutische Post, 1907, pp. 49, 69, 97. 

Am j J u^i9 P os. arm '} Notes on "Physiological Testing-:' 329 

standardizing. Naunyn 1 made the assertion that he would not care 
to be a physician without digitalis. Focke, 2 Edmunds, Kobert, 
Fraenkel, Bennefeld and others have recently called attention to 
the marked variation in strength of digitalis leaves. In fact, Ott 
says that the leaves of digitalis grown in Bohemia are too toxic for 
clinical use. Unfortunately the appearance of the leaves does not 
give any indication as to their activity. 

Dixon 3 says: " For my part I unhesitatingly express the belief 
that many hundreds of patients die annually from digitalis and allies 
not possessing the virtues which are required of them." The clini- 
cal testing of such preparations on man may not always yield satis- 
factory ideas as to their real activity, as Loewy 4 has shown that 
many of these preparations are injured by the normal acidity of the 
stomach. Focke 5 showed by physiological tests that the leaves 
lost much of their activity by ordinary keeping. He believes that 
light has little to do with this deterioration, and that it is a question of 
carefully drying the leaves and then keeping them in air-tight vessels 
protected from moisture. Thus Wang, who tested leaves kept in 
such a manner for two years, found they had the same toxic value 
for frogs as fresh leaves, while Focke kept such leaves unchanged 
for three years. Wolff 6 found that it was desirable to dry the leaves 
in vacuo at a definite temperature, as the ordinary drying in air 
might be injurious to their activity. 

1 Muench. med. Woch., 1904, p. 14x3. 

2 Focke, C. Ueber d. jahreszeitl. Schwankungen in d. Starke d. officinell. 
Folia Digitalis, Ther. d. Gegenw. n. s., Vol. 4, p. 44. 1902. Ott. Verhandl. d. 
Kongresses f. Innere Med., 1901, p. S9. Fraenkel, A. Ueber d. physiol. 
Dosirung von Digitalispraparaten. 1 her. d. Gegenw. n. s., Vol. 4, p. 112, 1902. 
Fraenkel, A. Bxper. Untersuch ii. d. Wirksatnkeit d. verschied. Digitalis- 
praparaten." Charite Annulen, Vol. 6, p. 207. 18S1. Fdmunds, C. W. Stand- 
ardization of Cardiac Remedies. Jour. Amer. Med. Assoc., Vol. 48, p. 1744. 
1907. Benuefeld, F. Ueber Digitalistincturen. Dissert. Gottingen, 1881. 
L/utzkaja, S. Ueber d. Wirkungswert d. Folia Digitalis. Arch. Internat. de 
Pharmakodynamie, Vol. 18, p. 77. 190S. 

3 Dixon, W. E. Drug Fallacies. Brit. Med. /our., Vol. 2, Nov. 1906. 

* Loewy, J. Ueber d. Bedeutung d. Reaktion d. Digitalisinfuses f. seine 
Wirksamkeit. Wien. klin. Woch., Vol. 19, p. 1157. 1906. 

5 Focke, C. Physiol. Wertbestimmung d. Digitalisblatter. Arch. d. Pharm., 
Vol. 241, p. 140. 1903. 

6 Wolff, A. Ueber d. Physiol. Dosirung von Digitalispraparaten. Ther. d. 
Gegenw. n. s., Vol. 4, p. 423. 1902. 


Notes on "Physiological Testing! 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1908. 

Our Pharmacopoeia demands that only leaves of the second year's 
growth be used, and this demand is supported by the experiments of 
Focke, who found the first year's leaves weaker toward frogs than 
those of the second year's growth. However, Merck's Report (1907, 
p. 253) quotes Haynes to the effect that the leaves of the first year 
are as active as those of the second year, provided they are grown 
under the same conditions. 

Fraenkel has noted that the infusion of digitalis varied in strength 
from 100 to 275 per cent., while tinctures varied from 200 to 400 per 
cent. Tinctures of digitalis, when exposed to the light, lost about 
one-half of their original strength in one year. 1 The infusion loses 
one-half of its activity in twenty-four hours (Loewy). The addition 
of a small amount of sodium carbonate is claimed to preserve the 
infusion for several days. 2 

Our chemical knowledge of these drugs is extremely deficient. 
There have been a number of bodies isolated from digitalis : digi- 
talin, digitalein, digitophyllin, digitoxin, etc., and as decomposition 
products of these, digitoxiresin and toxiresin. Haynes 3 and Dixon 
have reported that many of these principles are inactive, and Haynes 
says: " These so-called active principles require standardization even 
more than the galenical preparations.'' While at one time we 
thought digitalin was the active principle, now it is thought that 
digitoxin is the real principle, and attempts are made to standardize 
the preparation by determination of the digitoxin present. 4 

For this assay the method of Keller, or Keller's method modified 
by Fromme, is usually used. Barger and Shaw 5 and Ziegenbein 6 
have shown by experiments on frogs that the toxicity of the digi- 

1 Focke, C. Ueber d. prakt. Wert .unserer Digitalistincturen. Deutsch. 
Aerzt, Zt%., Vol. 6, p. 292. 1904. 

2 Focke, C. Wie kann man em Digitalisinfus bis zu seinem Verbrauch 
haltbar machen ? Med. Klinik, Vol. 3, p. 484. 1907. 

3 Haynes, G. S. Pharmacological Action of Digitalis, Strophanthus and 
Squill on the Heart. Bio- Chem. Jour., Vol. 1, p. 63. 1906. 

4 Reed, E. D. , and Vanderkleed, C. E. Standardization of Preparations 
of Digitalis by Physiological and Chemical Means. Amer. Jour. Pharm., 
Vol. 80, p. no. 1908. 

6 Barger, G., and Shaw, W. V. Chemical and Physiological Assay of Di- 
gitalis Tinctures. Yearbook of Pharmacy, 1904, p. 541. 

6 Ziegenbein, H. Werthbestimmung d. Digitalisblatter. Arch. d. Pharm., 
1902, Vol. 240, p. 454. 

Am 'ju°]y"'ifo h sf rm '} Notes on "Physiological Testing." 331 

talis preparations does not correspond to the toxicity of the digitoxin 
present, and experiments on dogs show a similar disagreement. 1 
Vanderkleed, however, claims some degree of parallelism between 
the digitoxin content and the toxicity of digitalis on guinea pigs. 
The weight of evidence, however, is that digitalis leaves do not owe 
their activity to any one yet discovered principle. 

These preparations are usually standardized by merely determining 
their toxicity on frogs. Houghton has reported in the National Stand- 
ard Dispensatory the method of performing this test. He used the 
normal lethal dose of o-ooi 5 gramme per gramme frog for the fluidex- 
tract digitalis and 0*00015 gramme for the fluidextract strophanthus, 
o*oi 1 gramme for fluidextract squills. Haynes used as his standard 
that 2y 2 minims of a tincture of digitalis should kill a frog of 20 
grammes weight in three hours, while minim of tincture of stro- 
phanthus should kill a frog weighing 17 grammes. Others, again, re- 
cognizing that the characteristic action of this group is the systolic 
stoppage of the frog heart, have demanded that the preparation be 
standardized with reference to the quantity which shall cause sys- 
tolic stoppage of the ventricle within a certain period, some say twenty 
minutes, some an hour or more. 2 Famulener and Lyons, in the 
Proceedings of the American Pharmaceutical Association for 1902, 
have described this method in full. The exact period at which sys- 
tolic stoppage occurs is at times hard to decide. 3 In none of 
the work, as far as I have been able to find, is there any accurate 
description of the frogs used. In fact, the old classification of frogs 
is very unreliable, and frogs vary so much in their response to drugs 

1 Wood, H. C, Jr. Does Digitoxin Represent the Therapeutic Virtues of 
Digitalis? Amer. Jour. Pharm., 1908, p. 107. 

2 Ziegenbein, H. Werthbestimmung der Digitalisblatter. Arch. d. Pharm., 
1902, vol. 1, p. 454. 

Biihrer, C. TJeber d. Grenzen d. Wirksamkeit einiger toxisch. Fluidex- 
tracte. Corresp. d. Schweizer Aerzte, 1900, Vol. 30, p. 617. Siebert. Werth- 
bestimmung von Digitalis und Strophanthus durch Priifung an Froschherz. 
Berl.klin. Woch., Vol. 40, p. 813. 1903. Dixon, W. E. Bio-Chemical Stand- 
ardization of Drugs. Pharm, Jour., Vol. 75, p. 156. 1905. Focke, C. Die 
physiol. Werthbestimmung d. Digitalisblatter. Arch. d. Pharm., Vol. 241, p. 
128. 1903; Ueber den gleichmassig. Wirkungswert von gut praparirtem und gut 
aufbewahrtem Digitalisblatterpulver. Ther. d. Gegenw., 1904, p. 250; Zur 
physiol. Wertheinstellung d. Digitalisblatter. Ther. d. Gegenw., 1904, p. 527. 

3 Wang, B. Werthbestimmung d. Digitalisblatter. Festschrift Olof Ham- 
marsten gewidmet. Upsala, 1906, p. 7. 

332 Notes on ''Physiological Testing" { Am j J u 1 ^ 1 Sf 8 arm * 

according to species, sex, seasons, whether summer or winter, and 
also with the temperature at which they are kept, that I think frogs 
unsatisfactory. Then again, large amounts of inorganic salts present 
in the extracts would act injuriously on frogs. Many of the ob- 
servers forget the original investigations of Schmiedeberg, who 
found that only so-called Rana temporaria showed the characteristic 
systolic stoppage of the heart from digitalis in a typical manner. 
Masi noted that digitalin arrested the frog heart in systole, while 
digitonine caused diastolic arrest of the heart; and further, that if 
the frogs were immersed in 0-75 per cent, saline solution at 32 01 , 
digitaline would then cause diastolic stoppage, and Ziegenbein has 
found that while small doses of digitoxin cause systolic arrest of the 
heart, often large doses do not. 

In one experiment performed in summer, Focke noted that the 
ventricle at times stopped in diastole and, therefore, urged that the 
temperature of the room, in which such experiments are carried out, 
should be within certain limits. 2 

Dr. Reed, of Philadelphia, has made an important advance by 
using guinea pigs, animals which are more resistant to injury. He 
apparently uses a dose of 06 to 1 c.c. of the tincture per 240 grammes 
of guinea pig as his standard. 

While these methods are all very desirable, the mere determining 
of the toxicity of the preparation does not to my mind determine 
its medicinal value. For example, it has been well recognized that 
the reported active principles readily decompose into digitoxiresin, 
toxiresin, etc., which are very toxic bodies. If we had a slightly 
larger amount than normal of decomposition products, we would have 
an extremely high toxicity, but this would not necessarily mean a 
high medicinal action. 

Sowton 3 has improved the method of testing such preparations 
by using the mammalian heart. He perfuses rabbit hearts isolated 
by the Langendorff method with tincture of digitalis I to 200, 

1 Masi, G. B. Sull Azione fisiol. della Digitalina. Riforma Med., Vol. 6, 
pt. 1, p. 741. 1890. Data on our American frogs can be found in Mary Dicker- 
son's Frog Book, while details as to the European species may be seen in G. 
A. Boulenger's '* The Tailless Batrachians of Europe." Ray Soc, 1897. 

2 Focke, C. Weiteres z. physiol. Priifung d. Digitalisblatter. Arch. d. Pharm. 
Vol. 245, p. 646, 1907. 

3 Sowton, S. C. M. Some Experiences in the Testing of Tincture of Digitalis. 
Brit. Med. Journ., 1908, Vol. I, p. 310. 

Am "ju°yy'wo8 arm '} Notes on u Physiological Testing!' 333 

Ringer's solution. This method was also tried by Haynes. The 
strength of these solutions is judged by the length of time neces- 
sary to cause stoppage of the right ventricle. Perhaps some of the 
difficulties with such experiments are due to the fact that the various 
principles affect different portions of the heart. Focke's method of 
removing the sternum in unpithed frogs should be discarded on 
humanitarian grounds. 

Theoretically to me the proper way would be to determine the 
toxicity of these preparations on guinea pigs, and also the action on 
the isolated mammalian heart, or on the heart in situ, noting the slow- 
ing of the heart-beat 1 and the time necessary to cause stoppage, and 
any rise of blood-pressure, or by making use of the physiological 
antagonism between digitalis and the nitrites 2 in addition to the 
toxicity experiments. Naturally in such experiments the depressing 
potassium salts should be removed from the extract. The standard 
should be leaves carefully dried in vacuo by Wolff's method and 
then protected from moisture by preserving in air-tight vessels. 

It is needless to add that a thorough botanical identification of 
the species should be made by an expert. Other species of digitalis 
besides the official digitalis purpurea are probably also active. 

It must be confessed that the methods thus far proposed are not 
accurate. A long series of experiments should be made with one 
tincture, and checks made by diluting this to various strengths and 
comparing the results obtained from these known dilutions on 

Dixon 3 has reported that if 5 c.c. of a tincture of digitalis be placed 
in the stomach of an anaesthetized dog and the stomach be exam- 
ined two hours later, the stomach will show signs of acute inflam- 
mation, and Haynes noted that after similar placing of tincture of 
digitalis no effect on blood pressure was observed. This failure in 
action was probably due to non-absorption. Further, Deucher 4 

1 Fraenkel, A. Ueber Digitaliswirkung am gesund. Menschen. Muench. med. 
IVoch., Vol. 52, p. 1537. 1905. 

2 Marshall, C. R. On the Antagonistic Action of Digitalis and the Members 
of the Nitrite Group. Journ. Physiol., Vol. 22, 1897-8. 

3 Dixon, W. E. Manual of Pharmacology, 1906, p. 169. 

4 Deucher, P. Ueber d. Wirkung des Digitalin verum bei Circulations-stor- 
ungen. Deutsch. Archiv. f. klin. Med., 1896, Vol. 57, p. 34. 

NOTE. — In considering Strophanthus, Hatcher's article in the Journal of the 
American Medical Association for 1907, and Santesson's article in the Skan- 
dinavisches Archiv fuer Physiologie for 1905 may be serviceable. 


Notes on "Physiological Testing." { Am j J u o i^iF h 8 arm ' 

showed that by gastric digestion digitalin underwent a marked weak- 
ening, so that it can be easily seen that the responsibility for a failure 
of digitalis to act clinically cannot always be laid at the pharma- 
cist's door and this is well worth remembering in these days of law- 

Certain of the purgative drugs likewise cannot be satisfactorily 
standardized by chemical means, and the physiological test is also 
rather unsatisfactory, but it is better than the chemical. The emetic 
drugs can be assayed chemically, but can also be tested physiologi- 
cally on dogs. 

These tests give no indication of the activity of the drug on man, 
as various animals respond differently, but only as to its comparative 

Such, in brief, are the methods in use in the testing of galenical 
preparations, and as quantitative procedures much is to be desired. 
It must be remembered that because one firm calls a drug physio- 
logically tested, it does not follow that the drug compares at all with 
another so-called physiologically tested preparation. In fact, the 
standards and ideas of testing of one firm may be very different from 
that of another, and no label " physiolocically tested" means much 
unless one knows the standard used. One English firm is putting 
out digitalis leaves and specifies them to be standardized on a basis of 
1*4 grammes of the leaf as the minimal toxic dose for iOO-gramme 
frog. Our American firms simply state " physiologically tested." 

While many of these preparations may contain full alkaloidal 
strength, which can be determined by chemical analysis, yet it is 
perfectly possible that some may be too irritating for certain usage 
and set up purgation or emesis. As is well known, one of the prob- 
lems has been to obtain a digitalis preparation which is non-irritating. 
This irritating action can be determined by the biological test, such 
as described by Houghton. 1 Again, the simple determination of the 
amount of alkaloids present in such preparations does not neces- 
sarily correspond to the activity of the preparation ; because, as 
physical chemistry has shown, the presence of a large amount of 
colloids often interferes with the full action of certain chemical com. 
pounds. Again, the presence of certain elements increases the 

1 Houghton, E. M, Attempt to Obtain a Uniformly Active, Sterile and Non- 
irritating Preparation of Digitalis. Medicine, Vol. 9, p. 982. 1903. 

Am "/u°iy^i908 arm '} Elixirs of the National Formulary. 335 

activity of certain others; thus, small quantities of barium render 
toxic an otherwise non-toxic dose of KCNS, so that the final test 
must be that on animals. 

The question comes up as to who shall perform such tests. Phar- 
macists and the practicing physician certainly would not be in a 
position to carry them out on account of the special training which 
these tests require, and it seems to me that both of these classes of 
gentlemen already have their hands full. The difficulty of such 
testing becomes apparent when we see what different results experi- 
menters are arriving at as to the question of the toxicity of the food 
preservatives, and even in the case of such a well-known body as 
ethyl alcohol. Many of the large firms are now employing profes- 
sional pharmacologists to do such work. In Germany 1 there is now 
a considerable movement to organize a Government Bureau for the 
testing of these preparations, and it will not be long before the 
Federal Government will be compelled to establish such a Bureau. 2 
It is urgently desired that representatives of the various pharma- 
ceutical and medical societies meet and decide upon suitable 

By E. Fuiaerton Cook, P.D. 3 

The statements which are made in this paper of a critical char- 
acter, or otherwise, are based upon actual experiments with com- 
mercial products. Where difficulties have been met with, it maybe 
that in some instances, at least, minute quantities of foreign sub- 
stances in the ingredients have caused precipitation in the liquid 
preparation. Further experiments will subsequently be conducted 
to verify the results here reported and to suggest satisfactory mod- 
ifications in the several formulas. 

1 Fraenkel, A. Ueber d. physiol. Dosirung von Digitalispraparaten. Thcr. 
d. Grgenw. n. s., Vol. 4, p. 112. 1902. Klemperer, Ther. d. Gegenw. n. s., 
Vol. 6, p. 526. 1904. Wendt, G. Doctor und Apotheker, im dunkeln Spiegel 
galenischer Praparate. Med. Woche., Vol. 6, p. 100. 1905. 

2 Edmunds, C. W. Standardization of Cardiac Remedies. Jour. Amer. 
Med. Assoc., Vol. 48, p. 1747. 1907. 

3 Assisted by T. C. Ladakis, Ralph R. Johnston, Edgar R. Buzzell, D. H. 
Reighter, and S. T. Bonnell. 

336 Elixirs of the National Formulary. { Am jS™i£8. arm * 

Primarily, it should be said that in the opinion of the writers 
there are too many formulas for elixirs contained in this book, which 
is now a standard Formulary for the United States, there being 
eighty-eight formulas in all. 

For instance there are five formulas for bromides ; i. e. y simple 
solutions of the individual bromide in a sufficient amount of aromatic 
elixir. In the first place the, 23 or 25 per cent, of alcohol present 
is directly antagonistic to the effect of the sedative; and secondly, 
why should a simple formula of this character be given when a 
physician could far better select his own dose of bromide or medi- 
cament and the vehicle which he desires to carry it ? 

This latter criticism may be applied to the following elixirs, 
although the several formulas, from a pharmaceutical standpoint, 
are satisfactory : 

Elixir of ammonium bromide, calcium bromide, lithium bromide, 
lithium citrate, lithium salicylate, potassium acetate, potassium bro- 
mide, sodium bromide, sodium hypophosphite, and sodium salicylate, 
while the list might be further extended. 

There is no criticism to be made upon the following additional 
formulas; they are pharmaceutically satisfactory: 

Elixir of ammonium valerianate (the title should be " valerate") ; 
ammonium valerianate and quinine ; bismuth ; buchu ; compound 
buchu ; compound cathartic ; compound chloroform ; cinchona and 
iron ; cinchona, iron, bismuth and strychnine; cinchona, iron and bis- 
muth; cinchona, iron and calcium lactophosphate ; cinchona, iron and 
strychnine; coca andguarana; compound digestive; eucalyptus; iron 
pyrophosphate ; iron hypophosphite ; iron phosphate ; gentian ; 
gentian and iron chloride ; gentian and iron phosphate ; glycyr- 
rhiza ; guarana ; hypophosphites ; pepsin ; pepsin and bismuth ; 
compound tar; pilocarpus; potassium acetate; hops; pepsin and 
iron ; quinine valerianate (valerate); rhubarb ; strychnine valerianate 

The following criticisms are offered with the hope that they may 
call attention to difficulties, and, if the elixir is retained in the next 
edition of the National Formulary, maybe made more satisfactory: 


Salicylic Acid, — The salicylic acid dissolves very slowly and with 
great difficulty. It contains 50 per cent, of glycerin and is really a 

Am ju O i?y'i908. arm '} Elixirs of the National Formulary. 337 

glycerite. Even a larger amount of glycerin, however, would aid 

Anise. — The formula is very unsatisfactory. The odor is not that 
of anise, but strongly of bitter almond, and considerable oil separates, 
making an unsightly preparation. While the separation of oil is 
recognized by the " Note " in the N.F., there can be no reason for 
the excess. 

Caffeine. — It was entirely impossible to dissolve the caffeine in 
the 125 c.c. of aromatic elixir directed. Experiments show that 625 
c.c. is sufficient and a change should be made in the directions. 

Calcium Hypophosphite. — The salt dissolves very slowly, a small 
portion remaining undissolved. It is doubtless the fault of the salt, 
yet it seems to be impossible to buy an article which is wholly 
soluble. One worker has suggested the solution of a freshly pre- 
cipitated salt to avoid the difficulty. 

Calcium Lactophosphate. — The directions are faulty. When the 
calcium lactate was rubbed with the phosphoric acid, water and 
syrup, it would not dissolve ; but when first dissolved in the phos- 
phoric acid and then mixed with the other ingredients, no difficulty 
was encountered. 

Compound Cathartic. — Considerable sediment separates from this 
elixir after standing a few weeks. This criticism applies to most of 
the elixirs made from fluidextracts, including : coca, aromatic erio- 
dictyon, euonymus, frangula, grindelia, cascara sagrada, and com- 
pound taraxacum. 

Cinchona. — In this era of correct titles, this elixir can hardly be 
called " cinchona," since it is made from cinchona alkaloids and 
artificially colored. The preparation is very satisfactory from a 
pharmaceutical standpoint. 

Cinchona and Hypophosphites. — The hypophosphites, at least the 
calcium hypophosphite, dissolved with great difficulty. The color 
is considerably lighter than the " elixir of cinchona." The acid may 
be responsible for this color change. 

Cinchona, Iron and Pepsin. — This preparation develops a slight 
white precipitate, as do also the several other elixirs containing pep- 
sin, i. e. t cinchona, pepsin and strychnine; plain pepsin; pepsin, 
bismuth and strychnine ; pepsin and bismuth ; pepsin and iron. 

Coca. — After a few days the elixir became cloudy, talc was added 
and the preparation again filtered. The elixir has again become 

338 Elixirs of the National Formulary. {^'j^Svt™' 

Curacao. — It has been impossible to buy oil of curacao orange 
from available sources, from which to make the spirit and subse- 
quently this elixir. 

One of the large volatile oil manufacturers has submitted the 
following letter when asked to expfain what was formerly sold as 
oil of curacao orange: 

" Replying to your inquiry of the 6th inst, we fear that you are 
chasing a rainbow. Curacao oil of orange undoubtedly is to-day, 
and in our opinion always has been, a fiction, at least in so far as its 
position as a commercial article is concerned. The oil that was 
formerly brought here under this name was probably nothing more 
than regular bitter orange oil, or possibly a blend of bitter and sweet 
orange toned up with other aromatics to give it character." 

Prof. C. Lewis Diehl, Chairman of the Committee on National 
Formulary, in reply to this letter, has stated that this formula was 
included in the original New York and Brooklyn Formulary, out of 
which grew the N.F., and that probably at that time there was a 
genuine oil of curacao orange, and if not, the men of that time 
(1888) were using the best information available. 

He states that he has often discussed the subject and advocated 
many years ago that an oil of bitter orange be introduced for the 
present oil of curacao in the N.F. 

Lactate of Iron. — It was found that by dissolving the potassium 
acetate first in the water and then the lactate of iron, solution was 
greatly facilitated. 

Pyrophosphate of Iron, Quinine and Strychnine. — The addition 
of talc before filtering improves the appearance of the elixir. 

Iron, Quinine and Strychnine. — This formula is satisfactory, if the 
tincture of citro-chloride of iron has been made in accordance with 
the latest issues of the N.F., third edition. The first printing of 
the third edition called for 410 grammes of sodium citrate. This 
was shown to be unsatisfactory, and it has been increased in books 
more recently printed to 425 grammes. 

Glycerinated Gentian. — This elixir has been repeatedly criticised 
for the presence of both acetic ether and solution of saccharin. 
The formula needs revision. 

Aromatic Glycyrrhiza. — This preparation is somewhat turbid ; the 
presence of both a fluidextract and volatile oils may account for 
this. It is not very satisfactory pharmaceutically. 

Am 'j J u°i^'i908? rrn '} Elixirs of the National Formulary. 339 

Glycerophosphates. — Several different makes of the glycerophos- 
phates have proven unsatisfactory. Mr. Dunning has stated that 
acid glycerophosphate of calcium is the salt required in this formula. 
A few drops of phosphoric acid will dissolve the precipitate. Solu- 
tion was obtained in all cases ; but upon standing, a voluminous white 
precipitate developed. 

Hypophosphites with Iron. — The elixir has deposited a slight pre- 

Lithium Salicylate, and other salicylates. — For a colorless prep- 
aration of these salts it is essential that a colorless and high-grade 
chemical be obtained. When bought on the open market, such a 
lithium salicylate was not received, and consequently the prepara- 
tion is badly discolored. 

Malt and Iron. — The wholesale houses on several occasions have 
reported that they are unable to supply extract of malt U.S.P. for 
making this preparation. 

Paraldehyde. — This elixir separates into two distinct layers, the 
top layer occupying about one-fourth of the volume. It has become 
discolored upon standing two months. It has been suggested that 
if the alcohol be increased, this separation will not occur. It now 
contains over 50 per cent, of alcohol, however, and is given in a 
two fluiddrachm dose, so that its uses, especially if the alcohol is 
yet further increased, are questionable. 

Phosphorus. — This was a U.S.P. 1890 preparation and the formula 
should be in the Appendix. The only change in the formula is that 
of directing 560 c.c. of glycerin, the U.S.P. 1890 ordering 550 c.c. 

Potassium Acetate and Juniper. — A slight deposit forms upon 

Compound Quinine and Phosphates. — Although a solution was first 
obtained, a voluminous precipitate soon formed. This elixir should 
be further experimented with, if the preparation is to be retained. 

Compound Blackberry. — As blackberries were not in season and the 
fresh juice was unobtainable, this elixir could not be made. 

Elixir Terpin Hydrate. - 

Elixir Terpin Hydrate with Codeine. 

Elixir Terpin Hydrate with Heroine. 

In all of these elixirs a heavy crystalline precipitate has formed. 
It was first supposed to be terpin hydrate; but as its volume soon 
exceeded the amount of that substance in solution, it was suspected 

340 Improved Acetone Cantharidal Collodion. { Am, Jui?;i P 908 arilJ ' 

to be sugar, and a simple investigation of this precipitate proved such 
to be the case. The crystals were entirely soluble in a small quantity 
of water, and were sweet to the taste, forming a syrupy-like solu- 
tion. The elixir contains about 40 per cent, of alcohol, which is 
necessary for the solution of the terpin hydrate. Doubtless the 
amount of syrup will have to be reduced. 

Of the eighty-eight elixirs of the N.F., the following eleven have 
not been prepared ; all of the others are displayed : 

Elixir of hops; phosphorus; phosphorus and nux vomica ; com- 
pound cascara sagrada ; rhubarb and magnesium acetate ; compound 
stillingia; turnera; compound viburnum opulus ; viburnum pruni- 
folium ; malt and iron ; and zinc valerianate (valerate). 


By George M. Beringer. 
The active principle in cantharides is present partly in a free or 
uncombined state and partly as a salt in combination with the nat- 
ural acid as cantharidate. The cantharidate is insoluble in chloro- 
form and ether, and most of the ordinary solvents in which canthar- 
idin is soluble, and which are used in making the pharmaceutical 

Analyses published by N. Dietrich 1 and Boudin 2 show that the 
combined cantharidin amounts to from 10 to 20 per cent, of the 
active constituent of the beetle. 

In the official process for cantharidal collodion the powdered drug 
is percolated with chloroform and so only the free cantharidin is 
extracted and varying proportions of the drug activity is discarded 
with the marc. 

As long ago as 1852, Prof. Wm. Procter, Jr., 3 pointed out that 
acetone was an excellent solvent for cantharidin and this has since 
been confirmed by a number of investigators. Schmidt 4 gives the 
solubility of cantharidin in acetone as 1 in 38, in chloroform 1 in 66, 

1 Pharm. Centralh., 42,674, Year Book of Pharmacy, 1902, p. 169. 

2 Journ. de Pharm. et de Chemie, 1888 — 18,391. 

3 Amer. Jour, of Pharmacy, 1889, p. 264. 

4 Pharmaceutische Chemie, 9—1874. 

Am 'j J n°iyri9os arm '} Improved Acetone Cantharidal Collodion. 341 

and the British Pharmaceutical Codex 1 states its solubility in acetone 
as 1 in 40, in chloroform 1 in 65, in acetic ether 1 in 150, in ether 1 
in 700, and still more sparingly in alcohol. Many of the statements 
of the authorities concerning the solubility of this principle are, 
however, discordant and the subject is in need of further critical 

The writer 2 has elsewhere called attention to the peculiar and 
valuable solvent properties of acetone and its remarkable miscibility 
with other solvents as well as with water. Since that time it has 
been officially recognized and directed in the preparation of some 
of the oleoresins and its application in numerous manufactures has 
made it an article of considerable commercial importance, and sup- 
plies of pure acetone, suitable for pharmaceutical purposes, are now 
available at moderate prices. 

More recently 3 he proposed its use as a substitute for ether in the 
preparation of collodions. In the latter communication a formula 
was given for an acetone cantharidal collodion, and the object of 
this note is to publish the results of more recent study and submit 
the following improved formula : 


Take of Cantharides in fine powder 60 grammes 

Glacial acetic acid -. 5 c.c. 

Pyroxylin 4 grammes 

Camphor 1 gramme 

Acetone sufficient quantity to make 100 grammes 

Mix the glacial acetic acid with 55. c.c. of acetone and moisten 
the powdered cantharides with this mixture and set it aside in a 
closely covered container for twenty-four hours. Then pack in a 
cylindrical percolator and slowlydisplace with acetone until exhausted. 
Reduce the percolate by distillation on a water-bath to 95 grammes, 
and when cold dissolve in this the pyroxylin and camphor. If neces- 
sary, make up weight with acetone to 100 grammes. 

If the rate of percolation is rapid, from 125 to 150 grammes of 
percolate will be obtained befor the drug is exhausted, but by care- 
fully regulating the flow the cantharides will be practically exhausted 
when 95 grammes of percolate is secured. 

1 Br. Ph. C, 204. 

2 Amer. Jour, of Pharmacy, 1892, p. 146. 

3 Proceedings A. Ph. A., 1906, p. 502. 

342 The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland. { Am 'ju^ c ,\m? Tm ' 

In this formula the glacial acetic acid liberates the combined 
cantharidin and the resulting preparation represents the full activity 
of the drug. The finished product is clear, green in color, and ex- 
ceedingly active. It is a marked improvement over the present 
official cantharidal collodion and should displace that formula in 
subsequent revisions. 


By M. I. Wiubert, 
Apothecary at the German Hospital, Philadelphia. 

"Pharmacopoeia Helvetica, Editio Quarta," is the official title of 
the book, that, in many respects at least, appears to embody the 
most recent researches and the most modern advances in matters 

This new fourth edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia became the 
official standard for medicinal substances throughout Switzerland, 
on March I, 1908, and, largely on account of its comprehensiveness 
and scientific character, the book itself has attracted an unusual 
amount of attention in pharmaceutical circles abroad. 

Even the most cursory inspection of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia will 
convince the trained pharmacist that it is a book that contains much 
that is original and evidences great thoroughness in its preparation. 
Every page of this book is so indicative of painstaking, conscien- 
tious work on the part of the members of the revision commission, 
that it would be difficult indeed to single out any one department 
or portion of the book as being even suggestive of greater thor- 
oughness than any other. 

Throughout the book there are indications that the individual 
apothecary of Switzerland must be a man of considerable training 
and attainment, and one who has developed the science as well as 
the art of his calling to a high degree. The need for testing all 
available medicaments for their identity, and, so far as possible, for 
their quality and purity, is everywhere emphasized, and considerable 
care appears to have been exercised in the selection of tests and 
processes for applying them, so as to provide methods that can be 
followed with a minimum of time and material. Care has also been 
exercised to restrict tests and methods within reasonable limitations, 
and everywhere the resources and the limitations of the ordinary 

Am j J u°i"'iS)8f rDQ *} The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland, 343 

apothecary shop have been considered. Thus the revision commis- 
sion thought it wise to omit all polarization and refractometer tests, 
as it was thought inexpedient to compel the average pharmacist to 
equip himself with the necessary, usually expensive, apparatus. 
The permissible variations of these several factors have, however, 
been added in a table, as an appendix, for the information and 
guidance of such dealers, chemists and others who may be equipped 
with the apparatus necessary to make the various determinations or 

The detailed classification of crystals has also been omitted for 
the reason that pharmacists do not usually have access to a goni- 
ometer, and the commercially obtainable crystals are seldom or 
never perfectly developed. 

The history of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia is particularly interesting 
in that it was originated and developed by pharmacists. The first 
of the distinctly national pharmacopoeias of Switzerland was 
published in 1865 as a private enterprise of the Swiss Society of 
Apothecaries. This first edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia appears 
to have been little more than a formulary, and was followed in 1872 by 
a second edition, also elaborated and published by the Society of 
Apothecaries. This book contained, in addition to formulas, 
descriptions of simples and crude drugs. 

The second revision of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia was begun by a 
committee of five members, appointed by the Swiss Society of 
Apothecaries in 1884, an d was subsequently completed by an offi- 
cial Pharmacopceial Commission appointed in 1888. 

This Commission consisted of twelve apothecaries, eight physicians, 
nine chemists and two veterinarians, who completed their work in 
1893. The resulting pharmacopoeia was printed in the three official 
languages, German, French and Italian, and became the official 
standard in all of the several Cantons but one — Glarus. 

The present, fourth, edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia has been 
revised by the members of the now existing official Swiss Pharma- 
copceial Commission, comprising two divisions, medical and phar- 
maceutical, subdivided into nine committees, each presided over by a 
chairman directly responsible for the accuracy of the work done by 
his particular committee. This edition of the Swiss Pharmacopoeia 
-is particularly interesting in that it is the first to be generally 
recognized by all of the several Cantons. 

344 The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland. { Am j J u °iy*i£ 8 arm ' 

The book comprises a total of 672 pages, 34 of which are devoted 
to the introductory chapters and 517 to the description of the 853 
officially recognized articles. Compared with the previous third 
edition, we find that 151 articles have been added, while no less 
than 95 have been discontinued, leaving a net gain of 56. 

Simple figures, however, give but an inadequate indication of the 
amount of work that was involved in the revision of this book, par- 
ticularly in view of the fact that every monograph in the Pharma- 
copoeia was rewritten and elaborated on for this particular edition. 

The provisions of the International Conference for the Unification 
of Formulae for Potent Medicaments have been included in their 
entirety, as a portion of the introductory chapter, and, in the body 
of the book, the names included in the protocol are invariably given 
as synonyms of the official title, followed by the designation (P. I.) 
Prescription or Protocol International. 

The general adoption that has been accorded to the provisions of 
the Brussels Conference must be a matter of considerable satisfac- 
tion to the men who took part in that conference. Commencing 
with the Pharmacopoeia of the United States, which, it has been 
estimated, complies with but 27 per cent, of the requirements, prac- 
tically all of the other pharmacopoeias published by countries 
represented in the Brussels Conference include the greater number, 
if not all, of the provisions recommended in the Protocol. The 
pharmacopoeias so far published include the Spanish, Belgian, Dutch, 
Austrian, Danish and Swiss. The introductory chapter of the Swiss 
Pharmacopoeia contains a rather interesting definition for medicines, 
as follows : 

U Medicaments — medicinal substances are substances or mixtures 
that are used for the prevention or removal of abnormal conditions 
or processes in the human or animal organism, or for the ameliora- 
tion of disturbing, disagreeable or dangerous manifestations." 

This definition is then further elaborated into forms of medicines 
and their method of application or use. 

A chapter on "General Directions" includes definitions for and 
descriptions of a number of terms, processes and methods not de- 
scribed in detail in connection with the several monographs in the 
book itself. Thus we find a general definition for what is meant 
by warm or hot water and by ordinary or medium temperature. 
We also find directions for the determination of the specific gravity, 

Am 'juiy?i908 arm '} The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland. 345 

melting point, boiling point, solubility and ash content of substances. 
Also detailed descriptions of maceration, percolation and steriliza- 

Altogether, these general directions include twenty-eight headings 
and contribute much to the avoidance of unnecessary repetition of 
details in connection with the several monographs in the body of 
the book. 

The descriptions of chemical substances are terse, direct and 
readily understood. All of the descriptions are systematically 
arranged, and include, as headings, the Latin title, followed by the 
official German, French and Italian titles. The descriptions them- 
selves include an enumeration of the physical properties and a 
number of qualitative tests. These are followed by tests for purity, 
the limit of contamination and an enumeration of the minimum per 
cent, of chemically pure substance that is indicated by the com- 
pliance with the several tests. 

Whenever necessary, this description is further augmented by 
directions for keeping and an enumeration of the maximum single 
and daily dose. 

Wherever the composition or the physical properties of a chem- 
ical substance depend on the method of preparation, a formula and 
the directions for making the substance have also been included. 
Thus the Swiss Pharmacopoeia contains formulae and directions for 
the several subsalts of bismuth, many of the salts of mercury and 
also a number of the preparations of iron. 

The recognition of patented articles presents difficulties that are 
not readily met in a satisfactory manner, and this new Swiss Phar- 
macopoeia offers nothing new in this respect. All of the older 
synthetics, such as salol, phenacetin and sulphonal, are admitted 
under Latinized titles of the well-known trade names ; the newer pro- 
ducts, however, products that are still protected by patent or trade 
rights, have been included under their chemical names, with the 
trade names, as synonyms, enumerated in the index. 

While such names as acidum acetylsalicylicum (Aspirin) and aci- 
dum diaethylbarbituricum (Veronal) may be practical, it is indeed 
doubtful if any appreciable number of medical men would take kindly 
to trimethylbenzoxypiperidinum hydrochloricum (Eucaine). 

The descriptions of the crude drugs are collected and classified 
under the parts of plants represented, with the prefix itself restricted 

346 The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland. { Am 7 u iJ'- 1 Sgf rm - 

to the singular. Thus we have flos, folium, semen and tuber. Con- 
siderable care has been exercised to differentiate the parts of plants 
more accurately, so that drugs consisting largely or entirely of 
rhizomes are classed as such and not as roots. 

The descriptions of crude drugs are, as a rule, exhaustive, and 
include not alone a minute description of the botanical characteristics, 
but frequently also chemical tests and microscopic details. 

The title of the more important, or potent drugs is followed by 
the international titles as synonyms, and then the official German, 
French and Italian titles, in the order given. 

The monographs usually include an enumeration of the source or 
origin of the drug, the botanical description, a microscopical descrip- 
tion and an enumeration of the cells or cell contents that are indica- 
tive of adulteration, chemical tests for identity, assay process when 
adopted, the limit of ash content, and an enumeration of the physi- 
cal properties, such as taste and smell. With many drugs this 
description is further augmented by directions for keeping, an 
enumeration of the maximum daily and single dose, and this in turn 
is followed by a list of the official preparations that are made from 
the drug. 

Assay processes have been included for such drugs as: Aconite, 
belladonna leaf, belladonna root, cantharides, cinchona, coca, hyos- 
cyamus, hydrastis, guarana, ipecac, gelsemium, kola, nux vomica, 
sabadilla, stramonium and veratrum. 

For a number of other drugs, such as aloes, frangula, digitalis and 
strophanthus, qualitative chemical tests have been included. The 
drugs of animal origin have been augmented by vaccine virus, a 
general description of serums, and specific descriptions of antidiph- 
theritic and antitetanic serums. The glandular structures of the 
animal organism, and the many derivatives that have been intro- 
duced do not appear to have been thought of sufficient importance 
to warrant their being included at this time. 

The formula and directions for the several galenical preparations, 
particularly the liquid preparations, are usually augmented by briefly 
stated standards for color, taste, density and general appearance- 
Not infrequently qualitative and at times quantitative chemical tests 
serve to further complete the description. 

The general scarcity of complex galenical preparations is one of 
the features that must be particularly gratifying to the scientifically 

Am ju°?^m arm " } The Pharmacopoeia of Switzerland. 347 

educated pharmacist or physician in that it is indicative of scientific 
rather than slipshod training on the part of medical practitioners. 

The large number of general headings, or directions for making 
certain classes of preparations, readily makes up for the apparent 
lack of numbers in some of the different classes. 

The Pharmacopoeia is further augmented by a series of twenty- 
three tables which serve as an elaboration of the several mono- 

Among the more interesting of these tables is a list of reagents 
for medical purposes. This includes formulae for the tests and 
stains that are used in the examination of the several secretions 
and excretions, the examination of blood and the staining of micro- 
organisms. Then there are a number of tables that are of special 
interest to the student or the physician. For example, there is a 
list of articles that are to be kept apart from others, a list of the 
poisonous or potent articles, a table of maximum single and daily 
doses, and a table of the per cent, content of active ingredient in 
the several galenical preparations. 

The table or list of atomic weights is, in accordance with the 
generally adopted practice in Europe, based on oxygen =16. 

An index and list of synonyms, covering fifty-two double column 
pages, serves as a ready reference t© the material contained in the 

Altogether it may be confidently expected that this new pharma- 
copoeia will surely serve to retain for the Swiss pharmacist the 
respect of the medical profession in his own country, in that it 
will necessitate his continuing the practice of his calling along 
scientific lines, and thus secure for him recognition far outside the 
limits of his own country. The admiration and the praise that has 
been so generally expressed throughout Europe, for the scientific 
character and the practical value of the material presented in the 
Swiss Pharmacopoeia is amply justified and the book itself is certainly 
well worth careful study and consideration on the part of all who 
are in any way interested in the elaboration or improvement of our 
own Pharmacopoeia of the United States. 

348 American Pharmaceutical Association. { ^ m j J u iy r i 9 P oS arm ' 


The meeting of the Philadelphia Branch of the American Phar- 
maceutical Association, held on the evening of May 5, 1908, was 
devoted to a discussion of " Pharmaceutical Associations and Their 

Mr. M. L Wilbert read a paper on " The Status of Pharmacy and 
Pharmacists in Europe," in the course of which he reviewed some 
of the achievements of the earlier pharmacists abroad and outlined 
some of the aims and objects of pharmaceutical societies in the 
several countries of Europe. He asserted that, from a scientific 
point of view, it was unfortunate, indeed, that pharmaceutical as 
well as medical training and practice in the United States should 
be based on the antiquated and undeveloped system in vogue in 
Great Britain a century or more ago. The precedent thus estab- 
lished has severely handicapped the progress of the science of phar- 
macy in this country, and it will be many years before we can 
entirely eliminate the hampering influences of the old-time affiliations 
that, at times at least, appear to all but overshadow the true voca- 
tion of the pharmacist. 

In concluding, he expressed the belief that the work that is being 
done in Europe, and even the work that is being done in connec- 
tion with the American Medical Association, will be of but indif- 
ferent value to American Pharmacy unless pharmacists themselves 
are able and willing to assist, in a practical way, by perfecting them- 
selves in the science of their calling and by insisting that future 
generations of pharmacists receive, and are able to profit by, a more 
complete and better form of pharmaceutical education than has been 
offered them heretofore. 

Mr. Thomas. H. Potts, the president of the National Association 
of Retail Druggists, presented a communication entitled, " The 
N.A.R.D. as a Factor in the Progress of Pharmacy." 

After briefly outlining the conditions as they existed a decade or 
more ago, before the founding of the N A.R.D., Mr. Potts recounted 
some of the benefits that have been secured by organization along 
business lines. 

One of the fundamental principles of the N.A.R.D., he believes, 
has been to make the business ot the retail druggist pay him better, 
and in this, he asserted, the N.A.R.D. has been eminently successful. 

Am ju°F r im arm " } American Pharmaceutical Association. 349 

The N.A.R.D. was founded to safeguard and to advance, in every 
honorable way, the welfare of the retail druggist. Every druggist 
who is imbued with the spirit of craft kinship, and realizes the* har- 
monizing power of co-operation, should be a member of this organi- 

Prof. Joseph P. Remington, in commenting on the paper by Mr. 
Potts, said that at the present time retail druggists are virtually 
compelled to give much of their attention to the immediate need 
for securing bread and butter, and they have little or no time or 
inclination for following up the professional side of their calling. 

He believes that the enactment of pure food and drug laws, and 
the accompanying acceptance of the Pharmacopoeia and of the 
National Formulary as legal standards, will serve to arouse both the 
physician as well as the pharmacist to an appreciation of the oppor- 
tunities now before them, and will serve to elevate the retail drug- 
gist to a much higher plane. 

Prof. Henry Kraemer read a paper on : " The Reorganization of 
the American Pharmaceutical Association," in which he expressed 
himself as being in favor of the form of organization that has been 
adopted by the American Medical Association, with the local 
society as the unit in the general scheme of organization. 

He believes that pharmacists, collectively or individually, can no 
longer lose sight of the scientific side of their calling. The 
methods as well as the work of the retail druggist will, in time, be 
open to the scrutiny of government officials, and it will not be long 
before the faults and the shortcomings to be found,in pharmacy will 
be exposed and discussed. 

Professor Kraemer believes that some provision should be made 
for post-graduate work by retail druggists who are interested in the 
science of . their calling. He thinks that this work can best be intro- 
duced in connection with the meetings of the existing pharma- 
ceutical associations, and for this purpose he is in favor of eliminat- 
ing all of the regular business from the general sessions. 

The several communications were further discussed by Messrs. 
Potts, Eppstein, Cliffe, Professor Remington and Professor Stanislaus. 

The latter presented a series of resolutions, which were duly 
seconded, and, after some additional discussion, slightly amended 
and finally adopted as the expression of the members present, for 
the guidance of the executive committee for the coming year. 

350 American Pharmaceutical Association. { Am juiy^m arm ' 

The resolutions, as finally adopted, are as follows : 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association recognize the importance of 
the work done by the N.A.R.D., and appreciate the need for retail 
druggists supporting the National Association of Retail Druggists 
in a practical way. 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association deprecate repeated changes 
in the by-laws of the American Pharmaceutical Association and 
favor the reorganization of this Association along broader and 
simpler lines, so as to provide for the transaction of all routine 
business by a widely representative elective body of delegates. 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association favor the suggestion that the 
several schools and colleges in this city be requested to give a series 
of lectures or demonstrations, in the nature of a post-graduate course 
of instruction, and that the executive committee of the local branch 
be requested to arrange, if practicable, for a series of demonstra- 
tions for such of the local pharmacists who may wish to attend. 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association reaffirm their endorsement of 
the work done by the Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry of the 
American Medical Association, and that individually they pledge 
their active support in favor of publicity and honesty in connection 
with medicines and medicinal preparations. 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, recognizing the many short- 
comings and the difficulties that beset a satisfactory revision of the 
National Formulary, pledge their active support and co-operation to 
the Committee on Revision of the National Formulary. 

Resolved, That the members of the Philadelphia Branch of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, during the coming year, take 
up and discuss " The Declaration on the Prescription " as promul- 
gated by the Chicago Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Asso- 

M. I. Wilbert, 


Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1908. 

Pharmaceutical Meeting. 



The last of the series of Pharmaceutical Meetings of the Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy for 1907-8 was held Tuesday, May 
19th, at 3 p.m. Among the visitors present was Mr. S. A. D. Shep- 
pard, of Boston, the well-known treasurer of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association, who, upon invitation, acted as chairman of the 
meeting. „ 

T. C. Ladakis, professor of pharmacy in the American College at 
Beirut, Syria, who has just graduated from the Philadelphia College 
of Pharmacy with the degree of Doctor in Pharmacy (P.D.), described 
the practice of pharmacy in Egypt. 

Professor Ladakis said that, in considering the conditions of phar- 
macy in Egypt, it should be remembered that the country has been 
under English rule only since 1882. He said that the regulation 
requiring those who practice pharmacy in Egypt to be licensed 
pharmacists, dates back to 1888. 

The Egyptian Government conducts a school of medicine and 
pharmacy at Cairo, which at the present time is well attended, for 
the reason that each graduate, whether of medicine or pharmacy, 
is assured a Government position. At first the instruction given in 
the school was in Arabic, but now it is in English, the professors 
being mostly Englishmen. The degree of Bachelor of Arts is re- 
quired alike of the applicants for admission to the courses on phar- 
macy and on medicine. 

Very few of the pharmacies in Egypt are conducted by natives, 
most of them being under the management of foreigners, including 
Englishmen, Greeks, Frenchmen, Italians, Germans, Syrians and 

Professor Ladakis stated that the practice of pharmacy in Egypt 
is rendered more difficult by the two factors that the country has no 
pharmacopoeia of its own, and the physicians, being also mostly 
foreigners, prescribe the preparations of their own pharmacopoeias. 

Under the pharmacy law adopted in 1904, the pharmacies of 
Egypt are regularly inspected, and samples of preparations analyzed 
at the Government chemical laboratory in Cairo, and when a pre- 
paration is found deficient, that is, not of the standard required by 
the pharmacopoeia according to which it was prepared, the pharma- 
cist is fined — for the first offense, fined and imprisoned ; for the 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm 
July, 1908. 

second offense and for further offenses may have his store closed, 
or his permission to practice pharmacy revoked. 

Graduates of practically all foreign schools or colleges of pharmacy 
are allowed to practice without examination. 

Professor Ladakis said that pharmacists in the near East handle 
practically nothing but medicines, the only side lines being perfumery, 
toilet articles and photographic goods. He said that if pharmacists 
were to attempt to sell cigars, cigarettes, etc., the people would lose 
the respect which they have for pharmacists, and the present high 
position of the calling would be greatly lowered. 

Proprietary preparations are used to some extent, and those 
manufactured in Egypt are either preparations for diseases of the 
eye or general tonics. 

The practice of pharmacy in Turkey is about on the same plane 
as in Egypt, except that the professors in the medical and phar- 
maceutical schools regard the French pharmacopoeia as the official 

In Turkey, certain chemicals, for one reason or another, are not 
allowed either to be manufactured or imported, and of these the 
following were mentioned : nitric acid, all nitrates (except silver 
nitrate) and chlorates, cocaine and its salts, sulphonal, potassium 
cyanide, picric acid, nitroglycerin, gun cotton, bismuth subsalicylate, 
cotton seed oil, and essence of cognac. 

Other interesting points were also brought out in the discussion 
of the paper. 

Mr. M. I. Wilbert gave an interesting resume of some of the 
Recent Advances in Pharmacy (see p. 287), and exhibited and com- 
mented upon a line of pharmaceutical preparations which had been 
prepared by members of the local branch of the American Pharma- 
ceutical Association for exhibition at the recent meeting of the 
American Therapeutic Society, held in Philadelphia. 

Mr. Wilbert alluded to the spread of prohibition and local option, 
and said that pharmacists should take cognizance of the movement, 
as it is likely to cause a lessening of the amount of alcohol used in 
medicines and the employment of other means of preserving phar- 
maceutical preparations. 

The speaker then enumerated a series of preparations which 
should be made by pharmacists, and in this connection spoke of the 
introduction of sterilization processes by European pharmacists. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1908. 

Pharmaceii tic a I M eeting. 


He said that this is a subject to which the pharmacists of this coun- 
try must give more attention in the future, it having been hereto- 
fore almost totally neglected. 

The distinction between the terms u dispensing " and " com- 
pounding " in a legal sense having been announced for discussion, 
Mr. Wilbert said that while he was not familiar with the State law 
on this point, the rule seemed to be that wholesalers are allowed, 
without license, to compound or mix medicines so long as they do 
not dispense them, and thus it frequently happens that ignorant and 
uneducated assistants are employed in handling medicines. He 
said that Governor Pennypacker held that a wholesaler should not 
be allowed to compound medicines unless he had a pharmacist's 

Prof. E. Fullerton Cook again called attention to the series of 
National Formulary fluidextracts and elixirs which were made under 
his direction by students during the College term, and said that he had 
received letters from manufacturers protesting against the adverse 
criticisms made on fluidextracts at the March Pharmaceutical meet- 
ing (see April number of this Journal, p. 196), the claim being made 
that the use of fluidextracts is increasing. Professor Cook said 
that the increase in the use of fluidextracts is no doubt due to 
their use in other preparations, as tinctures, elixirs, wines, etc., and 
he pointed out the desirability of taking up and discussing the sub- 
ject as to whether their use in this way is permissible. 

Mr. Wilbert claimed that the method of dilution as recommended 
by some manufacturers on their fluidextract labels is not official, 
and should not be practiced. He wholly condemned the practice 
of making infusions from fluidextracts, and also said that tinctures 
should not be made by dilution of fluidextracts, because of the loss 
of active constituents through precipitation. 

Dr. Clayton M. Thrush referred to a statement made by Dr. 
Janeway, of New York, that he found it very difficult to obtain the 
official tincture of digitalis. He said that he called the dilution 
method the " lazy method," and expressed the hope that it would 
soon cease to exist. 

In reply to a question by Mr. C. P. Gabell as to whether, in the 
case of alkaloidal or standardized preparations, it would be better to 
make them by dilution of fluidextracts than from drugs of variable 
quality, Mr. Wilbert said that this subject had been discussed for 


Pharmaceutical Meeting. 

A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
July, 1908. 

many years by Squibb, Rice and others, and that experiments 
showed that in the diluted fluidextracts, precipitation occurs and 
carries down the active ingredients. 

Mr. Ambrose Hunsberger pointed out that certain manufacturers 
give the alkaloidal strength of powdered drugs. 

A conjoint paper on " A Chemical and Microscopical Examination 
of Commercial Ginger," by Prof. Henry Kraemer and Mr. Harry E. 
Sindall, was presented in abstract (see p. 303). 

Mr. Sindall stated that Circular 13, issued by the Government, 
permitted a yield of 8 per cent, of ash in ginger; but in Circular 19 
the allowable percentage of ash was reduced to 6, which latter 
standard excludes Calcutta ginger. He stated that of eleven com- 
mercial samples which he examined, only one yielded less than 
6 per cent, of ash, and this sample was found to be adulterated. 

Professor Kraemer stated that he would not attempt a resume of 
his work on ginger in the time at his command, but desired to refer 
to one or two points only. 

Mr. Hunsberger presented to the College an old-fashioned brass 
hand prescription scale, and a spring lance formerly used by phar- 
macists as well as by physicians for bleeding their patients and for 
lancing ulcers. 

J. N. Limbert & Co. exhibited a cutting of Vanilla planifolia re- 
cently received from Mexico, bearing a young green vanilla pod. 

Dr. J. Henry Allen, of Savannah, Ga., presented a hand prescrip- 
tion balance used a century ago in the South. The balance is a fine 
one and has been carefully kept. 

Professor Kraemer exhibited a specimen belonging to the College 
collection, which he said appeared to be very rare indeed, namely, 
a clustered or multiseriate ovulate cone of probably Pinus rigida. 
He said that he had become interested in the specimen through 
reading a recent article by Wieland, in the American Journal of 
Science (Vol. 25, page 102). Instead of the usual' cluster of up to 
half a dozen cones, this compound cone consists of about fifty cones, 
and according to Wieland, there are only four other known speci- 
mens, viz., one found in the Silliman collection at Harvard University, 
and three in the Jardin des Plantes, Paris. These compound cones 
are considered to represent a primitive type, and are of interest 
more especially to the student of evolution. 

Florence Yaple, Secretary pro tern. 



AUGUST, igo8 

By John Strkkt * 

The writer has recently examined a large number of samples of 
beef, wine and iron, and the results secured indicate certain important 
objections to the method of preparation recommended in the last 
National Formulary. 

It is rather difficult to understand the reasons for the admission 
of a preparation of such doubtful efficacy into the Formulary. For 
all practical purposes, in most cases it is nothing more than a sherry 
wine of more or less questionable quality, to which has been added 
small quantities of meat extract and either tincture or citrate of 
iron. Meat extract is recognized as possessing but slight nutritive 
value, and the amount used in the preparation of beef, wine and iron 
would have but little value even as a tonic or stimulant. On the 
other hand, the iron in these preparations might be of value as a 
tonic during convalescence or in certain blood disorders, but it 
could be obtained much more cheaply and could be used much 
more intelligently in other forms and under a physician's directions. 
The use of such materials by an invalid on his own responsibility 
likewise exposes him to the danger of acquiring unconsciously the 
habit of alcoholism. 

Because of the scarcity of analytical data concerning this material, 
I prepared several mixtures according to the directions of the 
Formulary, and also with some modifications. It was evident at 
once that wide variations in composition might arise from the 

* Credit for the analytical work is shared by E. M. Bailey and H. R. Stevens. 



Beef y Wine and Iron. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

quality of sherry wine and meat extract used. Furthermore, it is 
well known that many pharmacists at present substitute citrate of 
iron and ammonia for the tincture of citro-chloride of iron because 
of its greater solubility, and it was clear that the iron salt used 
would influence the quantity of iron present in the preparation. 
Five mixtures were prepared, as follows : 

No. i. High-grade meat extract corresponding to Liebig's ex- 
tract ; tincture of citro-chloride of iron ; all materials used in the 
exact proportions directed by the Formulary ; alcohol not removed 
by distillation ; solution not filtered. 

No. 2. Half of No. I was filtered and the original volume restored 
by the addition of sherry wine. 

No. 3. The same as No. 1, except that an equivalent amount of 
iron in the form of citrate of iron and ammonia was used; alcohol 
not removed ; solution not filtered. 

No. 4. Half of No. 3 was filtered and the original volume restored 
by the addition of sherry wine. 

No. 5. Lower-grade meat extract, but with the quantity suffi- 
ciently increased to supply the same amount of nitrogen as 33 
grammes of Liebig's extract ; the exact procedure of the Formulary 
was followed, using the tincture of iron, and including the removal 
of the alcohol by distillation, and the double filtration ; the sherry 
used was different from that used in the other four mixtures. 

The analysis of the five preparations and a partial analysis of the 
sherry are shown in the following table: 


a.*- _ 

tcO as 

by Vol. 






as Am- 

No. 1. 

High-grade extract ; tiuc- 
ture of iron ; not filtered, 


Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 


Per ct. 

No. 2. 

High-grade extract ; tinc- 
ture of iron; filtered . . 








No. 3. 

High-grade extract ; ci- 
trate of iron ; not filtered, 








No. 4. 

High-grade extract ; ci- 
trate of iron ; filtered . . 








No. 5. 

Low-grade extract ; tinc- 
ture of iron ; filtered . . 

1 '02654 







Sherry used in Nos. i to 4 .... 

o - 99602 




used in No. 5 




Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
August, 1908. J 

Beef, Wine and Iron. 


Although the first four preparations were not made according to 
the Formulary as regards the removal of the alcohol, the composi- 
tion would not be materially affected save in the case of the alcohol 
content, which we find to be very high, ranging from 23 82 to 27-18, 
against 19 50 in No. 5. The influence of the form of iron used is 
very marked. Where filtration is practiced and the tincture is used, 
the iron falls from 0-123 to 001 1 per cent., a loss of 91 per cent.; 
where the citrate of iron is used, filtration causes only a slight de- 
crease in iron, from 0121 to 0107 per cent. In No. 5, where the 
tincture was also used followed by filtration, the low iron percentage 
of No. 2 is confirmed ; the 500 c.c. of the preparation originally 
contained 0-631 gramme of metallic iron; while it actually con- 
tains, after filtration, only 0-123 gramme, a loss of 80 per cent. 
Filtration likewise causes a decrease in ash of from I I 13 to 0-723 
per cent., a loss of 35 per cent. The higher ash in No. 5 is due to 
the presence of a large excess of sodium chloride in the meat extract 
used, a characteristic of most commercial extracts. 

In the case of the nitrogen, where the tincture is used, filtration 
causes a reduction from 0-250 to 0-178 per cent., a loss of 29 per 
cent. ; where the citrate is used the nitrogen loss is negligible. In 
No. 5 the amount of nitrogen added in the form of meat extract 
was 1534 grammes; the first filtration removed 0168 gramme, 
and the second 0-274 gramme, a total of 0-442 gramme, or, again, 
29 per cent, of the total nitrogen. 

The ammonia determination shows mere traces where the tinc- 
ture was used, and as much as o 066 per cent, where the citrate was 
used, incidentally showing that this determination gives valuable 
evidence as to the form of iron used. 

The above facts show that the procedure of the Formulary 
results in a loss of 29 per cent, of the nitrogen, 35 per cent, of the 
ash and gi per cent, of the iron. The substitution of citrate of iron 
and ammonia for the tincture of citro-chloride of iron, even when 
double filtration is practiced, prevents these losses almost entirely, 
besides furnishing a brighter and more attractive preparation. 

Ninety-two samples collected from the stock of Connecticut 
druggists were analyzed. Tests were made for specific gravity, 
alcohol, extract, ash, iron, nitrogen and ammonia. While a great 
part of the beef, wine and iron on the market is made by the large 
wholesale drug houses, nearly every druggist puts out a brand 


Beef, Wine and Iron. 

f A.m. Jour. Ptaarm 
\ August, 1908. 

under his own name, so that practically there are as many nomi- 
nally different brands as there are druggists. The results presented, 
therefore, do not mean that the Connecticut druggists are selling a 
lower-grade article than those of other States, for a large propor- 
tion of the samples were made elsewhere. In fact, some of the 
highest-grade preparations analyzed were made by local druggists 
and some of the lowest grade by wholesale houses of wide reputa- 

It is unnecessary to give the detailed analyses ot all the samples 
in this place, and only typical ones and the average of the ninety- 
two samples are shown in the accompanying table. The first thir- 
teen samples were sold under the name of the wholesalers, the others 
under the name of the local druggists. 

It is seen that the variations in composition are very wide in every 
ingredient. Attention at this time will be called only to the nitro- 
gen and iron content. The Formulary states that M 4 c.c. (1 
fluidrachm) represent 0-13 gramme (2 grains) of extract of beef, 
and 01 28 c.c. (2 minims) of tincture of citro-chloride of iron." 
Translated into metrical and chemical terms, if a high-grade meat 
extract is used as directed, one fluidrachm should contain 0-0122 
gramme of nitrogen and 0058 gramme of metallic iron, provided 
that there is no loss entailed by the method of preparation. My 
own preparations contained in one fluidrachm as follows: 

No. 1, unfiltered . . . io - 2 milligrammes N, 5*0 milligrammes Fe 

No. 2, filtered .... 7*2 " " 0-4 " " 

No. 3, unfiltered . . . 12T " " 5*0 " " 

No. 4, filtered .... 11*4 " " 4-4 " " 

No. 5, filtered .... 8-9 " " ro 

The figures obtained on preparations of known origin show the 
difficulty of establishing standards particularly for iron. In the 
light of the above data the use of the word " represent " in the 
Formulary is explainable, and while the makers of the Formulary 
doubtless intended to convey no false impression by their phrase- 
ology, it has certainly opened the way for gross misrepresentation 
in the sale of beef, wine and iron. Where the tincture of iron is 
used, followed by filtration, nearly all the iron is removed and about 
one-third of the nitrogen. If as much as one milligramme of 
metallic iron is present in a fluidrachm, therefore, it is impossible 
to assert with certainty that the preparation is not made by the 

f m ] Beef, Wine and Iron. 359 



cfl • 

1 Fluidrachm 


Alcohol b 




Iron (Fe) 





Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 

Per ct. 













I95 1 2 










1 848 1 

1 "0359 


















1 864 1 

1 '0343 


13 '65 















4 -8 






























3 ' 2 
















' 0-365 





' I"2 












1 "0603 











19 61 



















1 0198 

















7 7 




18 90 

16 47 















1 7 













1 '9725 

25 46 







i 4 -8 



. 8*48 

6 07 


*o 25 








14 55 







official formula. My own preparation, No. 5, made strictly accord- 
ing to the Formulary, contains but one milligramme of iron per 

In the case of nitrogen, while my own preparations show that the 
filtered material may contain only 7-2 to 8-9 milligrammes per 
fluidrachm instead of 12-2 milligrammes, as calculated from the 
Formulary requirement of two grains of high-grade meat extract, 
the question of a minimum standard is not so difficult ; for by no 
possible manipulation of the formula, provided meat extract of good 


Beef, Wine and Iron. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

quality is used, could much less than seven milligrammes of 
nitrogen be furnished per fluidrachm, even if citrate of iron and 
ammonia is not used. 

In the ninety-two samples the iron varies from -025 to -355 per 
cent, with an average of -114. These variations are in great part 
due to the form of iron used, as has already been pointed out. In 
forty-six samples the label states that the citrate had been substi- 
tuted for the tincture, while in seven the tincture and in one 
phosphate of iron is given as the source of the iron ; in the other 
thirty-eight samples there is no statement as to the iron, although 
in the majority of them it is evident the citrate was used. The 
average iron content where the citrate is stated to have been used 
is -119 per cent.; where the tincture was used -090 per cent., or 24 
per cent. less. 

The nitrogen varies from -018 to o 539, with an average of -121 
per cent. Only nine samples contain over -200 per cent., the amount 
found in our own preparation made according to formula ; forty-two 
contain from o-io to 20 per cent., twenty-six from 05 to 0-10 
per cent., and fifteen less than o 05 per cent. As already stated, 
filtration of the preparation causes a considerable loss of nitrogen, 
and while one fluidrachm may " represent " 1 2-2 milligrammes of 
nitrogen, the actual content may be as low as 7 milligrammes 
per fluidrachm, even if made strictly according to formula. Admit- 
ting 7 milligrammes as the minimum standard, the analyses show 
that only twenty-three of the samples reach this figure ; thirty contain 
from 4 to 6*8 milligrammes, twenty-five from 2 to 3-9 milligrammes 
and fourteen less than 2 milligrammes per fluidrachm. In other 
words, fifty-five samples, or 60 per cent., contain less than half the 
minimum standard. On the average it was found that about one- 
third of the nitrogen was in the form of ammonia, the greater 
part of which was derived from the citrate used. It is evident, 
therefore, what an insignificant amount of meat extract many of 
these preparations contain. 

The propriety of the use of the word " beef" in connection with 
this material is indeed questionable, as only in rare cases is beef 
itself actually used ; and even if used, only the extractives, of no 
nutritive value, would be present. Many of the labels on the sam- 
ples bear other false and misleading statements, such as " one-half 
fluidounce contains the strength of one ounce of beef," " one ounce 

AD AuS,i9(»! m "} Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. 361 

contains the strength of oae ounce of beef," " each fluidounce con- 
tains one ounce of essence of beef,'' and one tablespoonful con- 
tains the equivalent of 1 y 2 ounces of lean meat." One sample 
bears two directly contradictory labels; the main label claims that 
" each fluidounce contains all the strength of 2 ounces of prime, fresh, 
lean beef;" the other label claims that " each fluidounce contains 
the extractive strength of y 2 ounce of prime, fresh, lean beef." 

To summarize the results of my analyses, sixty-nine samples are 
below N. F. strength in nitrogen, twenty-nine are misbranded, and 
all but one of the misbranded samples are likewise low in nitrogen. 
Only twenty-two samples out of ninety two satisfy the calculated 
N. F. requirement of 7 milligrammes of nitrogen per fluidrachm. 

The responsibility Tor these deficiencies rests partly upon the 
Formulary itself, partly upon the quality and very largely upon the 
quantity of meat extract used in their preparation. 
Analytical Laboratory, Connecticut 

Agricultural Experiment Station, 

New Haven, Conn. 

By Charges M. Sterling. 

Ever since the nature of the alkaloid occurring in Hyoscyamus 
muticus was determined, the plant has attracted considerable atten- 
tion. According to Engler and Prantl (Natiirlichen Pflanzenfami- 
lien, volume 4, part 3, page 18), the plant grows abundantly in 
Egypt, and extends eastward into southern Asia to the East Indies. 
As shown by Mr. Edwin Dowzard in the American Journal of 
Pharmacy for May, 1908, several excellent assays of the drug have 
been made, and its superior quality well established. 

As the drug appears on the market, it consists chiefly of fruiting 
stalks gathered after the corollas have withered and fallen off. As 
the leaves are very fragile, only the smaller ones remain unbroken. 
Usually both stems and leaves are in much broken fragments. The 
calyces are of much firmer texture than the leaves, and often retain 
their structure intact; and as they closely surround the partly 
matured fruits, these also are frequently well preserved. 

The specimen of drug used in the preparation of this article was 
imported from Egypt. 

362 Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. { Am A U J |usMm m ' 


The inflorescence is a dorsi-ventral, one-sided raceme, having the 
younger portion rolled inward toward the ventral side. However, 
the inflorescence is almost identical with that of Hyoscyamus niger, 
which Tschirch insists is cymose in structure (Anatomischer Atlas, 
page 168), and not a close raceme or spike as it is usually described. 

The stems are hollow, cylindrical, and longitudinally wrinkled, 
the younger parts being flattened in drying and often deeply furrowed 
on the ventral side. They are covered with trichomes, which are 

Fig. 1. — A, Cross section of stem, showing epidermis b, and cortex c. B, 
Cross section of stem extending from the cortex e, to the xylem f, showing the 
phloem at g. C, Portion of xylem showing ducts and wood fibers z, and 
medullary ray at // d, wood fibers, separated by maceration ; n, fragments of 
ducts from powder. 

very prominent on the younger parts, while the older parts may be 
almost smooth. In color they are grayish-yellow to yellowish- 
brown, and as they may be 10 mm. or more in diameter, they show 
externally characteristics which readily distinguish them from the 
official Hyoscyamus niger. 

The internal structure of the stem is peculiar and characteristic. 

Am ASt,im m -} Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. 363 

The epidermis consists of a row of regular cells having a thick 
cuticle. (Fig- 1, Lying adjacent to the epidermis is the cortex, 
composed of large, thin- walled cells which are tangentially stretched. 
(Fig. 1, c.) In a stem measuring 7 mm. in diameter, the cortex is 
about 15 cells in width. These cells measure radially from 10 
microns near the, epidermis to 70 in the central part of the cortex, 
and tangentially from 25 to 150. The vascular bundles are bicol- 
lateral, having small groups of phloem adjoining the medulla as well 

Fig. 2. — D, Longitudinal section of stem ; epidermis, a; cortex, k. E> Lon- 
gitudinal radial section of xylem ; i, duct, and m, wood fibers ; o, a trichome 
from the inner surface of the calyx ; p, trichome from stem ; r, longitudinal 
radial section of medullary ray. 

as the larger groups adjacent to the cortex. The xylem is composed 
for the most part of wood fibers and ducts. (Fig. i,C.) The ducts 
are relatively few, and occur singly or in groups of two or three, 
rarely more, and are annular, spiral, scalariform or reticulate in 

The latter may contain either simple or bordered pores. The 
xylem is rich in fibers which are relatively thick-walled. (Fig. 1, i.) 

364 Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. { ^ig^$w; m ' 

They are long and slender, with sloping or irregular ends (Fig. 2, 
m), and have numerous circular or slit-like pores which may be 
either straight or oblique. The fibers measure from 10 to 25 
microns in width, by 350 to 900 in length. 

The medullary rays are composed of cells very regular in form. 
They are seldom more than one cell wide, and contain many fine 
pores. (Fig. 2, r.) 


The leaves are very fragile and are usually in much broken frag, 
ments. However, some of the smaller leaves from the fruiting 

Fig. 3. — F, Surface view of epidermis of leaf, under surface, showing scars 
left by falling trichornes b; s, trichotne from stem epidermis ; /, epidermis of 
leaf, upper surface ; v, trichome from stem ; x, trichome from inner surface of 
calyx ; /, leaves. 

stalks may be found intact. In form they are ovate, lanceolate, or 
oblong-lanceolate, and measure 30 to 80 mm. in length by 15 
to 25 mm. in width. They have either acute or acuminate apices ; 
margins entire or acutely four to six-lobed, and bases oblique or 
inequilateral (Fig. j/). The veins stand out conspicuousl yon both 
the upper and under surfaces of the leaves, but are more prominent 

An Aigusi P i9cfs^ m '} Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. 365 

on the under surfaces. They are lighter in color than the rest of 
the leaf, and running out from the midrib are prominent veins 
which terminate in the lobes. In color the leaves are green or 

Surface views of both upper and under sides of the leaves show 
cells with relatively even and regular walls [Fig. J, .Fand and Fig. 
4. J). On the veins the epidermal cells are elongated and sometimes 
pointed, resembling prosenchyma in form (Fig. 4, K). The palisade 

Fig. 4 — H, Epidermis of calyx, outer surface ; J, epidermis of leaf, under 
surface ; K, epidermis from midrib, under surface of leaf; M, epidermis from 
inner surface of calyx. 

parenchyma consists of a single row of cells which are filled with 
protoplasm, and contain numerous chloroplasts. They are separated 
by numerous intercellular spaces. The spongy parenchyma is made 
up of several layers of irregular cells, between which are large inter- 
cellular spaces. These cells are also rich in chloroplasts and those 
adjacent to the palisade frequently contain crystals. Stomata simi- 
lar in form and size occur on both the upper and under surfaces of 
the leaves, and both surfaces are pubescent. 

366 Histology of Hyoscyamus Mutkus. { Am iuS, X rm 


Because of the firm texture of the calyces, they are less broken 
than the other parts of the plant. They are 10 to 25 mm. long, 
and are borne on peduncles 4 to 10 mm. in length. They are 
gamosepalous, bell-shaped, strongly ribbed, and surmounted by five 
nearly equal, - short, blunt teeth. In surface view the epidermis 
resembles very closely that of the leaves {Fig. 4. H, and M). Stomata 
occur on both the inner and outer surfaces of the calyces, and both 
surfaces are hairy, although the outer surfaces soon become almost 
smooth. The inner as well as the outer epidermis of the calyx is 
accompanied by a hypodermal layer of cells similar in size and form 
to those of the epidermis ; while between these two zones of regular 
cells lies a tissue of large and very thin-walled cells. In this zone 
of large cells, which is four or five cells in width, are many crystals 
of calcium oxalate. In color the calyx is a greenish-yellow. 


The calyx closely surrounds the fruit, but is not attached to it. 
The fruit is a two-locular pixis, and contains many small, light 
brown or yellowish seeds, which are attached to the central placentae. 
The seeds, about 1 mm. in diameter, are flattened, nearly reniform, 
and finely reticulate. The seed consists of two very distinct coats 
surrounding a copious layer of endosperm, within which lies curled 
up a small colorless embryo. The outer seed coat is composed of 
a single layer of cells which have their radial and inner tangential 
walls striated and very much thickened, while the other tangential 
wall remains thin. This thin outer wall usually collapses and lies 
pressed close against the inner wall, thus giving the finely reticu- 
late structure to the surface of the seed (Fig. 5, C). The inner seed 
coat is composed of a brownish, almost obliterated or partly 
resorbed, zone of cells. 

The endosperm is made up of a zone of tissue, five or six cells 
in width. The cells are regular in outline, thin- walled (Fig. 5, 
A), and are closely packed with aleurone and oil. The aleurone 
grains (Fig. 5, w) are four to six-sided, and four to ten microns in 
diameter. Lying within the endosperm is the embryo, consisting 
of a hypocotyl, and two thin-cotyledons (Fig. 5, L). Both hypocotyl 
and cotyledons are made up of thin-walled cells very similar in size 

Am. Jour. Pharm." 
August. 1908. 

Histology of Hyoscyamus Muticus. 


and form (Fig. 5, B and ff), excepting a small central portion of 
the hypocotyl, which shows the procambium strands already formed. 
The cells of the embryo also contain oil and aleurone, but the 
aleurone grains are smaller than those of the endosperm. 


Trichomes are found on the stems, both surfaces of the leaves 
and calyces, and are unicellular or multicellular, simple or branch- 

FiG. 5. — L, Embryo ; y, hypocotyl ; z, cotyledon ; A, transverse section 
through the endosperm ; B, portion of hypocotyl in longitudinal section ; H, 
part of cotyledon ; C, testa, surface view ; N, crystals ; w, aleurone. 

ing. The unicellular trichomes are curved and non-glandular, but 
are covered with fine, spine-like projections (Fig. j, x), while the 
multicellular trichomes are smooth and glandular. The simple 
multicellular trichomes are composed of a two to five-celled stalk, 
bearing a rounded unicellular glandular head (Fig. 2, and /). 
The branching trichomes have a large, multicellular, four to eight- 
celled stalk bearing one or more branches ; the main stalk, as well as 
the branches, terminates in a one-celled glandular head (Fig. 3 s). 

368 Assay of Belladonna Root. l A aS.mST " 


Crystals of calcium oxalate are abundant, and are found in all 
parts of the plant. They are in the form of pyramids, prisms and 
rosette- shaped aggregates (Fig. 5, N). The aggregate crystals, 
which often measure forty to sixty microns in diameter, occur for the 
most part in the cortex of the stems, and are relatively few in num- 
ber. The prismatic and pyramidal forms, measuring four to fifty 
microns in diameter, frequently occur as twin crystals, and stand 
out prominently in any mounted preparation, whether it be made 
from material in the form of powder or from sections. 

A comparison of Hyoscyamus muticus with the official Hyoscyamus 
niger brings out characteristics which cannot fail to distinguish the 
two drugs. The much lighter and yellowish color of Hyoscyamus 
muticus; the larger and more conspicuous stem remnants and 
calyces furnish diagnostic characters, which even to the unaided eye 
are reliable means of identification. A microscopical examination, 
however, shows even more striking diagnostic characters. The 
trichomes of Hyoscyamus muticus stand out as the most prominent 
and reliable diagnostic character that distinguishes the two species. 
But other characters almost as important are found in the epidermal 
cells of both leaves and calyces, the wood fibers, the crystals, the 
large parenchyma cells of the cortex, and the very conspicuous 
cells of the testa. 

By W. A. Pearson and J. G. Roberts. 

Owing to the variation between our results and those of Dr. Carl 
Enoch, of Hamburg, Germany, as to the alkaloidal content of cer- 
tain shipments of belladonna root, both our method and that of Dr. 
Enoch were critically examined and compared. 

Dr. Enoch was kind enough to give us the complete details of 
his method, which is a modification of Keller's, and is as follows : 

"The root, after being carefully dried, is powdered medium 
finely and 12 grammes are placed in a glass-stoppered Erlenmeyer 
flask of about 200 c.c. capacity, and exactly 90 grammes of ether 
and 30 grammes of chloroform are added. After inserting the glass 
stopper securely, allow the flask to stand ten minutes, so that the 

Am. Jour. Pharra.) 
August, 1908. / 

Assay of Belladonna Root. 


ether and chloroform can properly mix with the powdered root, and 
then add 10 grammes of 10 per cent, ammonia and shake the flask 
well at frequent intervals during an hour. The ammoniacal liquid 
will be entirely absorbed by the powdered root, while the alkaloids 
and resinous constituents pass into the ether-chloroform solution. 
Add 15 c.c. of distilled water and shake the flask again strongly for 
some time. By this addition of water, the powdered root separates 
entirely from the solution in the form of a paste, so that either 
through a paper or a pellet of cotton 100 grammes of the ether- 
chloroform solution can be transferred to a small flask. These 100 
grammes now contain all that is soluble out of 10 grammes of the 
root. The small flask is immersed in boiling water untilthe ether 
and chloroform are evaporated, then a few cubic centimeters of ether 
are added, and this evaporated to be sure that no ammonia re- 
mains. The residue is then dried for about twenty minutes in a 
water oven to remove every trace of ether, chloroform or ammonia. 

" In this flask we now have, aside from the total alkaloids, a small 
amount of very light yellow or white resins, which, however, do not 
interfere in any way with the following titrimetric determination of 
the alkaloids as the resins remain insoluble in the flask. To deter- 
mine the alkaloid, put into the flask, while yet warm, 10 c.c. of absolute 
alcohol and heat gently until everything, with the exception of traces 
of resin, is dissolved. Add 50 c.c. of water and several drops ot 
aqueous haematoxylin solution. The turbidity brought about by 
resin contained in the flask is of no consequence. However, I (Dr. 
Enoch) add a pretty large quantity of aqueous haematoxylin solu- 
tion, which causes the color to change immediately to a deep red- 
violet shade. I then add tenth normal hydrochloric acid by drops. 
The color changes very soon into yellow ; however, this is not yet 
the final point of the titration; for after close examination, you will 
find that each additional drop of acid still causes yellow streaks to 
appear in the fluid, this being a proof that the red color of the 
indicator has not all been changed into yellow. I continue to add 
tenth normal acid by drops until the last drop will no longer cause 
any clarification nor any formation of streaks. The titration must 
be carried until this point is reached. This point appears and may 
be determined so absolutely that I have obtained innumerable results 
which coincide. 

" Multiply the number of cubic centimeters of tenth normal 


Assay of Belladonna Root. 


A.m. Jour. Pharcu. 
August, 1908. 

hydrochloric acid used by 0287, and this by 10, and the result will 
be the per cent, of total mydriatic alkaloids." 

For accurate measuring of the tenth normal acid, an apparatus 
shown in Fig. 1 was devised. A is a small reservoir for water which 
is connected with a three-way stop-cock of a burette B, which is in 
turn connected at the top by means of a curved glass tube with a 
5 c.c. pipette C. By turning the stop-cock in the burette, the 
pipette may be filled with tenth normal acid and accurately added 
to the flask containing the alkaloids in small drops. To facilitate 
accurate reading, a clothes-pin, D, carrying a strip of white paper, 

and on this half of a small round red label, is clamped at any de- 
sired point on the pipette and the readings very accurately made. 
The idea of this device was obtained from Dr. John Anderson, of 
the Marine Hospital Service. If properly made, the semi-circular 
red label will show a straight red line through the pipette or burette 
with which the lowest point of the meniscus can be made to 

For our regular work we use the U.S.P. method with slight modi- 
fications, which simplifies the operation and increases the accuracy. 
The first deviation from the U.S.P. process is in the use of a Gordin 
combination maceration flask and percolator, which is shown in 
Fig. 2, A. Instead of macerating the belladonna root in an Erlen- 

Figs. 1 and 2. — Alkaloidal Assay of Belladonna Root. 

^Sus^^} Assay of Belladonna Root, 371 

meyer flask and then transferring to a small percolator, as directed 
by the U.S.P., the ground drug is put in the percolators, together 
with the menstruum, and macerated for one hour, shaking at frequent 
intervals. When ready for percolation the percolator is placed so 
that the percolate will flow into separator B } Fig. 2. 

The rate of flow of the percolate can be easily regulated with 
stop-cock C, which is a distinct advantage over the U.S.P. method, 
as the drug requires no packing. 

The shaking out with acid solution and with chloroform is carried 
out as directed by the U.S. P.; but instead of combining the three 
chloroformic solutions and then evaporating, each one is evaporated 
separately as soon as it is drawn off. By so doing, all ammonia held 
by the chloroform solution is driven off. Due care is exercised at 
each step in the shaking-out process, to insure complete separation 
of the solutions. The last chloroformic solutions are filtered either 
through a pledget of cotton placed in the stem of the separatory 
funnel or through a filter into an evaporating dish. 

For the titration a low form of evaporating dish is more conve- 
nient than a beaker, as the end reaction is more readily detected. 
In order to facilitate the titration, we dissolve the alkaloidal residue 
in 3 c.c. of alcohol, add the necessary amount of fiftieth-normal 
sulphuric acid volumetric solution and 10 drops of cochineal indi- 
cator, and then dilute with 75 c.c. of distilled water. Dissolving 
the alkaloidal residue in alcohol permits the use of a fiftieth-normal 
sulphuric acid for titrating, which is advantageous, as by using a 
weaker acid any possible error due to the volumetric solution 
adhering to the burette is diminished. 

Because it is rather difficult to determine the end reaction when 
using cochineal indicator, on account of the absence of a distinct 
change, and as it is necessary for absolutely accurate results to 
have the same end reaction in the alkaloid determination as that 
obtained when standardizing the fiftieth-normal potassium hydrate, 
we have adopted a color comparison method. 

A blank titration is made in a white porcelain evaporating dish, 
using the same amount of alcohol, fiftieth-normal sulphuric acid, 
cochineal and water, and titrating with approximately fiftieth-normal 
potassium hydrate to a definite color. 

Then the alkaloid containing solution in a similar evaporating 
dish is titrated to the same tint as that obtained in the blank. 


Assay of Belladonna Root. 

[ A.m. Jour. Phurm. 
I August, 1908. 

By dividing the number of cubic centimeters of fiftieth-normal 
sulphuric acid used by the number of cubic centimeters of approxi- 
mately fiftieth-normal potassium hydrate required, a correction is 
obtained for the potassium hydrate solution. Multiply this correc- 
tion by the number of cubic centimeters of potassium hydrate solu- 
tion used in the alkaloidal tritration to find the number of cubic 
centimeters of fiftieth-normal potassium hydrate used. 

Subtract this amount from the number of cubic centimeters of 
fiftieth-normal sulphuric acid used. Divide this number by 5 to 
get in terms of tenth-normal solutions, and multiply by 0-0287, and 
then by 10, and the result will be the percentage of mydriatic alka- 
loids present. 


Dr. Enoch's method gives results that can be duplicated easily. 
It also has the great advantage that it may be quickly carried out. 
In our experience the results have always been higher than the 
same sample by the U.S.P. method ; but Dr. Enoch says that there 
is more chance for loss in the U.S.P. method, which is true. The 
end point in his method seems to be carried too far. We have found 
that different indicators play an important part in the results ob- 
tained, and for that reason we have adopted the colorimetric titration 
as given above. It must be remembered that Dr. Enoch gives 
specific directions to thoroughly dry the root before beginning the 
assay. The U.S.P. makes no specific provision for this additional 
drying, and as belladonna root will usually lose about 10 per cent, 
in additional drying, this must be taken into consideration. 

The above was sent to Dr. Enoch for correction and for further 
suggestions in regard to his method, and in reply the following 
comments were made by him : 

(1) It is important in drying the drug previous to assay that the 
temperature is not raised above 8o° C, as below that temperature 
there is no loss of alkaloid. 

(2) For each titration, 1 to 3 c.c. of tenth-normal hydrochloric 
acid are used. The exact observation of the streaks is the only and 
best way to determine the end point in the titration. 

(3) The end point in Dr. Enoch's method is not carried too far, 
but is absolutely correct, which you can see by making the same 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1908. J 

Assay of Oil of Peppermint. 


test with a definite quantity of pure atropine, and besides, the follow- 
ing statements coincide with my results. 

In all the literature of pharmacy and pharmacognosy you may 
read that the amount of alkaloids varies from 0-5 to 0-7 per cent. 
This is quite in accordance with my results. With the U.S.P. 
method you never have found more than 0-40 per cent, alkaloid in 
the highest analysis, even if you analyze the best belladonna root in 
existence. (? W. A. P. J. G. R.) 

Different indicators always play an important part in the final 
results ; therefore, I take hematoxylin as your Pharmacopoeia 
formerly advised. If you use cochineal, it is necessary to pre- 
viously test the tenth-normal hydrochloric acid against this indicator, 
but it is not so good in this case. 

The further drying of the root before powdering is necessary; 
otherwise, you never compare results of material which have different 
percentages of moisture. 

We are greatly indebted to Dr. Enoch for his co-operation in this 
work, as well as to several members of the firm we represent. 

Research Laboratory, 

Smith, Kline & French Company. 


By Dr. Gunnar Heikei,. 

Inasmuch as oil of peppermint is a solution of about 40 to 45 per 
cent, menthol in menthyl acetate and other liquid constituents of 
the oil, it is evident that after elimination of a certain quantity of 
the latter a separation of menthol crystals will occur. 

When the oil is saponified, such an elimination has taken place. 
All menthyl esters have been transformed in alkali salts and a cor- 
responding amount of menthol liberated. By washing the saponified 
oil with water, as prescribed in the U.S.P., the remaining liquid 
constituents may not be present in a sufficient quantity to keep the 
increased amount of menthol in solution, which consequently sepa- 
rates out in crystalline form in the wash-water. 


Assay of Oil of Peppermint. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

In case this loss of menthol is overlooked and the total menthol 
in the remaining oil assayed according to the U.S. P., the percentage 
found may be much below the truth. 

An oil actually containing 9 2 per cent, menthyl ester (as acetate) 
and 51-6 per cent, total menthol showed, when assayed according 
to the U.S. P., only 19-6 per cent, total menthol. Hence 32 per cent 
had been washed out from the saponified oil. (A large quantity of 
menthol crystals were actually found in the wash-water.) 

Such a separation of menthol does not, however, occur as a rule, 
it evidently being dependent upon the nature of the oil ; but as it 
can happen, the author considers it safe to change the assay process 
in such a way that serious errors may be avoided. 

The amount of menthyl esters can of course be assayed accord, 
ing to the U.S.P.; but instead of acetylizing the total menthol in the 
saponified product, the oil should first be acetylized, after which the 
saponification of the product will give the amount of total menthol 

The reason for acetylizing the saponified oil is evidently to have 
all the menthol before saponification in form of menthyl acetate, 
whereas by the acetylization of the original oil the calculation of 
the menthol would be based upon the presumption that all the 
combined menthol is present in the form of acetate. 

The U.S.P. finds, however, no objection against such a presump- 
tion in the first part of the assay process, and the author thinks it 
would be advisable to maintain the same also in the second part, 
as such a change of the process not only would eliminate the possi- 
bility of large errors, due to separation of menthol, but also con- 
siderably shorten the process. 

Chemical Laboratory of Norwich 
Pharmacal Company. 

Am lilusi F mf m '} American Medical Association. 375 


By C. S. N. Hau/bbrg, Ph.G., M.D., Chicago. 

When in the city of Philadelphia some forty years ago several 
pharmacists began exploiting the local physicians with some 
unusually elegant preparations, who could have dreamed that from 
this small beginning would evolve the modern manufactured phar- 

These preparations were at first limited to a few elixirs, then 
included syrups and wines, and rapidly increased by the addition of 
dosage-forms until they finally comprised the entire gamut of thera- 
peutic agents in every conceivable and inconceivable form. Their 
manufacture was originally confined to a few ambitious retail phar- 
macists, but was followed by some of the more enterprising old- 
time wholesale drug-houses and eventually by regularly established 
manufacturing chemists and even by some herb-collectors, such as 
the Shakers at Lebanon, N. Y. While educated pharmacists even 
at this early period regarded the exploitation of the physicians by 
these ready-made preparations as an encroachment on their pre- 
rogative and sometimes resented the idea that there was any 
necessity for them, there was no general opposition and they grew 
and multiplied. 


It was often charged that some of these preparations could not 
be duplicated even in skilful hands from the purported formula, and 
that their medicinal strength was overstated so as to give rise to the 
oft repeated charge that their therapeutic value was often sacrificed 
for palatability and elegant appearance. The tendency toward these 
preparations was also largely promoted by the numerous specialties 
from France, where the " pharmacie elegance " had its inception and 
has always thrived and flourished. 

These ready-made preparations were, however, not so objection - 

1 Read at the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy, April 21, 1908. 

376 American Medical Association. {^ m illlliS. m ' 

able, because they were, as a rule, fairly true to the alleged com- 
position and were introduced under regular pharmaceutical titles 
which thus avoided mystery and largely disarmed criticism. One 
of the pioneer manufacturers affixed a label to his preparations con- 
taining a statement to the effect " that no proprietorship or exclu- 
sive right in its manufacture was claimed, only that the purest and 
best ingredients were used and that they were carefully and skil- 
fully compounded." 


These preparations had thus the advantage of proclaiming in 
their titles their composition, which was of great convenience to the 
physician, and yet from their technical and often composite character 
such knowledge was not easily acquired by the laity and would have 
been still less so when latinized. They relied for their preference 
on being specified by the maker's name and, of course, as such were 
of great disadvantage to the pharmacist, who often was required to 
keep half a score of different brands of the same preparation on 


While a few proprietary preparations, such as " Iodo Bromide of 
Calcium Compound " and " Elixir Peruvian Bark and Protoxide of 
Iron " had appeared, it was not until about thirty years ago that a 
peripatetic preacher from North Carolina began in St. Louis to 
exploit the doctors with certain specialties which were in a category 
different from any former kind of medicines. He evidently appre- 
ciated that the medical practitioners at that time, especially in the 
great southwestern country, were not well prepared to write pre- 
scriptions, that qualified pharmacists were few and far between and 
furthermore that the character of the practice often required 
the doctor to carry medicine with him. So this genius, possibly 
with the aid of the editor of a certain medical journal which is the 
reputed sponsor for the products of this " chemists corporation," 
coined short euphonious and suggestive names for a number of 
preparations for which " brief" and interesting articles appeared. 


These contributions to medical literature were originally from 
more or less prominent medical men of " the southwestern metrop- 

A ^StJm m '} American Medical Association. 377 

olis," who appeared to have formed a syndicate for the promotion 
of clinical therapeutics, but eventually had to share their position 
with previously unknown " coming lights " of the profession, from 
such great centers of medical lore as Arkadelphia, Ark., Shreveport, 
La., and Coffeyville, Kan. As this kind of proprietary-medicine 
business grew because of the success made by this pioneer, medical 
journals sprang up at nearly every crossroads and with them devel- 
oped a peculiar profession — the paid-for-article doctor. The mem- 
bers of this profession were chiefly distinguished by the character- 
istic that their names were unknown to medical literature until 
suddenly they burst in all their own effulgent glory in some com- 
munication to the " Medical Gold Brick," telling the credulous and 
unsuspecting doctor how to treat his patient by doping him with 
* l Dopine," by sweating him with " Sweatine," by nerving him with 
" Nervine," and don't forget it — eliminate his uric acid with " Uri- 
cadine." He had solved the great problem. He had reduced the 
practice of medicine to a science — to an exact science. No groping 
in the dark — no experimentation ; no chance of failure — everything 
cock-sure. If not satisfied, money back. 

Pardon this last lapsus. This never appears in the doctor's 
learned communication, but in the advertising pages where the 
especial therapeutic, secernent and synergistic actions of the various 
wonderful discoveries are proclaimed. 

Many of these prolific contributors have been gathered to their 
fathers, but they are by no means extinct and they exist in places 
where they would be least expected, — even in medical colleges. 
It is some satisfaction to know that their fame will not be lost ; that 
they have all been carefully listed and tabulated and sometime in 
the near future posterity will know, how numerous were the 
species of Iscariots who sold their birthrights in the most noble 
profession for a mess of pottage. 


The business of publishing a medical journal by a doctor, or a 
coterie of doctors, for the express purpose of " working " their col- 
leagues with a line of proprietary medicines, became so common 
that one or more such journals were started often in places devoid 
of the least reason for the existence of such journals, except the 
editor's ambition and desire to make some money off his readers, 

378 American Medical Association. {^kl^Cm™' 

in the guise of a clinical authority. These journals, though having 
a nominal subscription price, were sent to selected lists of physicians 
in tributary territory so long as the results were satisfactory, and 
since they were entered in the post-offices as second-class matter at 
one cent per pound, they formed the cheapest and most effective 
kind of advertising. The doctor-proprietor usually hid his identity 
under aliases representing anonymous chemical companies ; one 
such journal published in Connecticut masquerading as some dif- 
ferent company for each of its specialties. 


This " Wily " concern issues a quarterly devoted to the " Uric 
Acid Diathesis " and its control by a very ordinary effervescent salt 
sold at an extortionate price, which from being for the exclusive 
use of physicians has recently been distributed to the laity and the 
medical testimonials used to extol the wonderful virtues of the salt 
to the public. These journals are certainly not entitled to the re- 
duced postage of second-class rates since the publishers are also 
owners of the medicines, which are constantly being extolled, not 
only in the advertising pages, but in "■ clinical notes " and " answers 
to correspondents " and sometimes in leading articles accompanied 
with the portraits of the distinguished author. 


Since one of these journals pays $6,000 a year postage in- 
stead of $48,000 as it should pay at the regular rates, inves- 
tigation by the Post Office department would seem desirable. 
While some of these journals have retired during the past two years 
and others have consolidated, specimens of their kind may be 
found in the following places: Burlington, Vt. ; Danbury, Conn.; 
New York, Philadelphia, Chicago, St. Louis, North Carolina, Wis- 
consin and Texas. 


Indulgence is asked for this extensive reference to medical jour- 
nalism, but this subject is indissolubly connected with the discussion 
of the Proprietary Medicine Question. It brought the issue to the 
American Medical Association and led to the organization of the 
Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry as a consequence. 

Ar Au|us r t,i908!' m '} American Medical Association, 379 

As pharmacists we may easily imagine the state of knowledge of 
medicines by a considerable portion, probably one-half of the prac- 
tising physicians of this country, when the character of the litera- 
ture is considered. Some of these medical publishers, always opti- 
mistic in the use of drugs, may also have been altruistic — actuated by 
motives other than purely mercenary and sordid — in extolling their 
special manufactures. But as manufacturers they were helpless, 
often down-right ignorant as to the chemical or pharmaceutic char- 
acter of their preparations or their constituents. Relying mostly 
on some manufacturing pharmacist for their preparations, they were 
often at the mercy of those who, becoming aware of their lack of 
knowledge, imposed on them to the disadvantage of the medicines. 
In several well-known specialties from such proprietors the com- 
position has been changed without change in the formula, until 
attention thereto was directed. Important ingredients have been 
omitted and others substituted with perfect abandon, without chang- 
ing the formula or the literature, and upon the correctness of the 
latter being challenged, such change or substitution has been frankly, 
sometimes naively, admitted as being of no special importance or 
consequence. One of these medicine-manufacturing publishers, 
who is exploiting doctors with a line of quack specialties and with 
unloading on the credulous readers of his journal, self-perpetuating, 
gold-bearing bonds of the company, and who poses as a great author- 
ity on alkaloids, is continuously waging relentless war on the uncer- 
tain, instable and unsafe galenicals, and insists that every doctor 
should employ active principles, and of course these only in the form 
of this company's tablets. 


Among these are found tablets of digitalin as a perfect substitute 
for digitalis ; cicutine for conium and aconitine for aconite, which, 
at least until recently, was not the official alkaloid, the only depend- 
able substitute for this drug. Tablets of veratrin are extolled to the 
doctors as far more certain than veratrum, the tincture of which is 
the cardiac sheet-anchor to the physicians, especially in the South — 
this great alkaloidal exponent being apparently perfectly oblivious 
to the fact that veratrin is not the active principle of veratrum viride, 
but an indefinite mixture of principles from the cevadilla seed, whose 
only therapeutic use is an irritant externally, applied as an oint- 
ment or oleate, and popularly used as a parasiticide. 


American Medical Association. 

{ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

These few examples indicate the very serious condition caused by 
these doctor-publishers and suggests that the attention of the medi- 
cal profession be directed to this perversion of the literature and 
also that the privilege of second class mail rates, through which the 
Post-Office department is robbed of many thousands of dollars annu- 
ally, be denied these publications. 

Without this privilege these journals could not exist. 


There are now nearly a score of journals published by State medi- 
cal societies, and the number is steadily increasing. It is hoped 
that in the near future every State medical society will have its own 
journal, or that the smaller societies jointly publish an official organ. 
This will drive out the undesirable class of journals referred to, and 
since these State journals are responsive to their State medical soci- 
eties, it will be comparatively easy to keep their pages clean and 
accept advertisements for medicinal articles only that have been 
approved by the Council. 

To maintain these journals is, however, difficult', since limited in 
advertisements they often cannot secure sufficient acceptable adver- 
tising to pay expense of publication, and since the journals must not 
be too much of a drain on the revenues derived from dues, their 
continuance is often a difficult problem for solution. This embaras- 
sing situation might be relieved if local pharmacists, or possibly 
societies, could extend some patronage in this direction. 


Another agency which must be aligned for co-operation in this 
work is the instruction in the fundamental branches in the medical 
schools. This will require not only that the courses be extended 
to cover more practical work under personal instruction, but that 
more time be devoted and that the construction of prescriptions be 
done in the last year of the course instead of the first, as has been 
the case. The methods of the dispensaries and hospitals and the 
training of internes must also be radically changed. As now con. 
ducted in most institutions it is simply a drilling into the habit of 
designating numerical mixtures, often without intelligent discrimina- 
tion ; a sort of picking the winner and trusting to chance. 

Am. Jour. Pharru.") 
August, 190S. J 

American Medical Association. 


The Council on Pharmacy and Chemistry has now been actively 
at work a little over three years, although considerable preliminary 
work was done principally through the Section on Pharmacology 
and Therapeutics of the American Medical Association. 

Loading up the medical journals with advertisements for all kinds 
of quack nostrums irritated the better informed physicians and caused 
them to protest, which found vent in the Section. Year after year 
the subject of nostrums was discussed in its various phases and reso- 
lutions adopted by the Section, until finally the trustees of the 
American Medical Association arranged for the formation of the 
Council, and began to prepare to throw out all advertising not ac- 
ceptable. While the work does not make a formidable showing it 
nevertheless has done wonders in these few years and has entirely 
changed the attitude of the medical profession to proprietary medi- 
cine. The physicians, as far as their societies and authorities are 
concerned, are committed to the reform of the Materia Medica. 

The first public utterance after publication of the announcement 
containing the rules, etc., was the report of the analyses of the 
acetanilide mixtures. In this was nothing new ; only what every 
pharmacist knew. 


But it was startling information to the physicians. Having occa- 
sion to cross the continent to attend the meeting of the A.M. A. in 
Portland, Ore., shortly after this article had appeared in the Journal 
and thus meeting a great many medical men, the expose proving 
these wonderful synthetic coal-tar derivatives to be nothing but 
cheap acetanilide mixtures with alkalies, was the general theme of 
conversation and was actually startling in its effect on the doctors. 
They felt that they were the victims of misplaced confidence, that 
they had been swindled, and that possibly they had been the inno- 
cent cause of their patients' sufferings. 


From this time on many similar articles were examined and 
proved to be, instead of definite compounds, produced by intricate 
reaction or synthesized product possessing new and often marvelous 
therapeutic properties, simple mixtures of well-known substances 
without any special value. 


American Medical Association. 

< A-m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1908. 

Similarly many articles were reported to be materially different 
from the alleged formula, the maker sometimes frankly admitting 
that the formula had been changed for the better, while others re- 
fused to acknowledge the error, simply because of ignorance as to 
the difference in the action of the constituents. Others as laymen 
not having the remotest idea — pharmaceutical, medical or ethical — 
simply refused to explain, believing that the formula was their prop, 
erty with which they could " do as they pleased/' 


The false therapeutic claims and dishonest methods of exploita- 
tion also came in for their share of attention. Thus the fat-free 
cod liver preparations — the petroleum emulsions, the hyoscine- 
morphine-cactin combination, etc., were dissected and their shallow 
pretense of therapeutic virtues exposed. The startling disclosures 
of the methods employed to sophisticate scientific government re- 
ports in order to boost a certain preparation, which, after having 
served as an ordinary " Frauen Medizin " in Germany, had been 
brought over to this country to be pushed on to the medical profes- 
sion as an exclusive product, proved a shock to many physicians, 
especially since it was discovered that the wonderful preparation 
was actually inferior to Blaud's pill. 


Some 300 articles have been accepted by the Council and ad- 
mitted to the book, " New and Non-Official Remedies." Many 
more have been examined, but only such are reported as have been 
found to be entirely false in composition or for which absolutely 
unwarranted statement concerning therapeutic properties have been 
made. Former efforts for reformation in this direction have been 
made sporadically only to fail because of some criticism appearing, 
which either could not be proved beyond peradventure or could not 
be completely substantiated when challenged. The work of the 
Council has been successful largely because no statement concerning 
any article has ever been made that could not stand the most rigid 

Nearly one-half the articles accepted are foreign, mostly German, 
manufacture, the remainder being fairly representative of the prin- 
cipal American houses, 

Am. Jour. Pharm. ) 
August, 1908. / 

American Medical Association. 



It should be remembered that acceptance of these articles by the 
Council and their publication in the New and Non-Official Reme- 
dies, and monthly in the Journal of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, does not carry with it any recommendation ; simply that they 
conform to the rules adopted by the Council to govern the selection 
of such proprietary articles as physicians may be safe in using and 
therefore eligible to advertising in medical journals. 

In brief, the articles must be true to the composition alleged and 
no unwarranted therapeutic claims be made for them. The Council 
would not assume, even were it practicable, to pass judgment on 
their therapeutic value or clinical efficiency. This is the physician's 
prerogative with which he can allow no interference. 

All he wants to know is that the maker states the truth concern- 
ing his products. 


At the appearance of every revised edition of the U.S.P., as well 
as the N.F., there have been more or less efforts directed toward 
securing physicians' attention to these works, that they may accept 
the pharmaceutical preparations therein contained and give them 
preference over the proprietary articles. These efforts have been 
largely futile because there was no general sentiment among the 
physicians suggesting its desirability and no awakening to the 
turpidity of the proprietary medicines. 

Now it is different. 

With the entire medical pro fession aware of its perilous position, 
should the exploitation by the proprietary interests be permitted 
to continue, with the medical societies and their journals alive to 
the issue, with the recognition by their authorities that the official 
preparations to which they have themselves contributed, are equal 
if not superior to proprietary articles, there is an entirely different 
feeling, and here is the opportunity for the pharmacist. 


The effects are already apparent. In the larger cities where the 
movement has been longest in progress there is already a marked 
falling off in the prescription of proprietaries and a correspondi ng 


American Medical Association. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

increase in the preparations of the U.S. P. and the N. F. Meetings 
are being held jointly with the physicians for the discussion of this 
and related questions. This of itself cannot fail to be of mutual 
advantage, since bringing the pharmacist and physician together 
will result in better understanding and appreciation of each. In 
Chicago five such meetings have been held during the past two 
months, in which pharmacists have read papers, participated in the 
discussions and sometime, exhibited preparations of the U.S.P and 
N.F. Such a thing was unheard of only a few years ago and not 
thought possible, until the branches were organized of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association. 

The physicians seem to show the right spirit, and while not 
always mincing words in speaking of the unprofessional practices of 
some druggists, such as counter prescribing, substituting and push- 
ing patent medicines, as a rule will patiently " take their medicine " 
when told of their shortcomings, such as self-dispensing, prescrib- 
ing proprietaries and forcing multiplication of identical articles. 
The pharmacists in smaller places may secure at nominal cost the 
literature prepared by A.M. A. for distribution to physicians and by 
showing their own make of the official preparation, do equally as 
well as in the cities. See 

" New and Non-Official Remedies." 

" A Propaganda for Reform in Proprietary Medicines." 

The greatest difficulty lies in having the physicians realize that 
the use of short, euphonious names for medicines is simply inviting 
lay self-medication. They should constantly be impressed with the 
danger of using such names as are designed for patent medicines. 
No physician should patronize any medicinal article which has not 
a scientific pharmaceutic, preferably Latin, title. 

The public is now using scores of these proprietaries which they 
would not have become acquainted with if they had Latin titles. 
Liquor ferri peptonati cum mangano would not be sold on bargain 
counters, nor would they now be calling for aspirin if it had been 
prescribed as acidum aceto-salicylicum. The excuse that the physi- 
cians cannot learn or remember these names is apocryphal. How 
can they remember the names of the bones of the body or the names 
of some new diseases such as trypanosomiases ? The official titles 
must be insisted on and no pharmacist should encourage their 
abbreviation or simplification. All persons engaged in any scientific 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
August, 1908. / 

American Medical Association. 


pursuit must learn the technical terms that constitute its language. 

We should also observe strict compliance with the pharmaceutical 
nomenclature, i. e n that when a preparation can be classified with 
any official class it should bear the class-name in the title. Dosage- 
forms are being pushed with a simple name when they should be 
designated pilulae, capsulae, etc. 

Matters of this kind are suitable subjects for discussions at these 
joint meetings, which may result in agreements. Thus the Chicago 
joint meetings have discussed the prescription and several have 
already adopted this declaration on the subject. 


First. The prescription is an utterance of the prescriber who 
alone should direct and control its employment. It should, when- 
ever practicable, carry the name of the patient, the age in years, if a 
minor, and the date when written. 

Second. The pharmacist who prepares the medicine should retain 
the prescription as reference for his services and as record for a cer- 
tain limited period, not less than five years, for the protection of the 
prescriber, himself and the patient. 

Third. The medicine prescribed should be supplied not more 
than once on the same prescription: (1) If ordered by the prescriber 
"not to be repeated " (N. rep.) ; (2) if containing medicinal sub- 
stances commonly called narcotic or habit-forming drugs ; (3) if 
called for by some person known not to be the original holder. 

Fourth. Copy of the prescription may be furnished and should be 
written on an especial blank, containing a declaration that it is a 
copy of a prescription which has been delivered to the original 
holder and is not to be refilled except on order of the prescriber. 
The copy is made without recourse to possible error. 

Since many physicians have quit writing prescriptions because 
they cannot control them, this declaration has been formulated by 
a joint committee of the Chicago Medical Society and the Chicago 
Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

It has already been adopted by one-half of the branch medical 
societies in Chicago, and it is believed, when generally observed by 
pharmacists, it will be instrumental in causing physicians to resume 
writing prescriptions more generally. 

3 86 

American Medical Association. 

[ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August. 1908. 

There is nothing new or radical in the requirements — nothing but 
that every reputable pharmacist will agree to. A definite expression 
like this is deemed necessary that all concerned may understand 
their position to the prescription and to each other, and to give the 
pharmacists who so desire, the authority and the opportunity to 
align with the profession. Similarly many subjects may be con- 
sidered at these joint meetings and eventually be formulated in 
declarations to guide the relations of the pharmacist and the physi- 
cian and, it is hoped also, the public. 


With the fulfilment of such a programme the pharmacist will soon 
come into his own. For years our institutions, like this old Phila- 
delphia College of Pharmacy, with a record of nigh on to a century, 
have been sending out thousands of youths — trained in the prepara- 
tions of pharmaceuticals, qualified for the compounding of medi- 
cines — to do what ? To practise pharmacy — hardly. The encroach- 
ment of the proprietary medicine men left but little of the practice. 
Now it is going to be different. 

With the medical profession earnestly, actively interested in this 
movement, with the impetus given to our great works — the U.S.P. 
and the N.F. — by the Federal Act, with the branches of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association aggressively at work in the 
principal cities, the reformation is now progressing. 


And it is high time for the alignment of the two professions of 
medicine and pharmacy. The public has lost faith in medicine and 
has been doing without either physician or pharmacist. The layman 
has discovered that he can buy patent medicines without paying a 
physician a fee for recommending them. Many of them have tried 
all the principal proprietary pharmaceuticals, even synthetics. From 
these they have fallen victims to the regular patent medicine litera- 
ture of the press and sometimes the symptom-questions-list of the 
advertising quack. 

They have thus by natural evolution or selection graduated from 
Osteopathy to Hypnotism, Dowieism, Eddyism, and through every 
imaginable fad, fake or faith cure. 

The public has run the gamut and is ready for a change. 

m. Jour. Pharm.1 
August, 1908. J 

Disintegration of Tablets. 


There is an inherent feeling or instinct in the average human 
being that chemical therapeutics is after all the safest and most cer- 
tain to remedy ills or to cure disease. 

It is believed that now is the psychologic moment. 


Let us then join the medical profession in placing the materia 
medica on a safe basis and perfect our great medicinal standards for 
the promotion of our professions and the restoration of public con- 
fidence in our practices. 

The pharmacist, always accessible and in contact with the public, 
should be the medium through which this confidence may be restored 
into humanity's greatest friend — the physician — let him figuratively 
give the public the glad hand. 

Let pharmacy assume its traditional position as a handmaiden to 
medicine as symbolized in the historical figure of virile old Escula- 
pius, ever ready to combat disease with the aid of the poison pressed 
from the serpent's fangs by Hygeia — the goddess of Health — the 
symbol of pharmacy. 

By Georges M. Beringkr, Jr. 
Some time ago the writer had occasion to prepare tablets con- 
taining one grain of arecoline hydrobromide for veterinary hypo- 
dermatic use." To each of these, two grains of sodium chloride was 
added. This addition served the purpose of both diluent and lubri- 
cant, and the tablets were so furnished on several occasions. It 
became necessary, however, to prepare them on a very damp day 
and 10 per cent, of powdered boric acid was added to overcome a 
slight adhesion to the die and punches of the tablet machine. The 
veterinarian, for whom they were prepared, volunteered the infor- 
mation that these were better than usual, and went to pieces almost 
immediately on being dropped into water. Since the arecoline and 
the salt are both very soluble in water, the increased rapidity of 

1 Presented at the thirty-eighth annual meeting of the New Jersey Pharma- 
ceutical Association at Atlantic City, N. J., June 3, 1908. 

3 88 

Disintegration of Tablets. 

f aid. .lour. Phiirm. 
( August, 1908. 

disintegration could only be attributed to the boric acid, although 
that is, by comparison, almost insoluble. 

At another time, tablets of ammonium chloride were being pre- 
pared. While this salt usually requires no lubricant, the weather 
was exceedingly damp, and it became necessary to add a small per- 
centage of talcum to overcome sticking. A test of these tablets 
made on the same machine, without readjustment, before and after 
adding the talcum, showed the latter to be quicker in breaking 

In the above cases the additions of material have been of a more 
or less insoluble substance to a soluble substance forming the body 
of the tablet, but the reverse gives the same result. A veterinary 
tablet of arsenic trioxide one grain with cane sugar one grain, dis- 
integrates, so rapidly when dropped into warm water that observ- 
ers have declared it to be made of an effervescent base. A tablet 
containing two grains of cane sugar only, dissolves but slowly. 
Quinine sulphate with 25 per cent, cane sugar gives the same result, 
although neither quinine sulphate nor sugar alone disintegrates so 
rapidly. Tablets of the basic bismuth salts made with the addition 
of 20 per cent, of cane sugar fairly " fly to pieces " when dropped 
into warm water. This also is true of tablets each containing 

Bismuth subnitrate 1 grain. 

Cerium oxalate % " 

Milk sugar » . . y 2 1 ' 

Although milk sugar is distinctly less soluble than the cane sugar 
used in the plain bismuth tablets. Perhaps the most striking 
example of rapid disintegration, where least expected, is in a tablet 


Reduced iron . 2 grains. 

Quinine sulphate 1 grain. 

Arsenic trioxide -X " 

when granulated with syrup, yet none of the ingredients is noted 
for ready solubility in water. 

The cases cited and numerous others lead to the inference that a 
more or less fixed rule applies in all cases where a tablet is com- 
posed of two or more ingredients; namely, that, other things being 
equal, the rapidity of disintegration of a tablet varies directly with the 
difference in solubility of the ingredients. The reason for this is 
obvious. The more soluble particles being first attacked by the 

Am. Jour. Pharru-"! 
Augnst, 1908. / 

Book Reviews. 


solvent, a sort of " honey-combing " effect is produced, and the 
cohesion of the less soluble portions being destroyed as well as more 
surface exposed to the solvent, the tablet falls rapidly to pieces. 
While some of the facts in connection with this have been observed, 
the rule does not appear to have been specificaTy stated, and hence 
it is deemed worthy of recording. 


Practical Pharmacy. A Description of the Machinery, Appli- 
ances and Methods Employed in the Preparation of Galenicals, with 
an Account of Pharmaceutical Testing and the Assay of Crude and 
Manufactured Drugs, together with a Short Treatise on the Art of 
Dispensing. By E. W. Lucas, F.I.C., F.C.S. Second Edition. 
423 pages, cloth, $5. Publishers, London : J. & A. Churchill. 
Philadelphia : American Agents, P. Blakiston's Son & Co. 

The second edition of this English work on pharmacy is before 
us, enlarged and largely rewritten. It is a compact volume of 423 
pages, neatly printed and bound, and the descriptive text is helped 
by 224 illustrations, many of which are electrotypes of special 
apparatus manufactured in England, Germany and the United 

The subject matter is divided into five distinct parts under the 
titles: I — General Processes and Description of Apparatus; II — 
Pharmacopceial Preparations ; III — Assaying and Testing ; IV — 
Dispensing ; V — Tests and Tables. These are subdivided into fifty- 
nine chapters, each treating of a special subject or class of pharma- 
ceutical preparations. 

In studying this volume, the reader is impressed with the fact 
that the author's view of pharmacy, as exhibited herein, is mainly 
from the laboratory, and the preparation and testing of drugs has 
received the major consideration, while the dual duty of the apothe- 
cary, the " Art of Dispensing," has received rather scant consider, 
ation in Part IV, devoted to Dispensing, and covering only sixty- 
eight pages. Yet, throughout the other parts of the book, the 
observant pharmacist will find numerous hints that will be of great 
assistance at the dispensing counter. Not the least of these is the 
extensive list of synonyms included with the tables. 


Book Reviews. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 August, 1908. 

Each chapter treats of its special subject in the most concise 
manner, and these are in the main really commentaries on the sub- 
ject as treated in the British Pharmacopoeia. In some respects 
these chapters are models of condensed treatment, but occasionally 
their conciseness is rather disappointing. The entire subject of 
Collodions is treated in Chapter XXI, just thirteen lines in length. 
Plasters are considered in one and one-half pages; and compressed 
tablets a subject that to-day necessarily occupies a large portion 
of the attention of the pharmaceutical manufacturers, is briefly 
considered in five pages. 

The chapters on Specific Gravity and Percolation are illustrations 
of concise treatment of pharmaceutical processes, and another sub- 
ject well treated in the limited space is Ethylic Alcohol, in Chapter 
XI, where convenient rules for the various alcohol conversions are 
given. In the table of strength of alcohol ordered in the different 
pharmacopoeias on page no, occurs one of the few errors noted in 
the volume. Here the author continues to quote the specifications 
of the U.S.P., 1890, for alcohol instead of those of the U.S.P., Eighth 

Despite the terseness of the various monographs, the amount 
of information contained is remarkable. The author has succeeded 
in incorporating many original determinations and observations of a 
thoroughly practical character, and the numerous criticisms and 
suggestions are certainly very valuable. The practical and critical 
treatment of the classes of galenicals throughout the volume is 
illustrated by the exemplary chapters on ointments, tinctures and 
extracts. The chapter on tinctures, while condensed into eleven 
pages, contains, among other excellent features, the following that 
are especially praiseworthy : tables giving the average specific 
gravity, percentage of extractive and alcoholic content of each 
of the British Pharmacopoeial tinctures ; also, assay processes 
for those that can be standardized, accompanied by criticisms and 
suggestions for improvements ; also, dosage tables for the more 
potent tinctures, and a valuable note on the " Deposits in Tinctures." 
In considering the extracts, the manipulation necessary to extract 
each drug is explained and the yield by the official process is stated. 
In the liquid extracts the specific gravity of each finished product, 
the percentage of extractive and the alcohol content by volume are 

Ana. Jour. Pliarm.") 
August, 1908. / 

Book Reviews. 


Part III, devoted to " Assaying and Testing," is a guide to the 
important methods of estimating the value of crude drugs, oils and 
preparations, well worth the careful study of the manufacturing 
pharmacist, who, under existing conditions, must devote more atten- 
tion to this subject. Here, again, the author's experience enables 
him to offer criticisms and suggestions that add greatly to the value 
of this section. 

Numerous original tabulations appear throughout the book, and 
in addition the volume is replete with reference tables that fill almost 
all of the needs of the pharmacist. 

While this book is essentially an English work and written as 
a commentary on British pharmacy, and the British Pharmacopoeia 
naturally receives almost exclusive consideration, it is nevertheless 
a work of distinct merit, adding to the general knowledge of phar- 
macy, and many of the comments and suggestions are alike appli- 
cable to the practice of pharmacy on this side of the Atlantic. It 
should find a place in the library of every manufacturing pharmacist 
and apothecary, and will well repay a careful perusal. 

George M. Ber[nger. 

Precis des Operations Pharmaceutiques, a l'usage du Phar- 
macien et de l'Eleve en Pharmacie. Par A. Astruc Docteur es 
Sciences, Professeur Agrege a l'Ecole Superieure de Pharmacie de 
Montpellier. Preface de M. le Professeur F. Jadin. Montpellier : 
Coulet et Fils, publishers. 

This compact 8vo volume of 380 and viii pages constitutes, as 
its name indicates, a descriptive epitome or handbook of pharma- 
ceutical operations, 

As is claimed by the author, it is essentially practical and is 
designed to elucidate and describe the several pharmaceutical 
operations that are of frequent occurrence in the well-appointed 

The book is divided into two parts. . The first part consists of 
a short preliminary chapter and a somewhat longer chapter, entitled 
" General Pharmaceutical Operations," relating principally to the 
weighing and measuring of medicinal substances. 

The second part is descriptive of "Pharmaceutical Operations 
Proper," and contains, in addition to an interesting definition of 
what the author understands by the term, chapters on mechanical 
operations, physical operations, chemical operations and sterilization. 


Book Reviezvs. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I August, 1908. 

This part of the book is followed by an addendum containing an 
enumeration of the various forms of medicaments, an alphabetical 
table of the illustrations, which number upwards of two hundred, 
and an index. 

The author defines pharmacy as the total of the knowledge, 
technical and scientific, that is essential for the preparation of 

Pharmacy, he asserts, is at the same time an art and a science. 
It is an art because of the practical and laborious apprenticeship 
that is required, and it is a science because its teachings and theories 
are derived from chemistry, natural history and physics. 

Probation and study are the paths that must be followed by the 
student who is desirous of perfecting himself in this branch of the 
healing art. 

Professor Jadin highly commends the book, in the introduction 
that serves as a preface, and very properly points out that while this 
little book may well be the constant companion of the apprentice 
or student, many pharmacists might also read it with profit. 

Practically all of the several pharmaceutical operations, such as 
weighing, measuring, sifting, levigation, decantation, expression, 
straining, centrifugation, filtration, clarification, the various processes 
used for effecting comminution, emulsification, refrigeration, desicca- 
tion, evaporation, fusion, sublimation, distillation and crystallization 
are all enumerated and are described in a concise but readable 

Upwards of forty pages are devoted to a description of the several 
methods that may be used for sterilizing pharmaceutical preparations 
and utensils. Antisepsis and asepsis are thoroughly defined, their 
limitations pointed out and the general reasons for preferring asepsis 
are well illustrated. 

The simple but efficient language that is used by the author 
throughout the book amply demonstrates his ability as a teacher. 
The book is to be recommended to teachers of pharmacy as an 
illustration of a concise method of presenting information regarding 
generally well-known processes. To students and pharmacists, on 
the other hand, the book will prove interesting as a review, not 
alone of pharmaceutical processes, but also o c scholarly, concise 

M. I. Wilbert., 

Am. Jour. Pharm."l 
August, 1908. / 

American Medical Association. 




The fifty-ninth annual session of the American Medical Associa- 
tion, held in Chicago, June 2-5, 190S, was by far the largest, and in 
many respects the most important, gathering of physicians that has 
ever taken place in this country. 

The total registration of members, 6,446, while large, does not 
fully represent the actual attendance, as many of the members from 
nearby cities and towns did not take the time to register and a very 
large number of physicians, not members of the Association, were 
present as guests. 

The meetings of the several sections were uniformly well attended, 
and the interest that was manifested on all sides indicated that the 
communications that were presented, were considered to be of a 
relatively high order of merit. 

There are many reasons why the 1908 meeting of the American 
Medical Association will be considered as having been a phenomenal 
one, and one that will do much to mark real progress in matters 

Meetings of this kind are usually dominated by some one theme 
or subject, and to this the Chicago meeting was no exception. The 
problems most frequently discussed all appeared to bear directly or 
indirectly on the need for educating the public in matters medical. 
This need for properly instructing the people in matters relating to 
the public health was referred to at some length by the President in 
his address, was the fundamental basis of discussion in the oration 
on medicine, was freely discussed in the House of Delegates, and 
was frequently suggested in papers that were presented to one or 
the other of the many sections. Everywhere it was evident that 
the present-day medical man believes that physicians should be 
recognized as the guardians of the public health, and that they 
should do all in their power to promote the development of hygiene 
and sanitation for the purpose of preventing disease. To one inter- 
ested in the development of the physical welfare of the people, the 
Chicago meeting of the American Medical Association was indeed 
an inspiration, and the ultimate effects of the meeting will certainly 
be far-reaching. 

As in former years, pharmacy and matters pharmaceutical were 


American Medical Association. 

( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
\ August, 1908. 

given considerable attention. President Bryant, in his farewell ad- 
dress to the House of Delegates, frankly discussed a number of 
the abuses that have been shown to exist. He warmly commended 
the work so far accomplished by the Council on Pharmacy and Chem- 
istry, and condemned, in unmistakable terms, the attempts that have 
been made to throw discredit on the work or its object. 

Dr. J.N. McCormack, in his report as Chairman of the Committee 
on Organization, referred at some length to the meeting of the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, in New York, last September, 
and to the opposition that had been aroused by his address to that 
body. He expressed the belief that all the better class of pharma- 
cists were willing and anxious to conduct their business with an 
honest regard for the public welfare, and that these men should 
receive the co-operation and support of medical practitioners. He 
also expressed the belief that the creation of a strong conference 
committee, representing the American Medical Association and the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, could do much to eliminate 
misunderstandings and to nullify the repeated misstatements that 
are now being made by interested parties. 

At a subsequent meeting of the House of Delegates, Dr. Lewis 
S. McMurtry offered the following resolution: 

"Resolved, that in accordance with the recommendation of the 
Committee on Organization, the President is requested to appoint a 
committee of three members to confer with a like committee to be 
appointed by the American Pharmaceutical Association, in regard 
to drug reforms, a return to scientific prescription writing and other 
matters of material interest to these two associations." 

On motion of Dr. Philip Mills Jones, of California, this resolution 
was adopted and the American Medical Association placed on record 
as being willing and anxious to foster truth and honesty in matters 
relating to pharmacy. 

The sessions of the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics 
were of more than ordinary interest to members of the pharma- 
ceutical profession. In common with all of the other sections, the 
meetings were unusually well attended and the readers of papers, 
generally, had the satisfaction of having their contributions liberally 

The address of the Chairman was an illuminating discourse on 

Am iug O us r t;T908!" m *} American Medical Association. 395 

simplicity in prescribing, and included a strong plea for discouraging 
the use of all fixed formulas in the treatment of disease. 

Prof. Jos. P. Remington, as Chairman of the Delegation from the 
American Pharmaceutical Association, presented the greetings of 
that organization and briefly outlined the present situation of phar- 
macy in its relation to medicine. 

Prof. C. S. N. Hallberg, the Secretary of the Section, presented 
an unusually interesting report, in which he reviewed the present- 
day status of so-called " patent medicines." He also directed atten- 
tion to the all too flagrant abuses of the letter as well as the spirit 
of the laws regulating second-class postal rates, and advised that the 
post office authorities be requested to rescind these privileges in the 
case of publications carrying fraudulent medical advertisements. 

The liberal discussion that was evoked by the several communi- 
cations bearing on the Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary 
was particularly interesting in that it evidenced a marked reawak- 
ening on the part of physicians in matters relating to our National 

A paper read by Dr. O. T. Osborne on (i The Sufficiency of the 
Official Drugs and Preparations " precipitated an unusually lively 
discussion that evidenced the need for differentiating, somewhat 
sharply, between pharmacists and drug sellers. 

The concluding meeting of the Section was devoted entirely to a 
Symposium on the Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary. 
Dr. Torald Sollman, Dr. James M. Anders, Dr. H. W. Wiley, Dr. 
C. F. Wahrer and Prof. H. Vin Arny had prepared papers, and 
these were read either by the authors themselves or their repre- 

The discussion on these several papers was opened by Prof. Joseph 
P. Remington, the Chairman of the Committee on Revision of the 
U.S. P., and was continued by a number of the members present. 

Dr. Reid Hunt, as Chairman of the Committee of the American 
Medical Association, on the Revision of the Pharmacopoeia, 
announced that this committee had been organized and that the 
members would be in position to proceed with routine work in the 
very near future. 

Throughout the discussion it was evident that physicians were 
intensely interested in matters relating to the Pharmacopoeia, and that 
in the near future they will be much better able to judge of phar- 
maceutical products than ever before. 

396 American Medical Association. {^kl^wmi!*' 

The pharmacologic action and the physiologic testing of drugs 
were freely discussed in papers on isopral, strophanthus, thyroid 
preparations, and, more particularly, in a paper on " Physiologic 
Assay of Some Commonly Used Drugs," by Drs. C. W. Edwards 
and George B. Roth, of Ann Arbor. 

One meeting of the Section on Pharmacology and Therapeutics 
was devoted to a joint session with the Section on Hygiene and 
Sanitary Science, which included a symposium on the Prophylaxis 
of Communicable Diseases. 

In the Exhibition Hall the chief attraction, to pharmacists, was 
the exhibition of U.S.P. and N.F. preparations by the Chicago 
branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. This exhibit 
was advantageously placed with the scientific exhibits and attracted 
considerable attention. It included upwards of 150 different prep- 
arations, so that in variety and number it eclipsed the exhibit made 
by the Philadelphia Branch, at Atlantic City, last year. 

Members of the Chicago Branch were in constant attendance to 
demonstrate the elegance of the preparations exhibited, to extol 
their virtues, and, incidentally, to distribute an interesting pamphlet 
of some thirty-two pages, entitled, " The Pharmacopoeia and the 
National Formulary. " This pamphlet, in addition to the enumeration 
of the composition and the uses of the preparations exhibited, 
contains much interesting information and is well worth careful 
perusal on the part of pharmacists as well as physicians. 

Altogether, it is not unreasonable to prophesy that the fifty-ninth 
annual session of the American Medical Association will mark for 
pharmacy, as it surely has marked for medicine, a very decided step 
forward. It would indeed be preposterous to suppose that the 
varied activities of the American Medical Association, evidenced in 
its Council on Medical Education, its Council on Pharmacy and 
Chemistry, its Committee on Legislation, its Board of Public 
Instruction and its Committee on the Revision of the United States 
Pharmacopoeia could be continued without influencing, in no unmis- 
takable way, the development or the progress of pharmacy in this 

While the American Medical Association has already accom- 
plished much, it bids fair to be but at the beginning of its possible 
usefulness, and certainly pharmacists should be interested in these 
possibilities, and see. to it that their own profession and their own 
associations do not lag too far in the rear. M. I. Wilbert. 

Am AuS,wo8!' m '} The American Therapeutic Society. 397 


The ninth annual meeting of the American Therapeutic Society, 
which was held in Philadelphia, May /th to 9th inclusive, was of 
more than ordinary interest to the pharmacists of this country, in 
that matters pharmaceutic were given an unusual amount of 

One of the more interesting sessions of the Society was devoted 
to a joint meeting with the Philadelphia Branch of the American 
Pharmaceutical Association, and members of the latter organization, 
on invitation, attended all of the several sessions of the Therapeutic 
Society and took an active interest on at least several different 

On the afternoon of the first day, a symposium on the United 
States Pharmacopoeia and the National Formulary was contributed 
to by : Dr. James M. Anders, who read a paper, entitled " The Phar- 
macopoeia from the Physician's Standpoint ;" -Mr. H. C. Blair, Ph.G., 
who read a paper on "The United States Pharmacopoeia and National 
Formulary as Standards for Physicians and Pharmacists," and Mr. 
M. I. Wilbert, who discussed some of the problems bearing on "The 
Preparations of the United States Pharmacopoeia and National 

At the joint meeting of the American Therapeutic Society with 
the Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Associa- 
tion, an exhaustive and very interesting paper, by Dr. Chas. E. de M. 
Sajous, on " The Auto-Protective Resources of the Body: a New 
Foundation for Scientific Therapeutics," was read. This interesting 
communication embodied suggestions for investigations along en- 
tirely new lines, and in it the author advances suggestions that may 
lead to the scientific or rational use of a number of remedies that 
are now used empirically. This communication was followed by a 
paper by Prof. Jos. P. Remington on " The United States Pharma- 
copoeia, a Therapeutic Standard," in the course of which the author 
strongly urged the foundation of a Therapeutic Laboratory, to be 
devoted to the trying out or proving of the claims made in connec- 
tion with either official or new remedies. 

This suggestion was referred to the Council of the American 
Therapeutic Society, with a favorable recommendation for their 
further consideration. 

398 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { An Ai5ust, S™' 

The joint meeting was followed by a reception to the members of 
the American Therapeutic Society and their friends, by the Pharma- 
cists of Philadelphia. The committee on arrangements consisted of 
Wm. L. Cliffe, A. T. Pollard, H. C. Blair, R. H. Lackey and O. W. 
Osterlund, all of them actively engaged in the retail drug business, 
and all prominent members of the Philadelphia Association of 
Retail Druggists. 

The reception was given in the Clover Room of the Bellevue- 
Stratford Hotel, and was altogether a most enjoyable and most suc- 
cessful affair. Many of the physicians present expressed themselves 
as being delighted with the general arrangement for this pleasant 
social diversion, and the occasion cannot help but add force to the 
now very widespread tendency for a better understanding between 
the physician and the pharmacist. 

Another of the more interesting features of the meeting was an 
exhibition of U.S.P. and N.F. preparations made by members of the 
Philadelphia Branch of the American Pharmaceutical Association. 

This exhibition was critically examined by a number of the mem- 
bers and visitors who attended the several sessions of the society, 
and the several articles were generally commented on favorably 
by all. 

• In addition to some fifty U.S.P. and National Formulary prepara- 
tions the members of the local branch also exhibited a number of dos- 
age forms of compound acetanilide powder and of phenolphthalein. 
These dosage forms included solutions, granular effervescent powder, 
pills, capsules, tablet triturates, compressed tablets, lozenges and 
paper cachets, all made by the ordinary pharmacist. The suggest- 
iveness of this particular portion of the exhibition was much appre- 
ciated and liberally commented on by a number of medical men 
who were present. M. I. W. 


By C. H. and M. R. LaWai^l. 

The Thirty-first Annual Meeting of the Pennsylvania Pharma- 
ceutical Association was held on June 23, 24 and 25, 1908, at Paxi- 
nosa Inn, which is situated on the top of Weygadt Mountain, just 

A ^ugusM9o& rm *} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 399 

outside of Easton, Pa. It was attended by the largest number of 
members seen at these meetings in recent years, various branches 
of the business and professional sides of pharmacy being repre- 
sented by leading members. 

On Tuesday, June 23d, at 3 p.m., President C. B. Lowe called the 
first session to order. The venerable secretary, Dr. J. A. Miller, 
having died since the last annual meeting, his duties were performed 
by Acting Secretary L. L. Walton, of Williamsport, who read the 
secretary's annual report, in which the acquisition of seventy-six 
new members was chronicled. 

Owing to the absence of the treasurer, Mr. J. L. Lemberger, the 
reading of the treasurer's report was postponed, pending the arrival 
of the report by express. 

The report of the Executive Committee was read by the chair- 
man, Mr. L. L. Walton, and a statement was made regarding the 
growth of the Association during recent years, and the methods 
which have been employed to increase the membership. Acting 
Secretary Walton then read a communication from the N.A.R.D. 
regarding the propaganda work. 

President Lowe appointed a Committee on Nominations, and also 
appointed a committee to draft resolutions upon the death of Dr. 
J. A. Miller, who had filled the position of secretary during the 
thirty years of the existence of the Association. The president 
then called attention to a movement against the reappointment of 
W. L. ClifTe as a member of the Pennsylvania State Examining 
Board, and the importance of impressing Governor Stuart of 
Pennsylvania with the necessity of continuing him in office. Upon 
motion, it was decided to draft a telegram to be sent to the Governor, 
officially expressing the sentiments of the Association in behalf 
of Mr. ClifTe. 

. President Lowe announced that the secretary of the Retail 
Druggists' Association of Easton had extended an invitation to the 
members and their wives to take a trolley ride around Easton on 
Wednesday at 2 p.m., and that the President of Lafayette College 
had also given an invitation to the members to visit that institution. 

Acting Secretary Walton then called upon those delegates 
from other bodies for whom credentials had been regularly received. 
The National Wholesale Druggists' Association was represented by 
Dr. A. W. Miller, of Philadelphia. Mr, W. L. ClifTe, of Philadel- 

400 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. { Al A5usta9oa m ' 

phia, spoke in behalf of the A.Ph.A., and Mr. Walter Rothwell, 
of Hatboro, spoke for the Montgomery County Retail Druggists' 
Association. The Philadelphia Association of Retail Druggists 
was represented by F. M. Apple, of Philadelphia. 

The Committee on Resolutions concerning the re-appointment of 
W. L. Cliffe then offered a report which was unanimously approved 
by a rising vote, and the secretary was instructed to telegraph the 
same in full to Governor Stuart. 

Mr. J. W. England responded to the call for delegates in behalf 
of the Alumni Association of the Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 
Mr. Charles Rehfuss, of Philadelphia, in speaking for the N.A.R.D., 
called attention to the expectations that the coming meeting in 
Atlantic City would be the largest in the history of that Association. 

The President then read a congratulatory telegram from Dr. H. M. 
Whelpley, of St. Louis. The delegates from the P. P. A. to other 
bodies were then called upon. Mr. G. A. Gorgas stated that while 
he was a delegate to the New York Association, he was unable to 
attend, on account of the date of the meeting conflicting with that 
of the Pennsylvania Association. Dr. W. F. Horn, of Carlisle, 
reported having attended the meeting of the Maryland Association 
as a delegate from the Pennsylvania meeting. Mr. William L. 
Cliffe reported on behalf of the delegates to the Pennsylvania Medi- 
cal Association at its annual meeting, held at Reading, Pa., in 
October, 1907. He stated that an exhibit had been made of the 
preparations of the U.S. P. and N.F., provided by members of the 
Philadelphia Branch of the A.Ph.A., and previously shown at the 
meeting of the American Medical Association at Atlantic City. 
This exhibit was in constant charge of the members of the com- 
mittee, all of whom labored assiduously to further its objects. Mr. 
Cliffe stated that the exhibit had attracted great interest among the 
physicians in attendance at the convention, and that it was person- 
ally visited by a great number 6i the most prominent physicians in 
the State, who enrolled their names on its register. The Committee 
unanimously recommends the repetition of this method of repre- 
senting the P.P.A. at this year's meeting of the State Medical Asso- 
ciation. At the conclusion of this report, Mr. L. L. Walton stated 
that the P.P.A. had expended the money, and that the delegation 
had given freely of their time, and that the profitable end of this 
class of work had been particularly shown by the interest developed 

Ar August,^908! :m "} Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. 401 

among the physicians in his locality regarding the preparations 
which had been exhibited. 

A paper was read by Prof. Joseph P. Remington, entitled " Re- 
divivus." Mr. B. E. Pricthard then read a paper which had been 
loaned by Dr. J. C. Lange, Dean and Professor of Materia Medica 
of the Western Pennsylvania Medical College, entitled " Advertised 
Remedies and the Manufacturing Chemists and Pharmacists." 

Mr. Joseph W. England read a paper, entitled " What of the 
Future of Medical Practice ? " 

A session was held on Tuesday evening, at which the Association 
was officially welcomed by the Mayor of Easton. The report of 
the Committee on Resolutions concerning the death of Dr. J. A. 
Miller was ready, but its official presentation was postponed until 
Wednesday at 11 a. m., when an opportunity would be afforded 
those members who wished to speak in behalf of the valuable services 
of the deceased secretary. 

Mrs. W. E. Lee, of Philadelphia, replied in behalf of the ladies to 
the address of welcome by the Mayor of Easton. Dr. A. W. Miller 
replied on behalf of the Association itself. Mr. W. L. Cliffe, of 
Philadelphia, expressed his personal thanks for the action of the 
Association taken at the afternoon meeting in sending a telegram to 
Governor Stuart, and gave a short history of the work of the Board 
of Pharmacy as recently done, and stated that they were in a better 
position to do good work than ever before, as they now have the 
necessary funds, and that the Board might be considered as trustees 
for the protection of the public, working under the pharmacy laws. 

Then followed the reading of the President's address, % with Second 
Vice-President Croll Keller in the chair. Dr. Lowe, in his annual 
address, recommended that Dr. J. A. Miller's portrait and obituary 
notice be published in the forthcoming volume of the Proceedings 
of the Association, and that the resolutions that were to be pre- 
sented be engrossed and framed and forwarded to the family of the 

He commended the work of the Executive Committee, the vol- 
uminous and valuable report of the Committee on Adulterations, 
and the work of the Committee on Papers and Queries. He spoke 
highly of the work of the State Pharmaceutical Examining Board, 
and asked that the Committee on Legislation be instructed to draft 
a bill providing for the filling of vacancies on the State Board by 

402 Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association. {^kl^lC^i™' 

the Governor from a list of names submitted to him by the State 

He spoke briefly of the Pure Food and Drugs Act and of the 
Sherman Anti-Trust Law in its relation to pharmacy. 

He recommended the renewal of the annual appropriation of 
twenty-five cents per member for all members in good standing on 
July 1st, to be paid to the N.A.R.D. 

He commended the present efforts to increase the cordiality of 
the relations between the pharmaceutical and the medical profes- 
sions, which are being made by the various committees on propa- 
ganda. He spoke of the necessity for a new and revised edition of 
the N.F., which had been given such great legal importance by the 
enactment of the Food and Drugs Act. 

He also dwelt upon the increase of fraternal relations between the 
physicians and pharmacists. The question of shorter hours for 
clerks was discussed, with especial reference to Sunday closing 

The necessity for increasing the membership was also empha- 

Then followed the President's reception, with dancing and 

The second official session of the Association was held on Wed- 
nesday morning, June 24, at 10. 30. Mr. W. L. ClifTe presented the 
report of the Committee on Legislation in the absence of the chair- 
man, J. C. Wallace, of New Castle, Pa. Mr. ClifTe reported that 
nothing of importance had occurred on account of there being no 
session of the Legislature since the last Association meeting. 

The report of the Committee on Trade Interests was presented 
by Chairman Richard H. Lackey, of Philadelphia, who presented an 
excellent report, giving details regarding price fluctuations and 
trade conditions, interesting and valuable. This report was made 
up after extensive correspondence with leading wholesale and supply 
houses. It was referred to the Committee on Publication. 

A very comprehensive and voluminous report was presented by 
Mr. C. E. Vanderkleed, chairman of the Committee on Adultera- 
tions. In order to economize time, he gave a synopsis of the report, 
abstracting portions here and there to give a general idea of its 
character. This report was made up by the committee after cor- 
respondence with various firms, and also with pharmacists who are 

Am ASs r i,X: m -} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 403 

constantly testing their products. The report was discussed by Mr. 
F. M. Apple and Dr. Lowe, especially with reference* to the pur- 
chasing of goods upon an absolute guarantee without further inves- 
tigation of the character of the product. 

Chairman LaWall, of the Committee on Papers and Queries, 
reported having in the neighborhood of fifty papers, of which more 
than half the authors were present. He announced that at the 
sessions for the reading of papers, a time limit would be established 
for the reading and discussion of the papers, and that preference 
would be given to those of which the authors were present at the 
meeting. He spoke of the added value of the Proceedings on ac- 
count of the publication of these papers, and also of the standing 
gained by the Association by reason of the frequent publishing of 
the papers read at these meetings in the pharmaceutical journals, 
full credit always being given to the Association. 

The report of the Committee on Botany was presented by Dr. 
A. W. Miller. 

The report of Treasurer Lemberger was then read, which stated 
that all claims had been paid and that the Association still has a 
generous balance in the bank. There are about 800 open accounts, 
including the seventy new members added during the past year. 
The receipts from every source during the year amounted to 
$1,392.50. Unexpended balance at the present time amounts to 
$1,154 09. The report concluded with a touching tribute to Dr. 
J. A. Miller, the deceased secretary, who had always been referred 
to as "the yoke-lellow of the treasurer." 

[ To be continued. ] 



The quarterly meeting of the members of the Philadelphia Col- 
lege of Pharmacy was held at 4 p.m. in the Library. In the absence 
of the president, the first vice-president, M. N. Kline, presided. 
The minutes of the annual meeting, held March 30, 1908, were 
read and approved. The minutes of the Board of Trustees for 
March 3d, April 7th, May 5th and 14th were read and approved. 

The Committee on Membership reported several members who 

404 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am jL*™!i, S m ' 

were delinquent in paying the annual dues and were liable to have 
their membership forfeited. The matter was continued to the com- 
mittee for further effort to secure payment. 

A member called attention to the fact that a corresponding mem- 
ber elected some years ago had since removed to the United States. 
The by-laws of the college provide that no corresponding mem- 
ber shall continue as such after removing to the United States, but 
may be elected to active or associate membership. The subject was 
referred to the Committee on Membership for further correspond- 

A report of the delegates to the meeting of the New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association was made by the chairman, George M. 
Beringer, who stated that the program was replete with entertain- 
ments, papers, committee reports, etc. 

The subject of legislation received considerable attention, as dur- 
ing the year there had been passed by the legislature a modification 
of the State Food and Drug Law enacted last year, and likewise a bill 
aimed to prevent the sale of narcotic drugs. The latter bill is not 
satisfactory to the drug interests, and at the next session of the 
legislature, it is hoped that a general anti-narcotic bill will be passed 
that will properly control the sales of all narcotic drugs. Professors 
La Wall and Cook, of the college, contributed interesting papers, 
and Prof. Henry Kraemer was elected an honorary member of the 
Association. The next meeting of the Association will be held 
at Lake Hopatcong. 

The delegates to the Pennsylvania Pharmaceutical Association, 
through the chairman, Prof. C. B. Lowe, made an interesting verbal 

Prof. Henry Kraemer, who had been appointed to represent the 
college at the commencement and installation of the new president 
of Pennsylvania State College, reported as follows : He stated that 
the universities and colleges of the State were well represented, and 
that the commencement exercises were very interesting. The 
address by Dr. Edwin E. Sparks, the newly elected president, on 
" The Economic Obligation of Public Education," showed the value 
of technical education, not only to the manufacturer, but to the State 
and the nation. Addresses were also made by Dr. A. C. 
Humphreys, president of Stevens Institute of Technology, and 
Dr. Paul Shorey, head of the'department of Greek, the University 

Am ASus r {,^o a 8!" m '} Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. 405 

of Chicago. The annual address before the Phi Kappa Phi, on " Dr. 
Evan Pugh," by Prof. A. A. Breneman, of New York, was of special 
interest. Dr. Pugh was the first president of State College, and an 
eminent chemist, he having first conclusively proved that plants do 
not receive their nitrogen supply from the air. 

Another feature that deserves mention was the impression made 
on the visitor by the students, whether at baseball, or at their enter, 
tainment, or in their college work. They seemed to be all-round 
men, well developed physically and well equipped mentally. 

A pleasing feature of the exercises was the presence of General 
Beaver, who is chairman of the Board of Trustees of State College. 

A very interesting discussion followed Professor Kraemer's report, 
which was participated in by Messrs. Hahn, Poley, Lowe, Sadtler, 
Wilbert and Kline. 

The Historical Committee, by its chairman, George M. Beringer, 
presented, on behalf of Mr. Joseph Jacobs, of Atlanta, Georgia, 
some invoices of drugs bought during the Civil War. 

Professor Kraemer submitted the names of five gentlemen for 
honorary membership, which, under the rules, lie over for action 
until the next meeting. 

The following appointments were subsequently made by President 
French : 

Delegates to the coming meeting of the American Pharmaceutical 
Association : Joseph P. Remington, Henry Kraemer, Samuel P. 
Sadtler, C. B. Lowe, and M. I. Wilbert ; and as alternates, M. N. 
Kline, E. M. Boring, G. M. Beringer, W. L. Cliffe, and J. W. Eng- 

Committee on Nominations : Jacob M. Baer, W. A. Rumsey, 
C. B. Lowe, F. X. Moerk and O. W. Osterlund. 

Historical Committee : George M. Beringer, Henry Kraemer, 
Thomas S. Wiegand, M. I. Wilbert and J. M. Baer. 

Committee on Necrology : Samuel P. Sadtler, Henry Kraemer 
and Gustavus Pile. 


March 3, 1908. — The Committee on Property reported that the 
new Pure Food and Drug Laboratory was nearly completed. The 
special Finance Committee reported a number of contributions for the 
new laboratory, special mention being made of the good work done 

406 Philadelphia College of Pharmacy. { Am A U J S,Im m - 

by the Women's Organization of the Philadelphia Association of 
Retail Druggists, to whom the thanks of the Board were extended. 

The Historical Committee exhibited part of the display that was 
to be sent to Harrisburg. 

New business. — Mr. French referred to Founders' Week to be 
celebrated in the Fall. 

Samuel C. Henry was elected to active membership. Mr. Beringer 
called attention to the necessity for a case of medicines for use in 
emergencies and offered to supply the necessary medicines without 

April 7, 1908. — Mahlon N. Kline was elected chairman, George 
M. Beringer vice-chairman, and Jacob S. Beetem registrar for the 
ensuing year. 

The standing committees for the year were appointed. Committee 
on Property reported the new laboratory building as practically 

The Committee on Appropriations submitted their estimate of 
the expenses for the coming year, and the Committee on Supplies 
submitted an estimate for the necessary supplies for the New Pure 
Food and Drug Laboratory. 

The Committee on Announcement recommended that the Col- 
lege Announcement be issued hereafter as a bulletin or periodical, 
not less than four times a year, without advertisements. The ad- 
vantages of this plan were freely discussed and the recommendation 

The Special Finance Committee reported that additional contri- 
butions had been received for the new laboratory. 

May 5, 1908. — Several recommendations in the annual report of 
the Curator, referred to the Board of Trustees, were respectively 
referred to the Committees on Property, Instruction, Museum and 
Herbarium, to report at a later meeting of the Board. 

The Committee on Instruction submitted a lengthy report con- 
taining a number of recommendations, which, after being separately 
read and discussed, were adopted. The treasurer presented a report 
for the year ending April 30, 1908. 

May 1 4, 1908. — An adjourned meeting was held to receive the 
report of the Committee on Examinations. 

C. A. Weidemann, M.D., 

Recording Secretary. 





By Dr. Geo. R. Pancoast and W. A. Pearson. 

In a former report on " The Adulteration of Volatile Oils " 
(American Journal of Pharmacy, May 1908; American Druggist, 
April 27, 1908), the problem of the detection of synthetic methyl 
salicylate in admixtures of oils of birch and gaultheria was men- 

Since the so-called natural salicylates have met with such wide- 
spread favor as therapeutic agents, there has been a tendency on the 
part of a few unscrupulous distillers, dealers and drug merchants, to 
substitute the low-priced synthetic products. This tendency has 
more rapidly grown as there has been no accurate means of detecting 
the sophistication. 

For some years chemists have endeavored to detect the presence 
of synthetic methyl salicylate when added to oil of birch or gaul- 
theria, but, owing to the great similarity of these products, the 
task has been very laborious. All three of these products contain 
at least 99 per cent, of absolute methyl salicylate. 

Oil of gaultheria also contains small quantities of a paraffin 
(triacontane C 30 H 62 ?), an aldehyde or ketone, a secondary alcohol 
(C 30 H 16 O), and an ester (C 14 H 24 2 ) according to Power and Kleber 
The ester is possibly responsible for the optical rotation. 

Oil of birch contains about 99 8 per cent, of methyl salicylate 
and in addition the same paraffin and ester, but not the alcohol. 

Synthetic methyl salicylate contains probably ortho- and meta- 


4 o8 Natural Salicylates. {^pfiS^fiff ' 

creosotic acids as its chief impurities, and to these a great deal of 
the ill effects is undoubtedly due. 

It can be readily seen that the detection of admixtures is exceed- 
ingly difficult and several methods are here considered. 

(a) By means of the differences in optical rotation. It is very im- 
probable that any instrument could positively identify even 50 per 
cent, of oil of birch or methyl salicylate in oil of gaultheria. The 
very slight optical rotation could easily be adjusted by the addition 
of a very small amount of a strongly laevo-rotatory product. 

(b) The bead test is of some importance in quickly forming an 
opinion as to whether sample is synthetic methyl salicylate. This 
test consists of violently shaking the container and noting the rapid- 
ity with which the foam disappears. Synthetic methyl salicylate 
produces a foam which rapidly disappears, while the foam from a 
natural oil has much more permanency. This test is not reliable, 
as small amounts of certain mixtures can be added which will pro- 
duce the proper bead. 

(c) Color Reactions. Many color reactions have been tried with 
more or less success. One which gave us distinguishing colors on 
samples known to be authentic, consists in treating one drop of the 
oil with two drops of hydrochloric acid and rapidly rotating in a 
small evaporating dish, add one drop of nitric acid and again rapidly 
rotate, then two drops of sulphuric acid and again rotate. Pure oils 
gave a yellow final color, while synthetic methyl salicylate gave a 

Another reaction which may prove advantageous with some modi- 
fication, is the play of colors seen when a drop of the oil is treated 
with sulphuric acid containing one per cent, of formaldehyde. 

(d) Physical Constants. The physical properties, such as specific 
gravity and boiling point, are not of much value in detecting methyl 
salicylate in oil of birch or gaultheria, although the United States 
Pharmacopoeia requires synthetic methyl salicylate to have a higher 
specific gravity. 

(e) Odor Tests. One of the best ways of identifying these 
products, and even their admixtures, is to educate the sense of smell. 
The three products each have a characteristic odor, which, while 
different in various samples, is yet quite prominent for each kind. 
Pure oil of gaultheria has a very heavy, not particularly strong, 
odor, but one which is quite persistent. Oil of birch has a sort of 

Am. Jour. Pharm. > 
September, 1908. J 

Natural Salicylates. 

peppery, woody odor, yet not so sharp as the synthetic methyl sali- 
cylate. Methyl salicylate has a rather sharp, even more agreeable, 
odor than the others. The difference in the odors can be more 
readily recognized by taking accurately I c. c. of each, and mixing 
with separate portions of 100 grammes of powdered sugar, or by 
dissolving I c.c. in 50 c.c. of alcohol and pouring into I liter of 
water. Another thing that should be noted is the relative turbidity 
of these mixtures. Synthetic methyl salicylate will usually become 
clear before either oil of birch or oil of wintergreen. These solu- 
tions may be diluted with a larger amount of water and the relative 
odor intensity of the very dilute solutions noted. 

(/) Cone's Test. This test is of much value in passing on the 
quality of an oil. We believe it is reliable within certain limits if 
certain details are very carefully complied with. The test has been 
published in the American Journal of Pharmacy, 1903, page 406. 

Two stock solutions are required : 

Place 6 c.c. of the oil in a 500 c.c. round bottomed flask and add 
25 c.c. of solution No. 1 and 25 c.c. of water. Boil till clear. Pour 
in 350 c.c. of hot water and bring to a boil. Now add 25 c.c. of 
solution No. 2 and boil for a few moments, then set aside in a moder- 
ately warm place, so that crystallization will be slow. 

A pure oil will give the characteristic large, square-ended, laminar, 
opaque crystals which occupy comparatively little space. Methyl 
salicylate under same conditions will give fine, needle-shaped, vol- 
uminous, opaque, fluffy crystals, which occupy nearly all of the 

Mixtures of the pure oil with synthetic methyl salicylate give 
gradations between these extremes, and by making tests on admix- 
tures of known strength, crystals from a given sample may be com- 
pared and an intelligent idea obtained of the proportion of adultera- 

Several trials should be made with each sample. We have found 
that certain details must be carefully watched ; namely, having a 

No. 1. 

Caustic soda 
Water q. s. 

320 c.c. 
4,000 c.c. 

No. 2. 

Hydrochloric acid 

1,280 c.c. 
4,000 c.c. 


Natural Salicylates. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September, 1908. 

slight excess of oil after saponification is complete, also in not losing 
any hydrochloric acid by excessive ebullition while it is being added. 
All measurements must be made accurately. One indication of a 
genuine oil of birch, is the formation of a transient pink color when 
about half the hydrochloric acid has been added, also the character- 
istic woody odor at the same time. It is true that irregular results 
are sometimes met with, but no doubt they are often due to some 
little fault in manipulation. 

(g) General. It has been suggested that the natural salicylates 
are more loosely combined, or have a different structural arrange- 
ment, than the synthetic product, and this may lead to a positive 
means of identification. The natural oils are undoubtedly formed 
from the decomposition of glucosides, by either water or ferments, 
or both, while the synthetic product is made in a very different man- 
ner. It would seem from their different action, that there was a 
more important factor than the small difference in composition would 
indicate. Physicians, as a rule, prefer the salicylates made from true 
oil of birch or gaultheria and are perfectly willing to pay the cor- 
responding higher price, as many state positively that clinically sali- 
cylates from true oils give better results. 

Another distinction of natural salicylates is that they are slippery 
when ground in a mill, while salicylates made from synthetic methyl 
salicylate are dry and irritating. 

One of our main difficulties was in obtaining a supply of oils of 
birch and gaultheria for experimental work, that we were positive 
was authentic. We personally distilled some oil of gaultheria and 
obtained undoubtedly genuine oil of birch from several sources. 

Oil of birch frequently comes to us of dark red color. This is 
supposed to indicate the genuineness of the sample, but frequently 
it is thus colored by the addition of a very small quantity of ferric 
chloride. A trace of tartaric acid will remove this color. Some 
samples are said to be colored with red sanders, but we were unable 
to color the oil by this means, as the coloring matter does not appear 
to be soluble in the oil. 

We are indebted for much of the information here presented to 
many who, like ourselves, are anxious to solve the problem of the 
detection of spurious " Natural Salicylates." 

Research Laboratory, 

Smith, Kline & French Co., July, 1908. 

New Work by Goris on Kola. 411 

By A. R. L. Dohme. 

Most of us who have worked on this once interesting drug have 
more or less lost interest in it, because the value of the drug appears 
to be more and more questioned, and, in consequence, less used in 
medicine. Perhaps this is due to the fact to be brought out in this 
paper, that fresh kola was preferred to the dried drug, as has been 
the case with numerous drugs in recent years. It is an open ques- 
tion whether, in most cases, the fresh drug has any advantages, and, 
if not, perhaps it has some disadvantages, as in case of kola, under 
the cured dry drug. The French Chemical Society offers annually 
prizes for the best researches in Industrial Chemistry, Organic 
Chemistry, Pharmaceutical Chemistry (two prizes, one for discovery 
of new products and one for discovery of new methods), Chemistry 
of Tanning, Chemistry of Wines, Spirits, etc. This year's prize for 
Pharmaceutical Chemistry (new products) was awarded to Mr. Goris, 
of the School of Pharmacy of Paris, for the discovery 1 that there 
exists in fresh kola nuts a crystalline tannin-containing substance, 
kolatine, which is combined chemically with caffeine, as kolatine- 
caffeine, an unstable body capable of decomposition into kolatine 
and caffeine by boiling with chloroform or water. Kolatine can 
only be made to advantage if the fresh nuts are sterilized at 1 io° C. 
in an autoclave before extraction, so as to kill all the ferments it 
contains, and which split up the constituents on curing, standing or 
drying. Kolatine is difficultly soluble in water, very soluble in 
methyl and ethyl alcohol, acetic acid and acetone, extremely little 
soluble in ether, and insoluble in benzine, chloroform or ligroin. It 
melts at 180 C. and with Fe 2 Cl 6 gives an emerald green color, be- 
coming red in adding NH 3 or caustic alkali, and violet on adding 
sodium carbonate. It reduces ammoniacal silver nitrate solution in 
the cold and Fehling's solution in the heat. 

It precipitates lead acetate, potassium bichromate solutions and 
copper acetate, but not albumin. It does precipitate gelatin in con- 
centrated solution, but the precipitate redissolves on heating. 

Kolatine does not precipitate quinine salts, which shows its differ- 
ence from Knox & Prescott's kolatannin, and which Goris claims is a 

1 Bulletin de la Societe Chemique de France, July 20, 1908, page 814. 

412 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. { ^pimbefS' 

mixture of several tannin containing bodies, and not a pure substance. 
On adding - a ferment, preferably an oxidase, to kolatine, this decom- 
poses and precipitates the well-known kola- red as an amorphous 
red powder. This all indicates that kolatine is a body closely allied 
to the tannins and much resembles pyro-catechin in its reactions. 
It is unstable and hard to do much with in the research way. What 
is of moment, however, is that physiologically kolatine is the opposite 
of caffeine; both act on the heart and on the systolic energy of the 
same, but while caffeine accelerates the cardiac movements, kolatine 
diminishes them. This accounts for the fact that fresh kola nuts 
act so differently from dried or cured kola nuts, which do not con- 
tain any kolatine, and from which we obtain, hence, the full effect of 
the caffeine, whereas in fresh kola nuts the kolatine prevents the 
caffeine from producing its effect. Hence the use of fresh kola nuts 
and preparations of same is to be avoided, and preparations made 
from dried kola used in their place. 
Baltimore, August, 1908. 


By M. I. WlLBERT, 

Apothecary at the German Hospital. 

Our ancestors of several centuries ago were much more dependent 
on the use of medicinal herbs, in the treatment of disease, than we 
are, and it is therefore reasonable to presume that the earliest experi- 
ments in the cultivation of medicinal plants in North America were 
made in connection with the kitchen gardens of the first settlers. 

While the herbs used in cooking were probably tbe first that w T ere 
introduced, it is well known that early in the seventeenth century 
the cultivation of hops had been experimented with in the James- 
town Colony. 

In Massachusetts the cultivation of hops is said to have been w r ell 
established as early as 1667, and it is quite probable that other Eu- 
ropean plants, furnishing useful drugs, w r ere under cultivation even 
before this date. 

That a number of the gardens of these early settlers were quite 
extensive, and could well lay claim to being more than kitchen gar- 
dens, would appear from the " History of West New Jersey," by 

A s™p?ember. h i a m ' } Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 413 

Gabriel Thomas, published in London, in 1698. In his description 
of Burlington, then the " chiefest town in that countrie," Thomas 
says : " There are many Faire and Great Brick Houses on the outside 
of the town which the Gentry have built there for their Countrey 
Houses, besides the great and stately Palace of John Tateham, Esq., 
which is pleasantly situated on the North side of the Town having 
a very fine and delightful Garden and Orchard adjoining to it, wherein 
is variety of fruits, herbs, and flowers ; as Roses, Tulips, July-flowers, 
Sun-flowers (that open and shut as the Sun rises and sets, thence 
taking their name), Carnations and many more ; besides abundance 
of Medicinal Roots, Herbs, Plants and Flowers found wild in the 

The same author in " The History of Pensilvania," when speaking 
of Philadelphia, says: " There are fine and delightful Gardens and 
Orchards, in most part of this Country; but Edward Shippen (who 
lives near the Capital City) has an Orchard and Gardens adjoining 
to his Great House that equalizes (if not exceeds) any I have ever 
seen, having a very famous and pleasant Summer House erected in 
the middle of his extraordinary fine and large Garden abounding 
with Tulips, Pinks, Carnations, Roses (of several sorts), Lillies, not to 
mention those that grow wild in the fields." 

Quite a famous Colonial garden, although of a somewhat later 
period, was that connected with the house built by Charles Norris 
in Philadelphia, about 1750. This garden is described by the annal- 
ist of the time as " a spot of elegance and floral beauty." It was 
" laid out in square parterres and beds, regularly intersected by grav- 
elled and grass walks and alleys." It appears to have been plenti- 
fully stocked with flowers, vegetables and fruits of all kinds and also 
contained a liberal and varied supply of medicinal herbs. Watson, 
in his well known " Annals of Philadelphia," says : " It was an annual 
concern of the ladies of the family at Norris' gardens in Philadelphia 
to collect, dry and lay up various herbs for medicinal purposes, to 
be given away to the many who called for them." 

Probably the first garden in this country to be devoted largely, if 
not entirely, to the cultivation and study of medicinal herbs and 
plants was that established in connection with the colony of Mystics 
or Pietists on the banks of the VVissahickon, near Philadelphia. 

This is generally supposed to be the garden that is referred to in 
the poem, Bachellors' Hall, written about 1729, by George Webb, 


Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 

/ Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1908. 

an apprentice, to the printing trade, of Samuel Keimer, under Ben- 
jamin Franklin. 

From the available records it appears that Webb had been an 
Oxford student, but by some misadventure had been brought to 
Pennsylvania, as a bound servant, and sold to Keimer shortly before 
the return of Benjamin Franklin from his first visit to London. 

Webb says: 

" Close to the dome a garden shall be joined, 
A fit employment for a studious mind, 
In our vast woods, whatever simples grow, 
Whose virtues none, or none but Indians, know. 
Within the confines of this garden brought, 
To rise with added lustre shall be taught ; 
Then culled with judgement each shall yield its juice, 
Saliferous balsam to the sick man's use ; 
A longer date of life mankind shall boast, 
And death shall mourn her ancient empire lost." 

The Pietist colony itself was comprised of religious ascetics and 
avowed celibates who had come to America to escape persecution 
and petty interference with their religious beliefs and practices. 

The members were, as a rule, men of more than average intelli- 
gence and learning, particularly in their day, and many of them 
subsequently took an important part in the religious as well as the 
social development of the American Colonies. 

After the death of their first leader, Johannes Kelpius, a number 
of the then members deserted the Colony and established themselves 
elsewhere. Among these early deserters was Christopher Witt, an 
Englishman, who had come to the Colony in 1704. This gifted, 
though in many respects eccentric physician and naturalist was born 
in Wiltshire, England, in 1674. He had evidently received a good 
classical education, and was also well versed in the natural sciences, 
and appears to have been a medical practitioner of more than 
average ability. Christopher Witt was a most versatile individual, 
who, in addition to being a student, scholar, naturalist and physician, 
was also a mechanician, magician, astronomer, astrologer, artist and 
alchemist, and he is said to have been most eccentric in his habits. 
It is little wonder, therefore, that? he was able to impress his generally 
more simple-minded neighbors to such a degree that he was widely 
known, in Germantown and vicinity, as " Der Hexenmeister," or 
master of the witches. His advice was generally sought and ob- 
served, though his influence may have been feared. 

^Tptimbef, 11 !™'} Early Bota?iical and Herb Gardens. 415 

Witt was, however, not the only naturalist in this colony of 
simple-minded, superstitious and easily impressed peasants from the 
Palatinate, in the early decades of the eighteenth century. His 
neighbor to the north was Daniel Pastorius, whose memory is so 
elegantly preserved by Whittier in the poem, " The Pennsylvania 
Pilgrim." Pastorius, like Witt, appears to have been a man of con- 
siderable learning and carried on correspondence with scholars and 
scientists in Europe, supplying them with information and specimens 
of American animals and plants. Tradition has it that the gardens 
of these two scholars adjoined and that there existed a friendly rivalry 
between them to secure the greatest number of novel or interesting 
plant specimens. 

Of Pastorius, Whittier says that his teachers 

" Sought out their pupil, in this far-off nook 
To query with him of climatic change 
Of bird, beast, reptile in his forest range, 
Of flowers and fruits and simples new and strange. 
Pastorius answered all ; while seed and root 
Sent from his new home, grew to flower and fruit 
Along the Rhine and at the Spessart's foot. 
While in return, the flowers his boyhood knew 
Smiled at his door, the same in form and hue, 
And on his vines the Rhenish clusters grew." 

Christopher Witt, however, appears to have had the larger gar- 
den, and certainly had a wider range of acquaintances. He is known 
to have supplied a number ot European correspondents with Ameri- 
can seeds and plants. Witt's correspondence with European scien- 
tists extended over practically the whole of the first half of the 
eighteenth century, and in the earlier decades, at least, was quite 

Among the better known of his correspondents was Peter Collin- 
son, a London merchant and well-known naturalist of the eighteenth 
century. Collinson was born January 28, 1693-4 and died August 
1 1, 1768, in the seventy-fifth year of his age. He is known to have 
had an extensive correspondence with the leading naturalists of 
Europe, and through him Witt became known to a large number of 
people who were interested in botany. 

Among Collinson's American corre spondents was James Logan, 
an associate and friend of William Penn, and one of the first Gover- 
nors of the Province of Pennsylvania. Jame s Logan was also inter- 

416 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. {^ptembeS™* 

ested in the cultivation of plants, and at his magnificent country seat, 
Stenton, near Philadelphia, he had extensive gardens and orchards. 
It is probably at Stenton that he made his well-known experiments 
with Indian corn or maize, the report of which was published by 
Gronovius and republished by Collinson in English. 

Through his correspondence with James Logan, Peter Collinson 
became acquainted with John Bartram, the first native American 
botanist. Bartram was born near the village of Darby, in the Prov- 
ince of Pennsylvania, March 23, 1699. He died at Kingsessing, 
near Philadelphia, September 22, 1777. 

John Bartram had an early inclination to the study of physic and 
surgery and acquired considerable knowledge and skill in the prac- 
tice of the same. Although it is not positively known that he ever 
regularly engaged in the practice of medicine, his name is included 
in "The American Medical Biography," by Dr. James Thacher, 
published in Boston in 1828. 

From the published correspondence between Peter Collinson and 
John Bartram it would appear that the latter was particularly inter- 
ested in medicinal plants, both indigenous as well as imported. As 
early as 1738 he sent a quantity of ginseng to Peter Collinson, to be 
forwarded to China. 

Under date of February 20, 1735, Peter Collinson wrote to his 
" Respected Friend, John Bartram :" " I have procured from my 
knowing friend Peter Miller, gardner to the Physic Garden at Chel- 
sea, belonging to the Company of Apothecaries, sixty-nine sorts of 
curious seeds and some others of my own collecting." 

In 1739, Bartram secured the seeds of Siberian rhubarb from 
Peter Collinson, who in turn had obtained them from Dr. Ammann, 
Professor of Botany at St. Petersburgh. Collinson was anxious that 
John Bartram give the cultivation and use of rhubarb a fair trial 
and wrote to him at some length regarding the cultivation of the 
plant. In 1770, Bartram secured through Benjamin Franklin, a 
quantity of the seed of " true rhubarb," which the latter had obtained 
from Mr. Inglish, " Who lately received a medal from the society of 
arts for propagating it." In answer to some inquiry by Bartram, 
relating to the origin of the seed, Benjamin Franklin wrote, under 
date of February 10, 1773, 4 ' It may be depended on that the rhubarb 
is the genuine sort, but to have the root in perfection it ought not to 
be taken out of the ground in less than seven years." 

A ^pt J embe?. h i a m'} Earl y Botanical and Herb Gardens. 417 

During the Colonial period there appear to have been a number 
of gardens in Virginia, of more than local reputation. In the .autumn 
of 1737, John Bartram made an extensive tour through Maryland 
and Virginia, in the course of which he visited a number of these 
gardens. His subsequent report of this trip, to Peter Collinson, 
does not appear to have been sufficiently complete for his corre- 
spondent, who inquires: " I am informed my friend Custis is a very 
curious man ; pray what didst thou see new in his garden ? But I 
am told Colonel Byrd has the best garden in Virginia, and a pretty 
green house, well furnished with orange trees." 

During this trip John Bartram visited the garden of John Clayton, 
an eminent botanist of Virginia and also a friend and correspondent 
of Peter Collinson. Clayton was born at Fulham, in the county of 
Kent, England, about 1685, and came to America with his father in 
1705. He died in Virginia, December 15, 1773, in the eighty-eighth 
year of his age. In 1739, Gronovius, Professor of Botany at Leyden, 
published a " Flora Virginica," contributed by John Clayton. His 
name is also well known to all plant lovers through being associated 
with the well-known and widely admired " Claytonia Virginica." 

Clayton appears to have had quite an extensive garden and had 
numerous correspondents in Europe, as well as in the Northern 
Colonies, who supplied him with new and interesting plants and seeds 
in exchange for the many and varied specimens that he was able to 
furnish them. 

Another garden, of the Colonial period, that attracted consider- 
able attention was that owned by Dr. Alexander Garden, at Charles- 
ton, S. C. Dr. Garden was a native of Scotland and a graduate 
of Edinburgh. He was a member of the Royal Society and de- 
voted much time to the study of scientific subjects and to the culti- 
vation of interesting and rare plants. In 1754 he wrote a description 
of a new plant, " Gardenia," and in 1764 published an account of the 
Spigelia Marylandica, or Carolina pink- root. 

During the American Revolution Dr. Garden remained loyal to 
the British Government, in consequence whereof he suffered, not 
alone the loss of patients and friends, but also considerable loss of 

Garden returned to England, about the close of the war, and lived 
for some time in London, where he died, April 15, 1 791 , in the 
sixty-second year of his age. 

4i 8 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. {^eptembeMm" 

Another quite extensive and generally well-known garden, dating 
back to the Colonial period, was that of Humphrey Marshall, a 
cousin of John Bartram, at Marshallton, Pa. 

Humphrey Marshall was born in West Bradford, Chester County, 
Pa., October 10, 1725, and died November 5, 1801. He was the 
eighth child of Abraham and Mary Hunt Marshall. At an early 
age he was apprenticed to a stone mason, which vocation he followed 
for a number of years. The garden at Marshallton was not founded 
until 1773, from which time Marshall appears to have devoted all of 
his time to the study of botany. In 1780 he began to prepare an 
account of the forest trees and shrubs of North America. This is 
said to have been the first truly indigenous botanical book published 
in this country and was the means of attracting to Marshallton a 
number of widely known botanists and scientists. 

Frederick Pursh, in the preface to his " North American Flora," 
says: " I next visited the old-established gardens of Mr. Marshall, 
author of the small treatise on the forest trees of North America. 
This gentleman, though then far advanced in years, and deprived of his 
eyesight, conducted me personally through his collection of interest- 
ing trees and shrubs, pointing out many which were then new to 
me, which strongly proved his attachment and application to the 
science in former years, when his vigor of mind and eyesight were 
in full power." 

Although Humphrey Marshall was primarily interested in trees 
and shrubs, his correspondence evidences the fact that he also ex- 
perimented quite extensively with medicinal plants. 

Dr. Thomas Bond, who appears to have had an extensive corre- 
spondence with French botanists, with whom he frequently ex- 
changed plants and seeds, wrote to Humphrey Marshall, under date 
of August 24, 1 78 1 : "The opium you sent is pure and of good 
quality ; I hope you will take care of the seed." Indicating that 
Marshall was among the first, in this country, to make satisfactory 
experiments in the growing of the opium poppy and the collection 
of opium. 

Under date of October 21, 1787, Dr. Caspar Wistar, another 
noted medical practitioner of Philadelphia, wrote to Humphrey 
Marshall asking him for some leaves of foxglove, also some of the 

Withering's observations on the remarkable properties of digitalis 

^"ptembeMM™'} Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 419 

were, as yet, comparatively new, and the drug was attracting con- 
siderable attention abroad as a new remedy. 

Letters from William Hamilton to Humphrey Marshall also con- 
tain requests for roots and seeds of medicinal plants. In one of 
these letters Hamilton asks for such well-known medicinal plants as 
Polygala Senega, Spigelia Marylandica, calycanthus and podo- 

The garden that had been established by William Hamilton, who 
was a retired Philadelphia merchant, was one of considerable pre- 
tension. It was connected with his elegant residence, the Wood- 
lands, on the Schuylkill, near Philadelphia. This garden was, in 
later years, conducted by botanists of more than local reputation. 
The first of these, John Lyons, was a Scotchman by birth, and came 
to America about the beginning of the nineteenth century. While 
in charge of the garden at the Woodlands, Lyons had an extensive 
correspondence with botanists and gardeners in England and was 
instrumental in introducing a number of American plants into 
foreign gardens. Lyons died at Asheville, N. C, in 1818. 

His successor, at the Woodlands, was Frederick Pursh, of German 
origin but born at Tobolsk, in Siberia, in 1774. He was educated at 
Dresden and came to America in 1799. 

In 1807 Pursh was placed in charge of the Elgin Botanical Gar- 
dens in New York. He died in Montreal, Canada, June 11, 1820. 
His best known work was that done in connection with the collec- 
tion of plants gathered by the Lewis and Clark expedition of 1804- 
1806, which forms a large and important portion of his description 
of the plants of North America, published in 18 14. 

Dr. Cadwalader Colden, one of the more prominent medical prac- 
titioners of the Colonial period, also devoted much of his leisure to 
the study of botany. He had quite an extensive correspondence on 
botanical subjects with the leading botanists of Europe. 

Dr. Colden was born in Dunce, Scotland, February 17, 1688. 
He graduated from the academic department of the University of 
Edinburgh in 1705, and then studied medicine. He came to Phil- 
adelphia in 1 7 10, and established himself in the practice of his pro- 
fession, but returned to England in 17 1 5 , where he married a young 
lady of Scotch parentage, by the name of Christie, with whom he 
again returned to America in 17 16. 

About 1 71 8 Dr. Colden removed from Philadelphia to New York f 

420 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. { \™pi O mber, h i908?' 

where he at first practiced his profession, but subsequently occupied 
sundry public offices. He was appointed Lieutenant-Governor of 
New York in 1761, and continued in this capacity to the time of 
his death, September 28, 1776, in the sixty-ninth year of his age. 

For many years Dr. Golden took an active interest in botany and 
appears to have devoted considerable time to the gathering and the 
cultivation of American plants. He had an extensive correspond- 
ence with a number of the leading botanists of Europe as well as 
America. He had a magnificent country seat at Coldenham on the 
Hudson, where many of his botanical experiments and observations 
were made. In his botanical studies he was ably assisted by his 
daughter, Jane Golden, who was also greatly interested in botany 
and was probably one of the first women in this country to take an 
active interest in the study of plants. 

One other woman of the Colonial period, who deserves recogni- 
tion for the work that she did in connection with botany, was Martha 
Logan, an early correspondent and friend of John Bartram. She 
was a daughter of Robert Daniel, of South Carolina, and married 
George Logan, in her fifteenth year. She died in 1779, m ner 
seventy-seventh year. 

Gotthilf Heinrich Ernst Muhlenberg, a son of Pastor Heinrich 
Melchior Muhlenberg, and a brother of the fighting pastor, General 
Peter Muhlenberg, was born in New Providence, Montgomery 
County, Pa., November 17, 1753, and died in Lancaster, Pa., on May 
23, 1815. 

Muhlenberg studied at Halle, and was one of the best informed 
and most systematic botanists of his day. He had a widespread 
correspondence with other botanists, particularly in Germany. 

At an early date Muhlenberg devoted much of his spare time to 
the study of the medicinal properties of indigenous medicinal plants. 
It is said that he furnished Dr. Shopf with numerous notes on the 
medicinal properties of American plants, which the latter used in his 
work on the American Materia Medica, but omitted to mention his 
source of information. 

Muhlenberg appears to have had quite an extensive botanical 
library, and also a garden, for in a letter to his friend William Bar- 
tram he says: "May I ever expect to see you at my house? I 
have Edwards and Catesby, Jacquin, Gaertner deFructibus, and 
several other valuable works; likewise Wangenheim on the forest 

A septembe?, h i9™'} Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 421 

trees of America, with figures which I would like to compare with 
you. My Herbarium vivum is pretty large, and would alone take a 
day to look attentively through." 

The services of Muhlenberg have been recognized by several 
botanists. Schreiber, a close friend and a frequent correspondent 
of Muhlenberg's, gave his name to a genus of grasses while, Torrey 
and Gray have perpetuated it in connection with a goldenrod, Soli- 
dago Muhlenbergii. Barratt gave his name to a willow, Salix Miih- 
lenbergii, and Grisebach to a centaury, Erythrsea Miihlenbergii. 

An interesting, though unpretentious, garden was that connected 
with the Moravian boys' school at Nazareth, Pa. This garden, or 
pleasure ground as it was sometimes called, was commenced shortly 
after the founding of the school, in 1759. ^ appears to have been 
cultivated by the teachers connected with the institution, and is 
generally recognized as having had considerable influence on the 
development of interest in botany and natural history in this country. 
After an existence of nearly a century it was allowed to fall into disuse, 
and at the present time there is barely a vestige of its original 
character still existing. 

Among the earlier American botanists connected with this school 
were the Rev. Christian Denke and the Rev. Samuel Gottlieb 
Kramsch. The latter particularly was an ardent and ever active 
botanist and is known to have had correspondence with botanists at 
home as well as abroad. He was born in Rudolstadt, in Silesia, 
September 7, 1756, and came to America at an early age. He 
served for some time as a teacher at Nazareth Hall, Nazareth, Pa., 
and was subsequently transferred to Salem, N. C, where he died, 
February 2, 1824. Among other well known botanists, who have 
been connected with this school and garden at Nazareth, probably 
the best known was the Rev. Lewis D. deSchweinitz, whose work 
in mycology is so well and so favorably known at home as well as 

DeSchweinitz was a student and subsequently a teacher at Nazareth 

Another garden, more or less closely connected with the Moravian 
Church, was the one at Bethlehem, Pa. This garden appears to have 
been devoted, largely if not entirely, to the cultivation of medicinal 
herbs and plants. It was probably originated by the Rev. John 
Andrew Hiibner and Dr. J. Matthew Otto. Dr. Schopf in his " Inci- 

422 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. { A s ™pt J embe?. b i9o^* 

dents of Travel" (Bayreuth, 1788) says that he met the Rev. John 
Andrew Hiibner on his visit to Bethlehem, after the Revolutionary 
War. He also met Dr. Otto, who, he says, attended the community 
in the threefold capacity of physician, surgeon and apothecary. 
To Dr. Otto, Schopf was indebted for a variety of information con- 
cerning the medicinal uses of indigenous drugs. This information 
was probably collected by Otto from the various Moravian mission- 
aries, who, as is well known, had an extensive and intimate knowl- 
edge of the habits and practices of the early aborigines. 

The herb garden at Bethlehem was, for a number of years, in the 
direct care of Dr. Otto. He was succeeded, in 1790, by Dr. E. Frey- 
tag, who continued in charge until 1836, when he was succeeded by 
Mr. Simon Rau, who later purchased the apothecary business from 
the Moravian Church, and conducted it as a private venture. Exactly 
when the herb garden was discontinued could not be ascertained, 
but it is quite probable that it was coincident with the transfer of the 
apothecary shop to private interests. 

Andre Michaux, a noted French botanist, arrived in New York in 
October, 1785, his object being to collect indigenous plants and seeds 
for the several botanical gardens in France. 

He is said to have established a botanical garden in Bergen County, 
N. J., some seven or eight miles from New York, for the purpose 
of more closely studying the several American plants and also to 
serve as a nursery from which to supply botanical specimens, 
seeds and a variety of botanical information to larger gardens in 
France. Michaux traveled quite extensively and is said to have 
covered the entire territory from Hudson's Bay, in British North 
America, to the Indian River, in Florida, and from the Bahama Isl- 
ands to the banks of the Mississippi River. From his original gar- 
den, near New York, he made short trips into New Jersey, Pennsyl- 
vania and Maryland, and as a direct result of these trips sent to 
France twelve boxes of seeds and five thousand seedling trees. 

Michaux visited South Carolina about 1 787, and found that Charles- 
ton would likely prove to be a more suitable place for his nurseries. 
He subsequently established quite an extensive garden in or near 
that city, making it his headquarters for the remainder of his stay 
in this country. Darlington, in his memoirs of John Bartram, refers 
to a botanic garden existing in Charleston about 1807, and it is not 

September's. 1 '} Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 423 

improbable that this may have been the identical garden established 
by Michaux twenty years before. 

In 1 801, David Hosack, at that time Professor of Botany in Co- 
lumbia University, purchased a tract of twenty acres of land in what 
is now a desirable and fashionable portion of -New York City. This 
tract of land was, at that time, about three and one-half miles out of 
the city, between Bloomingdale and Kingsbridge, on the middle road. 
The whole tract of land was intended by Professor Hosack for a 
botanical garden, the prime object of which was to be the collection 
and cultivation of native plants of this country, especially such as pos- 
sess medicinal properties or are otherwise useful. Professor Hosack, 
at his own expense, furnished the garden with a variety of indigen- 
ous and exotic plants. In 1 805 there were in actual cultivation nearly 
1,500 species of plants, largely, if not entirely, of American origin. 
The following year Professor Hosack published a catalogue of the 
plants contained in the botanic garden at Elgin, in the vicinity of 
New York. This catalogue, now extremely rare, contains an ex- 
tensive list of the plants then under cultivation, and was intended as 
a guide for students and others visiting the gardens. 

During the session of the New York State Legislature, in 18 10, 
an act was passed for the purchase of what had become known as 
the Elgin Botanical Garden, the care of which was to be placed in 
the hands of the Regents of the University. 

Some years later the garden was committed to the care of the 
Trustees of the College of Physicians and Surgeons of New York, 
to be kept by them " in a state of preservation and in a condition fit 
for all medical purposes." 

With the deflection of the fealty of Professor Hosack and others 
from the College of Physicians and Surgeons and the inauguration 
in New York City, of a medical school under the patronage of Rut- 
gers College, New Jersey, it is probable that the custodians of the 
gardens did not feel that they were obliged to maintain an establish- 
ment which did not bring them any direct rewards and for the main- 
tenance of which they were annually expending a considerable sum 
of money which they could ill afford. 

The garden was gradually abandoned, fell into decay and was 
finally sold for the benefit of Columbia College. 

The still existing garden at Harvard was founded in 1805 by 
Prof. W. D. Peck, the then newly elected Professor of Natural His- 

424 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens, {^pimberam" 

tory. About 1822 the Harvard Botanical Garden was placed in 
charge of Thomas Nuttall, an Englishman by birth, who did much 
to develop a widespread interest in American botany. 

Thomas Nuttall, born in England in 1 786, came to America, when 
about twenty-two years of age. He had been apprenticed to a printer 
and during his sojourn in Philadelphia worked at that trade occa- 
sionally for a livelihood. It is said that he himself set the greater 
part of the type for his book, " The Genera of North American 
Plants, and a Catalogue of the Species to the year 1 817," which was 
published in 1818. Nuttall lectured on botany in 1822, and at the. 
end of that year was appointed curator of the botanic garden at 
Harvard, where he remained for upwards of ten years. 

Nuttall subsequently made an extensive trip through the Western 
country and devoted an extended stay in Philadelphia to a critical 
study of his rich collection of indigenous plants. He sailed for 
England in 1841 and died September 10, 1859. 

After the accession of Asa Gray as Professor of Botany at Har- 
vard, the botanical garden rapidly developed, and, owing perhaps 
to the scientific attainments of the director, even attracted consider- 
able attention abroad. 

What is known to have been strictly an herb garden was in exist- 
ence for many years, in Philadelphia, in connection with the Friends' 
Almshouse. This institution, made immortal by Longfellow's 
" Evangeline," was founded in the early decades of the eighteenth 
century, on a plot of ground that was left to members of the Society 
of Friends by John Martin, a well-to-do tailor, who died without 
immediate family. The institution consisted of a number of cottages ; 
the first of these was erected in 17 13, and the large front building, 
sometimes called the Quaker Nunnery, was built in 1729. The 
institution had an uninterrupted existence of more than a century 
and has frequently been referred to in song and in story. For many 
decades the grounds surrounding the cottages were largely, if not 
entirely, devoted to the cultivation of medicinal herbs. These herbo 
acquired considerable reputation and for many years were eagerly 
sought for as being the finest and most desirable that were to be had. 

During the early part of the nineteenth century the cultivation of 
medicinal herbs, in a commercial way, appears to have attracted 
considerable attention. This is particularly evidenced by the space 
that is devoted to the directions for cultivating medicinal plants, in 

sStember% r 8?"} Earl )' Botanical and Herb Gardens. 425 

books on gardening and agriculture, at that time. Bernard Mc- 
Mahon, in his "American Gardener's Calendar," devoted much 
attention and an unusual amount of space to the consideration of 
the most advantageous methods of caring for and cultivating medic- 
inal plants. He enumerates upwards of sixty different plants that 
can be grown, in temperate climates, and in addition gives detailed 
as well as general directions for collecting, drying and preserving 
all kinds of medicinal herbs, seeds, barks and roots. 

McMahon was born in Ireland, about 1775 , he arrived in Philadel- 
phia in 1796, and about 1S09 founded a botanic garden which he 
named Upsal. During its existence this garden was usually enu- 
merated among the interesting sights of Philadelphia, and is fre- 
quently mentioned by the writers of that period. McMahon's varied 
knowledge of botany and gardening won for him the friendship of 
Thomas Jefferson and of others who were interested in botany and 
the natural sciences. He died about 1830. 

So far as known the most extensive growers of medicinal plants 
in this country, at any time, were the Shakers. They began the 
cultivation of medicinal plants, at the parent settlement at Mount 
Lebanon, N. Y., as early as 1800, and soon established a large and 
lucrative business in this line. The cultivation of medicinal plants 
was subsequently taken up at several of the other Shaker settle- 
ments, particularly at Union Village, O., and continued, with varied 
success, for a number of years. 

At Mount Lebanon, the parent settlement, located near New 
Lebanon, in Columbia County, N. Y., the annual output of medicinal 
roots, barks and herbs averaged upwards of 40,000 pounds. 

The Shakers were the first to adopt the now widely used com- 
pressed package, for their medicinal herbs, and they are no doubt to 
be credited with at least suggesting the now all too popular com- 
pressed pill or tablet. About 1830, or 1832, at the suggestion of 
Dr. Whitlaw, the Shakers began the manufacture of medicinal ex- 
tracts. This portion of their business also progressed rapidly and 
in this particular line they are said to have reached an annual output 
of upwards of 23,000 pounds. 

•The large herb house of the Shakers was destroyed by fire in 
1875, and since that time they have confined their business, in the 
line of medicinal products, almost entirely to a limited number of 

426 Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 

extracts, made exclusively for two or three large manufacturers of 
proprietary remedies. 

The success of the Shakers, with medicinal herbs, induced others 
to venture into the same field. At New Lebanon, N. Y., in the 
immediate vicinity of the Shaker community, Tilden & Co. had, at 
one time, a tract of upwards of forty acres planted in medicinal 
herbs. In the American Journal of Pharmacy, for 185 1, 1852 
and 1855, will be found several interesting articles, written by Prof. 
William Procter, Jr., on the " Herb Gardens of the Lebanon Valley." 
These articles record Professor Procter's visit to this section, and in 
them he gives quite an exhaustive account of the extent and variety 
of herb culture, as carried on by Tilden & Co. and the Shaker com- 

From these articles it would appear that, at that time, upwards 
of forty varieties of medicinal herbs were being cultivated in Columbia 
County, N. Y., and that upwards of 100 acres were annually planted 
in medicinal herbs. 

A recent communication from the successors of Tilden & Co. 
states that they discontinued the cultivation of medicinal herbs some 
fifteen or eighteen years ago and were not at present engaged in this 
particular line. 

Among medicinal plants that have received more special attention 
in this country, the cultivation of hops is the most widespread. 
Hundreds if not thousands of acres in the States of New York, 
Washington, Oregon and California are annually devoted to this 
particular crop. It should be added, of course, that but an infini- 
tesimally small amount of the total annual yield is used in medi- 
cine. Nevertheless, the hop is, strictly speaking, a medicinal plant. 

The cultivation of opium has been tried at various times and under 
differing circumstances. During the Revolutionary War, and again 
during the War of 18 12, when supplies of foreign drugs were scarce 
and hard to get, considerable opium was produced in this country. 
The same is true of the Southern States, where, during the War of 
the Rebellion, a considerable amount of excellent opium was pro- 
duced. That the production of opium has not developed as a 
permanent industry is entirely due to the relatively high cost of 

The cultivation of peppermint, largely for the essential oil, was 
introduced into Wayne County, N. Y., about 18 16. For many 

A s™pt J embef, b i9oa"} Early Botanical and Herb Gardens. 427 

years it was confined almost exclusively to this one section of 
New York State, and Wayne County oil of peppermint was long 
considered to be synonymous for all of the oil of peppermint pro- 
duced in this country. The cultivation of the peppermint plant 
was subsequently introduced into Ohio, and about 1835 the first 
experiments in peppermint culture, on a large scale, were made in 
Michigan. The latter State soon led in the quantity, if not the 
quality, of its output and is even to-day considered to be the chief 
source of American oil of peppermint. 

Of the more strictly native plants the cultivation of ginseng early 
attracted attention. Experiments in the cultivation of ginseng are 
known to have been conducted by American as well as foreign 
botanists and gardeners, and there is direct evidence that John Bar- 
tram, Peter Collinson and D. Fothergill all devoted considerable 
time and study to the growth of ginseng. 

In Ewell's Medical Companion there is a record that a Dr. 
Thornton is said to have been particularly successful in the cultiva- 
tion of ginseng on a farm near Washington, D. C, as early as 18 15. 

The particular interest that attaches itself to this plant is of course 
the relatively high price, and this with the perhaps slightly over- 
drawn advertisements of modern ginseng growers is no doubt the 
direct cause of the present-day revival of interest in this evidently 
inert drug. 

The general revival of interest in the cultivation of medicinal 
plants is, however, due to other causes, largely, at least, economic, 
and the direct outcome of the ever widening area of land that is 
being brought under cultivation, the disappearance of our forests and 
the accompanying difficulty of securing the native medicinal plants 
that are largely restricted to wooded areas. 

The scarcity of drugs such as hydrastis, senega, and serpentaria, 
has resulted in an accompanying increase in price depending on the 
popularity and use of these drugs. 

The increase in the price of these drugs and their growing scarc- 
ity has attracted the attention of botanists and drug brokers, and 
largely through the frequent inquiries that have been made regard- 
ing future supplies of these drugs the Agricultural Department has 
been induced to take up the study of the several plants with a view 
of leading up to the cultivation of them on a commercial scale. 


United States Pharmacopoeia. 

l Am. Jour. Pharm. 
i. September, 1908. 


By George M. Beringer. 

The time is rapidly approaching when the convention for the 
Ninth Revision of the United States Pharmacopoeia must be held. 
The eighth revision has been the official standard since September I, 
1905, and it is believed to have been more generally studied and 
criticised than any one of the previous revisions. A volume of its 
size and complex composition cannot be expected to be perfect or 
free either of errors or criticism. 

The present revision gives every evidence of the high ideal of the 
Committee of Revision, and we have their official assurance that 
" communications containing suggestions for improvements in the 
Pharmacopoeia will be thankfully received, carefully considered, and 
utilized' as far as possible." 

It is certainly fair to assume that every one of the thousands of 
intelligent users of the Pharmacopoeia, including the pharmacists of 
New Jersey, has noted some omissions, errors or defects in formulas, 
or has encountered some difficulty in following official directions or 
has worked out some improvements. These should all be presented 
to the pharmaceutical societies, discussed and permanently recorded 
and published so as to be available and of assistance to the Com- 
mittee of Revision in their most laudable desire to make the next 
revision a still more satisfactory standard and as near perfect as 

The present communication is offered with the hope that the 
criticisms and suggestions ventured will create discussion, and if any 
of the suggestions are available that these will receive consideration 
and be utilized in the next revision. 


Drugs of Vegetable Origin. — Definitions and Descriptions. — The 
value of the Pharmacopoeia as a text book as well as an accurate 
legal authority must not be lost sight of, and also the very uncertain 
knowledge of the sources of the drugs too frequently possessed and 
exhibited alike by prescriber and dispenser. This leads to a sugges- 

1 Presented to the New Jersey Pharmaceutical Association at the thirty-eighth 
annual meeting, Atlantic City, June 5, 1908. 

Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
September, 1908. J 

United States Pharmacopoeia. 


tion, namely, that with each definition there be included a terse 
statement descriptive of the source and habitat. At first thought 
this may appear as jf it would greatly extend the size of the book, 
but a few examples will show how in a very condensed form a 
mass of valuable information can be thus introduced. Illustrating 
this suggestion the following titles and descriptions are submitted : 

Arnica. — The dried flower heads of Arnica montana Linne (Fam. 
Composite?), a small plant growing in Central Europe. 

Balsamum Tolutanum.— A balsam obtained by incising the trunk 
of the tree Toluifera Balsamum Linne (Fam. Legnminosee) indig- 
enous to the northern countries of South America. 

Benzoinum — A balsamic resin obtained as an exudation on the 
trunk of the tree, produced by hacking the bark of Styrax Benzoin 
Dryander and other species of Stryax indigenous to Java, Sumatra 
and Siam. 

Buchu. — The dried leaves of Barosma betulina (Thunberg) Bart- 
ling and Wendland (Fam. Rutacece) a shrub indigenous to Cape 
Colony and gathered while the plant is flowering and fruiting. 

Pimenta. — The dried, full grown but unripe fruit of Pimenta offi- 
cinalis Lindley (Fam. Myrtaceae), a tree growing in the West Indies. 

Podophyllum. — The dried rhizome of Podophyllum p citatum Linne 
(Fam. Berberidaceoi), a perennial herb growing in the United States 
and Canada. 

If this suggestion be adopted the danger of customers being 
advised that " Black Pepper is the fruit of a tree growing in Russia " 
or that " Eucalyptus is the leaf of a vine from North America " 
would be minimized. 

Aloes. — The single title Aloes as now officially used is broadened 
so as to cover three distinct commercial varieties — Barbadoes Aloes 
Curacao Aloes and Socotrine Aloes. Either of these or any mix- 
ture of these is U.S. P. Aloes. The wisdom of this change is 
doubtful, especially as the official description and tests given are not 
sufficiently definite or discriminating. When the Pharmacopoeia 
adopts a title for more than one commercial variety or source of a 
drug, the official descriptions of each variety should be given under 
that title. This should be an established rule. Under Ipecacuanha 
the Pharmacopoeia does thus give descriptions of Rio Ipecac and of 
Carthagena Ipecac and under Pilocarpus of Pilocarpus Jaborandi 
and of Pilocarpus microphyllus and under Serpentaria of Virginia 


United States Pharmacopoeia. 

(Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1908. 

Serpentaria and of Texas Serpentaria ; but under Aloes only one 
general description is given and that one rather meagre. There 
should certainly be a concise description of each commercial variety 
of aloes, and as a test distinguishing Curacao Aloes from Socotrine, 
and the absence of this variety as an adulterant in the latter the so- 
called cupraloin reaction might be given. This test is stated in the 
British Pharmaceutical Codex as follows : "If 10 c.c. of an aqueous 
solution of aloes i to iooo be mixed with i c.c. of a 5 per cent, 
solution of copper sulphate and 1 c.c. of saturated solution of sodium 
chloride and a few drops of diluted hydrocyanic acid added, a fine, 
deep, persistent claret color is rapidly developed due to isobarbaloin 
contained only in Curacao Aloes. 

Veratrum is another instance where the present revision in the 
opinion of the writer has erred in placing two drugs entering com- 
merce from two different hemispheres under one title. While recog- 
nizing that the American Hellebore and the European or White 
Hellebore are yielded by two distinct species of Veratrum, the offi- 
cial title and description cover both and the use of either or mixture 
of the two is thus sanctioned. This is particularly unfortunate, as it 
is pretty certain that the chemical constituents are not identical and 
many able physicians recognize a difference in the therapeutic action. 
As we have no assay process given for Veratrum or its preparations 
the poorest specimen of white hellebore imported for use as an 
insecticide can be substituted for the best grade of the American 
drug or admixed therewith. If the two plants grew together and 
the drugs were collected mixed as in the case of Viburnum Pruni- 
folium where V. prunifolium L. and V. Lentago L. are thus collected, 
there would be some justification for such indefiniteness in the 
U.S. P. But in the case of Veratrum this does not occur. 

Apocynum. — The official definition of this drug is " The dried 
rhizome of Apocynum cannabinum Linne, or of closely allied species 
of Apocynum (Fam. Apocynacece)!' This is entirely too broad and 
would admit the common adulterant the rhizome of Apocynum 
androsaemifolium i which is a closely allied species. The definition 
should be restricted to the rhizome of Apocynum cannabinum, or to 
such additional species or varieties or hybrids as can be named. 

Cascara Sagrada. — The efforts to popularize the official titles 
Rhamnus Purshiana and Fluidextractum Rhamni Purshianae that 
have been made through two revisions of our Pharmacopoeia have 

Am. Jour. Pharro.\ 
September, 1908. ) 

United States Pharmacopoeia. 


not proven successful, and as physicians persist in prescribing these 
under the name of Cascara Sagrada, there appears to be no reason 
why our Pharmacopoeia should not follow the example of some of 
the other national pharmacopoeias and Latinize the title of Cascara* 
If the Pharmacopoeia is to be consistent throughout and eliminate 
as an official title Cascara Sagrada, then other titles such as Cusso 
should likewise be changed to the botanical name of the plant 

On the Admission of a Drug Without Introducing a Preparation 
Thereof. — A rule should be established that a drug that is not 
administered either in its natural state or pulverized or in the form 
of an infusion or decoction should not be admitted into the Pharma- 
copoeia without a formula for the preparations in which it is com- 
monly exhibited. This would have either excluded Sabal or made 
the inclusion of formulas for fluidextract and tincture necessary. 
Gossypii Cortex is commonly administered either as fluidextract or 
as solid extract, yet no preparation is given. 

Staphisagria is rarely used as a fluid extract but is quite commonly 
used as a tincture, yet a formula for the former is given and the 
latter omitted. 

Drugs of Animal Origin. — While the official definitions of the 
drugs of vegetable origin very generally give the origin and family 
according to the latest botanical classification, the reverse appears 
when we examine the definitions given for drugs of animal origin. 
Here we note that the zoological classifications are generally 
omitted. Uniformity of style and the same careful method ot 
description should characterize the treatment of the drugs derived 
from both kingdoms. 

Cera Flava is described as " A solid substance prepared from the 
honeycomb of the bee, Apis Mellifera Linne." A more correct 
definition would be M A natural secretion forming the wall of the 
honeycomb of the hive bee Apis Mellifera Linne (Order Hymen- 
opterd) purified, after removing the honey, by melting with water, 
separating and straining." 

Cantharis. — This should be accompanied by an assay process, 
and the percentage of active principle fixed within reasonable limits 
attainable in commerce. 

Alcohol Content of Official Preparations. — The National Food and 
Drugs Act and many of the State laws recently enacted on the sub- 


United States Phannacopceia. 

( Am. Jour. Pharm. 
1 September, 1908. 

ject of food and drugs require the alcohol content to be stated on the 
label, even of official preparations. This necessitates that the phar- 
macists determine the alcohol content in each lot of preparation 
made, entailing in the aggregate an enormous amount of useless 
labor. It is recommended that the Committee of Revision have 
determinations made of alcohol content of official preparations and 
in each state the " average alcohol " contained in the finished pro- 
duct. As an official statement this would become part of the legal 
requirement and save the pharmacist an enormous amount of time. 

Alkaloidal Assays. — The alkaloidal assay processes need revision, 
but only after critical review and research, and these reviews and 
investigations should be made by competent experts not associated 
with the present accepted methods. The processes for colchicum 
and conium are far from satisfactory and must be improved. In the 
assay of aconite and preparations of same, ether is directed as the 
solvent, although it is well known that chloroform is the better sol- 
vent for the alkaloids of aconite, and the writer suggests that in 
place of ether, chloroform be substituted or a mixture of chloroform 
and ether as directed in the German Pharmacopoeia. 

The writer will, at the present time, merely call attention to 
several basic errors that pervade these official assay processes. The 
one is illustrated in the direction for assaying extract of belladonna, 
which advises the introduction of 5 grammes of the extract into a 
small beaker and its solution in a mixture consisting of alcohol 5 
c.c., distilled water 10 c.c., ammonia water 2 c.c, and chloroform 20 
c.c. The attempt to dissolve the extract in the beaker in these 
immiscible fluids is impractical and destructive of accuracy. The 
better method is to mix the alcohol and water and dissolve the 
extract in a portion of this mixture and transfer to a separator, 
reserving a small portion of this mixture to rinse the beaker. The 
chloroform should then be added to the separator and then the 
ammonia. By this method of manipulation, the alkaloid is subjected 
to the solvent action of the chloroform as soon as liberated and the 
loss of solvent and likewise of active ingredients is thus prevented. 

Another error is the use of N/ 10 sulphuric acid V. S. standard- 
ized with methylene orange as an indicator and N/50 potassium 
hydroxide V. S. standardized with phenolpthalein as an indicator and 
with these a final titration of the alkaloid with cochineal T. S. as 
an indicator. N/50 volumetric solutions of both acid and alkali 

t™ptemb r 4r! h iS""} United States Pharmacopoeia. 433 

should be directed to be used that had been previously titrated 
against each other, using the same indicator as used in the final 
titration of the alkaloid, thus greatly reducing the danger of 
experimental error. 


Cerium Oxalate. — This title is officially and now legally applied 
to a varying " mixture of the oxalates of cerium, didymium, and 
lanthanum and other rare earths of this group." The title should 
be modified so as to show that it is the so-called " medicinal, com- 
mercial, or admixed " salts that is official and not the pure, definite 

SafroL — This is officially defined as " the methyl ether of 
allylpyrocatechol, found in oil of sassafras, camphor oil, and other 
volatile oils, purified, if necessary, by repeated chilling and crystal- 
lization." This definition leaves out an important statement, 
namely, the preparation which must precede the purification. In 
the official statement the following should be added before the word 
purified, " separated by fractional distillation." 

Scopolamine Hydrobromide. — This is defined as " obtained from 
plants of the Solanacece and chemically identical with Hyoscine 
hydrobromide." No tests are given, and if hyoscine and scopola- 
mine are identical and the article is commonly sold under either 
name, then the U.S. P. should certainly eliminate one title and make 
in the text a statement of the identity of these two commercial 
alkaloidal salts. The writer would recommend that the official title 
retained be Scopolaminae Hydrobromidum as indicating the most 
common source, Scopola, and being a distinctive name, serving to 
prevent confusion and possibly dangerous error from the close simi- 
larity of hyoscine with hyoscyamine. 

Thymol Iodide.- — The writer will once more direct attention to the 
act that the official definition as " dithymol diiodide " is incorrect 
despite all the text-book theories. The iodides of thymol supplied 
and used are mixtures of several iodine substitution compounds of 
thymol, and a thorough research to settle their composition should 
authoritatively be undertaken before the next revision. 


Ceratnm Cantharidis. — The official formula directs that the pow- 
dered cantharides be macerated with 150 grammes liquid petrolatum 

434 United States Pharmacopoeia. 

in a warm place for forty-eight hours. While the petrolatum may 
soften the powdered beetles, it is but a poor solvent for the active 
principle and the combined cantharidin is not liberated. 

A more effective preparation is secured by macerating the can- 
tharides with 20 c.c. acetic acid for twenty-four hours, prior to adding 
it to the resin, yellow wax, lard and liquid petrolatum, previously 
melted together and strained through muslin. The small amount of 
acetic acid remaining in the finished product is no detriment but 
rather an aid to its action, and the increase in weight therefrom 
hardly counterbalances the loss sustained in straining the melted 

Extracts. — The method' of preparing the solid extracts by 
evaporation of the fluid extracts, which is officially directed in 
many of the extracts, does not appeal to the manufacturer, as it is 
wasteful of alcohol, and to the retailer the cost would be greatly in 
excess of the purchase price of a satisfactory article. 

This method likewise exposes the active constituent of the drug 
to the prolonged heating of both the original preparation of fluid- 
extract and the evaporation directed in the preparation of the solid 
extract. I would recommend that this method be discontinued 
except as an emergency method by the pharmacist and the Pharma- 
copoeia direct in each formula for solid extract the direct extraction 
with the menstruum. 

With powdered extracts the writer has experienced considerable 
difficulty from caking and solidifying, and believes that this has also 
been a serious annoyance to the larger manufacturers. This appears 
to occur mostly in the extracts, such as extract of nux vomica, in 
which milk sugar is specifically directed as the diluent. I believe 
that this can be corrected by substituting for the milk sugar as a 
diluent the finely powdered and dry drug or the dried and finely 
powdered marc from the process. In the introductory notes on 
page 52 of the Pharmacopoeia "permission is given to employ the 
dried and powdered marc from the percolation of the same drug as 
a diluent in place of powdered peeled Russian licorice root," and it 
is recommended that this permission be extended also to all pow- 
dered extracts in which milk sugar is directed. 

While the Pharmacopoeia does in this revision recognize a number 
of powdered extracts the list should be extended by the introduc- 
tion of powdered extracts of belladonna leaves, colchicum corm, 
hyoscyamus and others that are commonly used in that form. 

Am. Jour. Pharm. \ 
September, 1908. J 

United States Pharmacopoeia. 


Fluidextracts. — In the formulas for fluidextracts much useless 
waste of space can be saved by the adoption of general processes 
and the direction to use alcohol of a given percentage. 

Fluidextract of buchu should be made with alcohol as a men- 
struum, which yields a preparation in which the oil and resin does 
not separate as in the present official formula, with a menstruum of 
alcohol 3, water i. 

Fluidextract of Cascara Sagrada is best made with an aqueous 
menstruum and the concentrated percolate preserved by the addi- 
tion of 25 per cent, of alcohol. 

Fluidextract of Squill does not fully represent the drug, as no 
attempt is made to secure complete extraction. 

Fluidextract of Glycyrrhiza is not satisfactory and the writer has 
proposed an improved formula (see Proceedings of New Jersey 
Pharmaceutical Association, 1905, fol. 75) the product of which 
keeps well as shown by samples on hand of portions of a lot made 
more than three years ago. 

Fluidextract of Senna. — The preliminary percolation of the drug 
with alcohol is expensive as it is very wasteful of alcohol, and is 
likewise of doubtful utility. The griping tendency of senna can be 
more economically and effectively overcome by the addition of a 
small amount of a carminative, such as the oils of coriander or 

Liquor Cresolis Compositus. — The drug journals have contained 
numerous articles expressing difficulty with this preparation. This 
is an example of a good formula spoiled by faulty directions for 
manipulation. 1 The official directions for soft soap very properly 
direct that the linseed oil be saponified by the potassium hydroxide 
in solution with the aid of heat and the addition oi a small quantity 
of alcohol. Yet in compound solution of cresol, which is only a 
fifty per cent, solution of cresol and soft soap, it is directed that the 
linseed oil shall be saponified cold and without any alcohol. If the 
official method for making soft soap be carried out in the prepara- 
tion of the compound solution of cresol, there will be no trouble in 
obtaining a satisfactory product. It is noteworthy that the British 
Pharmaceutical Codex has exactly followed this suggestion in 
copying the formula. 

Compound Syrup of Sarsaparilla would be improved by increasing 
the quantity of essential oils of sassafras, anise and gaultheria from 

436 Extracts of Vanilla and Lemon. {^^^S: 

0.2 c.c. to 0.5 c.c. The dilution of the mixed fluidextracts and oils 
with water and filtration and subsequent exposure to heat as directed, 
likewise occasions loss of flavoring and the product has no advan- 
tage over that produced by the customary practice of adding the 
mixed fluidextracts and essential oils to syrup. The Pharmacopoeia 
could, with no loss of authority, be made in this to conform to the 
very general custom. As " oil of gaultheria '.' is very rarely obtain- 
able, oil of betula should be officially substituted. 

Tincture of Cantharides. — Here the addition of 10 c.c. glacial acetic 
acid to the alcohol directed for maceration is recommended so 
that the combined cantharidin will be liberated and the preparation 
represent the full activity of the drug. 

Compound Tincture of Gentian. — The menstruum adopted, 6 of 
alcohol to 4 of water, it was hoped would yield a stable product, but 
experience shows that the present official preparation precipitates 
quite as much as that of the previous revision. 

Tincture of Strophanthus. — The increase in the drug strength of 
this preparation from 5 to 10 per cent, has not resulted in doubling 
the strength of the tincture, as the drug is never exhausted by the 
menstruum. It is to be noted that this movement of the U.S. P. 
increasing the strength of this tincture is contrary to the British 
Pharmacopoeia, where the 5 per cent, tincture of strophanthus offi- 
cial in the 1885 edition was reduced in the later revision to 2^ per 

The official formula, by using a menstruum composed of 650 c.c. 
alcohol and 350 c.c. water, aims to leave the disagreeable, odorous 
and nauseous fat in the marc, but this is not successfully accom- 
plished, and I would strongly urge the preliminary extraction of 
the fat and oils from the powdered drug with purified benzin and 
then drying before proceeding to extract for tincture. 


By M. R. Dickson. 

There is perhaps not another class of pharmaceuticals more widely 
known, used, and distributed, than the flavoring extracts, particularly 

t Bulletin of the State University of Iowa, May, 1908, p. 22. 

A s™pt J e O mber, h l908 Q ■} Extracts of Vanilla and Lemon. 437 

those of lemon and vanilla, the most popular of which is vanilla. 
All classes of people, be they the most humble or the most high, 
the most democratic or the most aristocratic, poor or rich, all make 
constant use of these articles ; and yet for all this, where is there 
an article, the true composition of which is less known or even given 
a thought by the majority of consumers ? For this reason there is 
unlimited opportunity for those, keen at deceit, to practice their fraud 
and deception by putting out an article which is not only cheap in 
the extreme, but is far from being up to the standard of the U.S. P. 
and conducive to good health. 

This is done not only by using cheap grades of material in the 
manufacture of the article, but by gross adulteration with substances 
which were never intended for internal administration. 

We may take wood-alcohol, for instance. What multitudes have 
been deceived into the use of this poisonous drug? There is per- 
haps no way of reckoning the damage to health caused by its use 
in flavoring extracts as a solvent, in place of the true ethyl alcohol, 
used simply on account of its cheapness, and perhaps found Qut only 
by some poor mortal's attempting to pollute himself by the use of a 
flavoring extract as an intoxicating beverage. As we all know, a 
number of cases are on record where blindness and even death have 
resulted from such a course of action. 

But even though this be true, this is not the commonest of adul- 
terants used to lessen the cost of manufacture, for not only are cheap 
grades of the crude drug employed, but synthetic methods are in 
constant use for the imitation of the original and they are far from 
being without success in meeting the demands of the people. And, 
we may ask, are the manufacturers not justified in this practice? 
The great majority of the public custom at the present time prefer 
the flavor of a synthetic or adulterated product to that of a strictly 
U.S.P. formula. 

Cases are constantly occurring in which customers are angered 
and even feel insulted by being sold a pure article at pure article 
prices, expecting to receive something extraordinary, when upon 
trying their purchase declare it not to be the flavoring desired. So 
it is easily seen that a dealer is almost compelled to have in stock 
all grades in order to meet the demands of the public. And why 
this error or deception of taste ? The only way it may be accounted 
for is in the fact that these false grades have been on the market 


Extracts of Vanilla and Lemon. 

( A.m. Jour. Pharm. 
X September, 1908. 

until the public has become accustomed to them so that a cheap 
grade is even more desirable to the misled taste than one of the 
higher price and standard. Hence can we say that the manufacture 
and use of these is wholly out of order ? If a cheap article is de- 
manded why not have such on the market so long as it better suits 
the taste and pocket-book of the consumer and at the same time 
contains nothing injurious to health and is sold for just what it is. 
But the trouble lies in the fact that there are on the market many 
brands which contain gross adulteration, but are still sold under the 
name of a pure article. 

In the case of vanilla extract, many brands are prepared from a 
variety of substances containing a small amount of vanillin with a 
trace of coumarin, which is derived from the tonka bean, to add 
a hue to the flavoring and caramel or a coal-tar product to give the 
proper shade of color. 

Scoville says : " Vanillin is fully equal to the finest bean, but is too 
delicate to compare with natural vanilla, hence the use of coumarin 
to bring out the flavor." Some may wonder why the manufacturer 
is so prone to use coumarin for this purpose in preference to the true 
vanilla. This is easily understood, however, when we know that the 
true vanilla beans cost from $5 to $10 per pound, while tonka beans, 
from which coumarin is obtained, may be had for 40 to 50 cents per 

A favorite formula with many for the manufacture of an artificial 

Dil. alcohol q. s. ad 2% gal. 

It will be noted that in this formula there is nothing particularly 
injurious, neither is there anything of high price, but, at the same 
time, such a so-called extract meets with much favor in the hands of 
the public. 

Following is a cheap yet very clever imitation which answers the 
purpose very satisfactorily and at the same time is far from being the 
true vanilla extract : 


grade of extract is the following : 

1. Extract of tonka 

2. Prunes ...... 

3. Rasins 

4. Currants 

5. Peru balsam . . . . 

6. Powdered orris root 


6 pints 

1 pound 
4 ounces 
3 " 

3 " 

2 pints 

Am. Jour. Pharm.) 
September. 1908. J 

Extracts of Vanilla and Lemon, 


1. Vanillin . 

2. Coumarin 


i gramme. 

3. Alcohol 

4. Glycerin 

5. Water . 


125 c.c. 
65 " 

6. Caramel q.s. to cover. 

It will be seen that in this preparation there is 01 7, each of cou- 
marin and vanillin. By quantitative tests, made personally, upon 
various brands of extracts there was found as high as 012 per cent, 
of coumarin with almost a like amount of vanillin, which corresponds, 
very nearly, to the above formula, yet sold under the name of a true 
vanilla extract. A common method of adulteration is by the use of 
a very dilute alcohol, increasing the solvent powers by using an 
alkali. For the best grades of extract a 50 per cent, alcohol should 
be used, but there are cases where as low as 10 per cent, has been 
used, the solubility of the vanilla constituents being increased by the 
use of an alkali, usually potassium bicarbonate. 

Out of six specimens tested, four were found to have contained 
this alkali to increase the solvent powers of the menstruum, indi- 
cating that a dilute alcohol had been used in their preparation. 

At this point a discussion of the growing, collecting, and curing 
of the vanilla bean, so-called, might be opportune, but it will suffice 
here to state only a few of the important points bearing on the 

In the first place it may be said that there are four chief varieties 
of vanilla, viz. : Mexican, Bourbon, Venezuelan and Brazilian, the 
two former being considered the better grades, and of these the 
Mexican being by far the superior. The beans, or fruits, which grow 
on a vine-like plant clinging to the trees of hot damp woods are col- 
lected while green and put through a process of curing or sweating. 
It is upon the care with which this process is conducted that depends 
largely the quality of the marketed article. This process is carried 
on by placing the fruit in flannel cloths during the nights and cloudy 
weather, and curing in the sun on bright days for a period of several 
weeks, thus giving alternate sweating and drying. In^this operation 
the beans lose, on an average, 35 per cent, in weight and it is during 
this time that vanillin, one of the chief constituents of the bean, is 
developed, though it has been stated by some good authorities that 
the value of the article cannot be estimated by this alone. Further- 
more, during this process of curing there- is a certain greyish-white 


Extracts of Vanilla and Lemon. 

f Am. Jour. Pharm. 
I September. 1908. 

fluorescence developed on the surface of the fruit which is considered 
by some to be indicative of good quality and is often imitated in 
poorer grades by a coating of benzoic acid. This, however, may be 
easily detected by the usual benzoic acid tests. Thi